The transformation in thinking that occurred in the 1500's and 1600's The result of an emphasis on investigation. It utilized the scientific method for testing information.
Nicolas Copernicus upon examining the records of motion of heavenly bodies, soon discarded the old geocentric theory that placed the Earth at the center of the solar system.He replaced it with a heliocentric theory in which the Earth was one of a number of planets orbiting the sun.Though this scheme seemed to comply better with the astronomical records of the time, Copernicus had little direct evidence to support his claims. Not ready to abandon traditional beliefs, the forces of tradition, in the form of the Church and the mass of Europeans, kept the heliocentric theory from achieving full acceptance. The theory awaited the advancement of mathematics and physics to support its claims.
The belief that there is order in the universe that can be understood by the discovery of rules for all living things. Established a common framework for scientific study.
A method of inquiry that includes carefully conducted mathematical calculations in a controlled environment to verify the results of experiments. The use of scientific method utilized a procedure in which observations were made followed by an established hypothesis.
The name given to the revolution in thinking that took place in the 1700sEnlightenment means the ability to see and understand thingsAnother name of this period is the Age of Reason
English philosopher believed that an absolute monarch could best keep the “social contract.”
English philosopher who argued governments are created to protect our “natural rights” of life, liberty and property
Is well-known for his promotion of the rights of man, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and the right to a fair trial.
French philosopher who argued for a monarchy but under a system of “Separation of Powers.”
As a teacher, she soon became convinced that the young women she tried to teach had already been effectively enslaved by their social training in subordination to men. Wollstonecraft wanted Enlightenmentideals to include education for women, whose rational natures are no less capable of intellectual achievement than are those of men.
Believed direct democracy would best ensure peoples’ freedoms.
Enlightened is a term used to describe the actions of absoluterulers who were influenced by the Enlightenment.They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education. Above all, they must not be random in their rules; they must obey the laws and enforce them fairly for all subjects.
Salons were important in spreading ideas during the Enlightenment. Salons were social gatherings in the homes of wealthy women in Paris when their husbands were away at work. Philosophers met to discuss and communicate their ideas and beliefs with others, but secret from the public.
Before and during the French and Indian WarBritain essentially left its American colonies to run themselves Given relative freedom to do as they pleasedThey established representative legislatures and democratic town meetings. They also enjoyed such rights as local judiciaries and trials by jury in which defendants were assumed innocent until proven guilty. After the French and Indian War, Britain, wanting to replenish its drained treasury, placed a larger tax burden on America and tightened regulations in the colonies. Over the years, Americans were forbidden to circulate local printed currencies, ordered to house British troops, made to comply with restrictive shipping policies, and forced to pay unpopular taxes. Found themselves facing a British judge without jury.
Americans were shocked and offended by what they regarded as violations of their liberties. The American Revolution had profound consequences, not only for the American colonists but for the rest of the world as well. Never before had a body of colonists so boldly declared their monarch and government incapable of governing a free people. The Thomas Jefferson–penned Declaration of Independence made up of three parts—purpose—lists complaints against King George—declares independenceIt presented a strong, concise case for American rebellion against a tyrannical government. Since then, his declaration has been a model for many groups and peoples fighting their own uphill battles.
The Enlightenment provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, the Latin American independence movement, and others
The seeds of the Revolution were planted in part by philosophers of the Enlightenment spreading new ideals of justice, and in part by the dissatisfaction of the population with the injustices that existed in society.King Louis XVI tried to deal with the crisis by assembling the old Estates General, a body of clergy, nobles, and commoners. But the clergy and nobles clashed with the newer class of commoners. This latter group broke away and declared itself a National Assembly.Thinking that the king was planning to suppress the new assembly, an angry mob stormed the Bastille prison in Paris on July 14, 1789.
Soon peasants revolted in the countryside and fighting erupted in the cities. The French Revolution had begun. The National Assembly seized control.Traditional privileges were removed from the nobles and clergy, and the feudal system ended. In 1791, a new constitution changed the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. When King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette tried to flee the country, they were arrested and forced to sign the new constitution. The French revolutionaries declared war against Austria and Prussia. The French Revolution then entered a second, radical phase. Extremist Jacobins under Maximilien Robespierre and others came to power and set up the Commune of Paris. Massacres and anarchy followed.Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were found guilty of treason, and the king was guillotined in January 1793.
France suddenly found itself at war with all of Europe.The next phase, known as the Reign of Terror, saw a virtual dictatorship of led by Robespierre. This revolution led to the death of 40,000 "enemies of the republic," including Queen Marie-Antoinette, by guillotining and mass drowning. Then Robespierre was arrested and guillotined, along with other terrorists. The end of the French Revolution is marked by the beginning of the French Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte.
Napoleon Bonaparte proved to be that leader—he returned to France in 1799 as a war hero—Napoleon took control of the governmentHe did not believe in democracy—he did pretend to believe in the republic and the Revolution—his real goal was to rule all of EuropeHe made himself emperor of France and took personal command of the army and France was soon at war with most of Europe and Great BritainNapoleon was a great general and had won many battles, however, he could not defeat Great Britain
In 1812, Napoleon made his greatest mistake—he invaded Russia—his troops would become trapped in Russia during the winter with little supplies—he had to order a retreat—most of his troops were lost and this weakened his powerIn 1814, Napoleon was back at war—he was defeated by the united forces of Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia—he was taken prisoner and sent to live outside of France1815—he returned to France with an army and was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (in present day Belgium)He was sent to live on the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic—he died there in 1821.
The workers needed in the new industriesThe inventions and know-how to start up new industriesIron and coal which were important to industryA way of moving goods from factories to marketPeople who had money to invest in the new businessColonies to supply raw materials and buy finished productsA government that supported growing industryPeace at home—they were able to put all of their efforts into building industry
Adam Smith is considered the founder of modern economics—he believed that business people should be left alone to run their businessesHe said that people would buy the goods that were worth the most for the moneyCompanies whose goods were not the best or too costly would not be able to sell their goods—they would go out of business—this competition among businesses was good according to SmithHe also believed in Laissez-faire—government should let businesses alone to run their own affairs—in this way everyone would become better
Photo: Chartist MeetingChartists were people who wanted the 'People's Charter' to be adopted. The Peoples Charter was a document that set out reforms that ordinary working class and middle class people wanted the government to make.
They did not own land, were not crafts workers—they planned the production of goods—their goal was to make a profit
Germany was fragmentedNationalistic movement calling for unification of GermanyMany felt that to be a legitimate nation with political power—Germany must be united.Of all the German states, Prussia was most powerful—ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm—but the person with the most power was Prime Minister Otto von BismarckBismarck strengthened German unity and power by using the desire to become a powerful nationBismarck used “Realpolitik”—the end justifies the means to unite GermanyBismarck succeeded in unifying Germany
Glorification of the militaryInvolved in many wars against Austria and France
Built roads and infrastructure to support industry
Iron was the symbol of industrializationBismarck saw that in order to be a world power, Germany would have to catch up with the rest of Europe in technology and factory production
The Meiji period began with the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868. Japan was divided into 250-300 separate domains, each ruled by a warlord known as a daimyo. But as the period progressed, a contradiction between the decentralized political system and increasingly centralized, commercial economy in Edo led to the revolution which put Meiji in place.
Much concerned about national security, the leaders made significant efforts at military modernization.Thisincluded establishing a small standing army, a large reserve system, and compulsory militia service for all men. Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to European and United States military and naval schools.
The modernized through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainlandConstruction of railroads, shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations.
From about 1895 on Japan achieved a modern, self-perpetuating growth pattern and by the 1920s Japan ranks among the industrialized countries of the world.
Industrial countries began to take over other countries—when one country takes over other countries to rule them it is starting an empireThe whole idea of building an empire is called imperialism
Industrial countries began to take over and rule less-developed countriesIn the 1800s most of the industrial countries were found in Europe—they included Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium and the NetherlandsThere were three main reasons imperialist countries took over foreign countriesThey wanted to get raw materials and markets for their goodsThey wanted places where ships and merchants could stop safely to get food and supplies—very important during times of warHaving colonies made the parent country important—it made the imperialist country feel powerful—even though some countries did not gain much from their colonies, they felt they were world powers
The competition for colonies in Africa and Asia and the Berlin Conference; Dutch—from the Netherlands were called Boers meaning farmer or peasant—they were independent and did not like the rules the Dutch officials set upFor a while it looked as if the Boers would control southern Africa—then the British began to settle thereBritish—became a major imperialist power in AfricaConference of Berlin—the purpose was to set up a system of free trade in Africa and it was to set up rules for forming colonies in Africa—but it did not really do either—it set up a system that helped Europeans rule Africa
Photo:Missionary with Congolese children, early 1900's. The purpose of missionaries was to convert natives to Christianity and in doing that they also tried to promote business practices of Europe—capitalism and survival of the best business man
Europe wanted to create naval bases throughout the world to strengthen their political control and allow refueling bases so ships could stay away from their homelands longer
Leopold was king of Belgium who set up his own private company to explore the Congo and to help improve the area—this meant building railroads and bringing in other modern thingsAfter the Conference of Berlin, he would use the Congo as his own private property in order to get wealthy—after a while stories surfaced about the very cruel treatment of Africans—Leopold was forced to turn the Congo over to his country--Belgium
On the positive side the infrastructure was improved because roads and railroads were built—mainly to get raw materials to port—but they were built—not built to help Africans—just to get the materials outAnother was that many Africans received an education—a few were even sent to schools in Europe for even more education—to run the business for the EuropeansCities and factories were built and transportation was improvedThe African cultures were not thought of as importantEuropeans tried to make Africans feel that they were inferior to EuropeansAfrican languages were not usedAfricans who worked on plantations or in mines were expected to do a certain amount of work in a day no matter what—if they could not do it they were punishedFamilies and tribes were often separated because of the imperial powersThe main interest of the imperialist powers was getting the raw materials—they didn’t care how the African people might suffer
Photo: Petrograd, 4 July 1917. Street demonstration on Nevsky Prospekt just after troops of the Provisional Government have opened fire with machine guns. World War I was disaster for RussiaMillions of Russian soldiers and people not even fighting died of wounds, sickness or hunger.Russian farms and factories could not make enough for both those who fought and those who didn’tHunger became a real problemPeople were not happy and they blamed the government for this
A system of government in which the state owns all businesses, factories, and farms.
Believed in communism and had read the works of Karl MarxHe believed private property should be done away with—and only a revolution would bring this aboutHe became the leader of a small group of revolutionaries who planned to take over the government—called Bolsheviks—they promised peace and breadIn 1917, they overthrew the government and set up a new communist governmentThe name given to the new nation was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)—the Soviet Union.
German social philosopher, the chief theorist of modern socialismand communism
Was first published in 1848, and is one of the world's most influential politicaltracts. Commissioned by the Communist League and written by communist theorists Karl Marxand Friedrich Engels,it laid out the League's purposes and program. The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow capitalismand, eventually, to bring about a classlesssociety. This wasattempted in Russia by Vladimir Leninin the early twentieth century.
Absolutism remained the system of government, social injustice and economic want were also characteristics of the Russian state. Discontent was wide spread.Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited. Russia had no constitution, no political party system to check the Tsar's power and a strong secret police which terrorized the people. As a result reformers were forced underground during the late 1800's.
Agriculture was the chief way to make a living. Farming methods were old-fashioned and little land was available to the peasant. When industrialization came to Russia, workers flocked to the cities. They were quick to voice their dissatisfaction because of poor working conditions, low wages and slums.
To protect the newly established Bolshevik government against counterrevolutionaries, Lenin's regime created a secret police, the Cheka, immediately after the revolution.Lenin's agricultural policies 1918-1923 created a famine that killed by starvation and associated diseases about 7,300,000 people. Half are the unintentional victims of failed policies.
Haitian RevolutionIn 1796, stimulated by the ideals of the French revolution, the slaves revolted, and after prolonged fighting Haiti became the first black independent republic in 1804.
Simon Bolivar was one of South America's greatest generals. His victories over the Spaniards won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. He is called El Liberator (The Liberator) and the "George Washington of South America."
Was an Argentinegeneral and the prime leader of the successful struggle for independence from Spainof the southern nations of South America.Together with Simon Bolivar in the north, San Martín is regarded as one of the Liberatorsof Spanish South America.He is a national heroin Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Hidalgo started the great revolt of 1810. Hidalgo himself was captured, forced publicly to repent, and then was executed for his crimes. Hidalgo is remembered even today as the great liberator of Mexico and the Father of the Nation
Was one of the main early leaders of Mexico’s struggle for independence from Spain.In 1810he joined the rebellion against Spain called for by Miguel Hidalgo. After Hidalgo was captured and executed, Morelos took over as the leader of the revolution.José María Morelos is a national heroof Mexico.
1850–64, revolt against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty of China. Perhaps the most important event in 19th-century China, it was led by Hung Hsiu-ch'üan, a visionary from Guangdong who evolved a political creed influenced by elements of Christianity.His object was to found a new dynasty, the Taiping [great peace]. Strong discontent with the Chinese government brought him many adherents, especially among the poorer classes, and the movement spread with great violence through the eastern valley of the Chang River. The rebels captured Nanjing in 1853 and made it their capital.The Western powers, who at first sympathized with the movement, soon realized that the Ch'ing dynasty might collapse and with it foreign trade. They offered military help and led the Ever-Victorious Army, which protected Shanghai from the Taiping's. The Taiping's, weakened by strategic blunders and internal dissension, were finally defeated by new provincial armies.
1898–1900, antiforeign movement in China, culminating in a desperate uprising against Westerners and Western influence.In June, 1900, the Boxers (some 140,000 strong and now led by the war party at court), occupied Beijing and for eight weeks besieged the foreigners and the Chinese Christians there. The siege was lifted in August by an international force of British, French, Russian, American, German, and Japanese troops, which had fought its way through from Tianjin. The Boxer Uprising thus ended.
Revolt that began with Indian soldiers in the Bengal army of the British East India Company but developed into a widespread uprising against British rule in India. It is also known as the Sepoy Rebellion, Sepoys being the native soldiers.The political expansion of the East India Company at the expense of native princes and of the Mughal court aroused Hindu and Muslim alike, and the harsh land policies, as well as the rapid introduction of European civilization, threatened traditional India. The Indian soldiers were dissatisfied with their pay as well as with certain changes in regulations, which they interpreted as part of a plot to force them to adopt Christianity.
This belief was strengthened when the British furnished the soldiers with cartridges coated with grease made from the fat of cows (sacred to Hindus) and of pigs (anathema to Muslims). The British replaced the cartridges when the mistake was realized; but suspicion persisted, and in Feb., 1857, began a series of incidents in which Sepoys refused to use the cartridges.Despite the army's sometimes savage reconquest, the British government did recognize the urgent need for reform, and in 1858 the East India Company was abolished and rule assumed directly by the British crown. Expropriation of land was discontinued, religious toleration was decreed, and Indians were admitted to subordinate positions in the civil service.
The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879between the United Kingdom and the Zulus. From complex beginnings, the war is notable for several particularly bloody battles, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of colonialism in the region. The war signaled the end of the independent Zulu nation.
Romanticism has very little to do with things popularly thought of as "romantic," although love may occasionally be the subject of Romantic art. Rather, it is an international artistic and philosophical movement that redefined the fundamental ways in which people in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world.European and American movement extending from about 1800 to 1850. Romanticism cannot be identified with a single style, technique, or attitude, but romantic painting is generally characterized by a highly imaginative and subjective approach, emotional intensity, and a dreamlike or visionary quality. Romantic art characteristically strives to express by suggestion states of feeling too intense, mystical, or elusive to be clearly defined.
Movement in painting that originated in France in the late 19th century. Impressionist painters were considered radical in their time because they broke many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations. They found many of their subjects in life around them rather than in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter. Instead of painting an ideal of beauty that earlier artists had defined, the impressionists tried to depict what they saw at a given moment, capturing a fresh, original vision that was hard for some people to accept as beautiful. They often painted out of doors, rather than in a studio, so that they could observe nature more directly and set down its most fleeting aspects—especially the changing light of the sun.
See http://www.seattleartmuseum.org/Learn/SchoolTeacher/teacher.aspImpressionism: Paintings Collected by European MuseumsExplore Korea: A Visit to Grandfather’s HousePorcelain Stories: From China to EuropeTreasures from a Lost Civilization: Ancient Chinese Art from Sichuanhttp://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=620
Age of Revolution
World History Unit 2<br />Age of Revolutions<br />