- Polyester is a chemical term which can be broken into poly,
meaning many, and ester, a basic organic chemical compound.
- Polyester is a man made synthetic fiber.
- In 1926, United States-based E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. began
research into very large molecules and synthetic fibers.
-This early research, headed by W.H. Carothers, centered on what
became nylon, the first synthetic fiber.
-1939-41, British research chemists took interest in the du Pont studies and
conducted their own research.This work resulted in the creation of the
polyester fiber known in England as Terylene.
-1946, du Pont purchased the right to produce this polyester fiber in the
-1951, began to market the fiber under the name Dacron.
Microsopic View of Polyester
Types Of Polyester
- The manufacturing process is simillar to nylon, but the chemicals are
different. The main raw material is ethylene obtained from poteroleum.
-It is oxidized to produce a glycol monomer dihydric alcohol which is
further combined with another monomer, terephthalic acid at a high
temperature in a vacuum.
- Polymerization takes place with the aid of a catalysts.
- The colorless molten polyester then flows from a slot in a vessel on to a casting
wheel and takes shape of a ribbon as it cools to hardness.
- The polymer thus produced is then cut into very small chips, dried to remove all
moisture and blended to make it uniform for getting it ready for spinning into yarn.
- This variation of polyester is made by condensing terephthalic acid with 1, 4-cy-
clohexane-dimethanol to form poly-1, 4-cyclohexylene-dimethylene terephthalate or
the PCDT Polyester.
-As for PET Polyester, PCDT is processed for melt spinning.
Different Forms of polyester
- Filament Form, each individual strand of polyester fiber is continous in
length, produsing smooth-surfaced fabrics.
- Staple Forms, filaments are to short, predetermined lengths. In this form
polyester is easier to blend with other fibers.
-Polymer chips are melted at 500-518°F
(260-270°C) to form a syrup-like
-The molten polymer is then extruded
through a spinneret and the filaments are
subsequently drawn into the desired poly-
-Spinnerets having hole of different shapes
such as round, trilobal, pentalobal, hex-
alobal or octalobal can be used for special
effects like opacity, luster or its suppres-
sion, wicking, comfort or feel.
-Delusterant can be added to make the
fiber dull, a flame retardant may be added
or certain other antistatic substance may
also be included.
-After extrusion from the spinneret, the
fibers are drawn or elongated, with the
help of godet wheels.
-Depending upon the desired properties,
the polyester fibers are usually drawn up
to five times its original length.
-higher tenacity, the filaments are drawn
to a greater extent.
-During the drawing process itself, fibers
may be textured which saves time, efforts
and production cost and also gives great-
er quality control over the finished fibers.
-it is wound on large bobbins or
flat-wound packages, ready to be woven
Different blends of Polyester
- Terry cotton (65% polyester. 35% cotton)
-terry wool (65% polyester, 35% cotton)
-Polyster Viscose Rayon (65% polyester and 35% viscose)
- Polyester Triaceate (50% polyester, 50% triaceate)
- Polyester nylon
- Polyester burns with a sweet smell.
- The flame is shiny yellow / orange sooty flame.
- Turns hard, black round bead
Characteristics of Polyester
- Polyester fabrics and fibers are extremely strong.
- Polyester is very durable: resistant to most chemicals, stretching and shrinking,
wrinkle resistant, mildew and abrasion resistant.
- Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and quick drying. It can be used for insulation by
manufacturing hollow fibers.
- Polyester retains its shape and hence is good for making outdoor clothing for harsh
- It is easily washed and dried.
- Polyester is machine washable, and can be dried on low heat setting in your dryer
or by hung out to air dry.
- If you are putting polyester items in the dryer, don’t leave it running too long. This
can cause shrinkage.
- Polyester usually doesn’t require ironing, but you can use an iron on a warm setting
if need be. Don’t use a hot setting as polyester can scorch.