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2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes


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2013 Title 24 Summary Of Changes

  1. 1. .sthgirypoc ro ,skramedart ,stnetap ,ot detimil ton tub ,gnidulcni ,sthgir denwo yletavirp yna egnirfni ton dluow esu sti taht stneserper )3( ro ;niereh deniatnoc ycilop ro ,dohtem ,ssecorp ,tcudorp ,sutarappa ,noitamrofni yna fo ssenetelpmoc ro ycarucca eht rof ytilibisnopser ro ytilibail lagel yna semussa )2( ;esoprup ralucitrap a rof ssentif ro ytilibatnahcrem gninrecnoc esoht ,ot detimil ton tub ,gnidulcni ,deilpmi ro desserpxe ,ytnarraw laro ro nettirw yna sekam )1( :stnega dna seeyolpme sti fo yna ron )E&GP( ynapmoC cirtcelE dna saG cificaP rehtieN .roivaheb elbanosaer fo sdradnats lagel hsilbatse ro ecivda lagel edivorp ot dednetni ton era dna retneC ygrenE cificaP sE&GP yb detneserp margorplanoitacude ,eerf a htiw noitcnujnoc ni desu eb ot deraperp erew slairetam esehT .secnatsmucric laudividni ot detpada yletairporppa eb tsum hcihw ,snoitautis lacipyt etartsulli dna yfiralc ot tnaem era dna niereh debircsed seigolonhcet eht ebircsed yletarucca ot deveileb si tnemucod siht ni noitamrofni ehT :remialcsiD 7973-634-668-1 ta syseneG llac troppus lacinhcet roF .edils txen eht htiw ssalc eht nigeb ew litnu gnihtyna raeh ton lliw uoY .gnilaid nehw srats eht edulcni tsum uoY .enohp enot-hcuot ruoy no *1395279514* retne ,rebmun gniteem eht rof detpmorp nehW .gniteem eht fo noitrop oidua eht rof 4000.798.778-1 laid esaelP .setunim wef a ni nigeb lliw eW )nooN .M.A 00:9( 2102 ,72 rebmetpeS CLL ,tfoSygrenE ,ddo D nytraM sdradnatS laitnedisernoN 3102 eht htiw dedaeH er’eW erehW :42 eltiT )nooN ot .M.A 00:9( 2102 ,72 rebmetpeS CLL ,tfoSygrenE ,ddoD nytraM sdradnatS laitnedisernoN 3102 eht htiw dedaeH er’eW erehW :42 eltiT
  2. 2. Title 24: Where We’re Headed with the 2013 Nonresidential StandardsFall 2012These links are provided as information only and are not in any way to be considered a comprehensive listing or as anendorsement by PG&E. All links were current at time of list creation. An electronic version of this list is available Online Resources:California Energy Commission. 2013 Building Energy Efficiency StandardsThe CEC provides background information for the Building Energy Efficiency Standards creation. MarkedVersions of the 2013 Standards, related documents, Workshop information and their documents are availablehere. Energy Commission. Title 24 Energy Efficiency StandardsThe CEC’s web site provides access to the new Title 24 Standards, Residential and Nonresidential ComplianceManuals, Alternative Calculation Manuals, and the 2008 Reference Appendices. Links are also provided forinformation about Computer Compliance Software and HERS regulations. Energy Efficiency Strategic PlanThis CPUC plan is a roadmap with goals and strategies for achieving maximum energy savings across all groupsand sectors in California. The plan is for the years 2009 to 2020. The latest version of the plan can bedownloaded from the California Public Utilities Commission site. latest edition of the California Green Building Standards can be downloaded from this page. New Guides tothe CALGreen Code and other related publications are also available. Building Climate Zone MapA detailed map of California’s 16 climate zones can be downloaded here. A Google Earth™ version of the mapand lists of climate zones by city or zip code are also available. great resource for information on environmentally friendly products and energy efficient building designpractices. This site provides abstracts of all articles from Environmental Building News, plus full text of selectedarticles, product reviews, GreenSpec® product information service, case studies on high performance buildingprojects, and a list of resources on green building topics."PG&E" refers to Pacific Gas and Electric Company, a subsidiary of PG&E Corporation. ©2012 Pacific Gas and Electric Company. All rightsreserved.
  3. 3. California Commissioning CollaborativeThe California Commissioning Collaborative is a group of government, utility, and building service professionalsorganized to develop and promote commissioning practices in the California. The CCC site includes over 40 casestudies, and a Library under its Resources heading that contains articles, white papers, guides, and samplecommissioning documents.http://www.cacx.orgEnergy Design Resources (EDR)EDR contains a good collection of resources on the energy efficient operation, design, and construction ofbuildings. Topics include, design review, lighting systems, HVAC, building envelope, and daylighting. All of EDR’spublications, software, and training materials are organized by technology and building type. Buildings for High-Tech Industries. LBNLThis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory site is a portal to an abundance of research information, BestPractice Guidelines, benchmarking tools, an annotated bibliography, technical papers, articles, and performancestandards for energy efficient equipment and practices for data centers, laboratories, and other high-tech facilities.® Green Building Rating System Version 3This newest version of LEED launched in April 2009. Information about this updated building rating system,LEED training, webcasts, and LEED credentials are available here. All LEED Reference Guides can bedownloaded or ordered in hard copy from this USGBC site. Project Profiles and Case Studies can be foundunder the Resources navigation tab. Buildings InstituteNew Buildings Institute is a nonprofit corporation that promotes energy efficient building design and operations.This site includes several useful publications under their Technologies category. These include Lighting, HVAC,and other mechanical systems. A link to NBI’s Advanced Buildings suite of building design and operationresources is under the Advanced Design tab. Lighting GuidelinesThe Advanced Lighting Guidelines are currently only available as a Web-based publication, by subscription. TheGuidelines are a comprehensive guide to energy-efficient lighting technologies, products, and best practices.Topics include a Luminaire Directory, Light & Vision, Health & Performance, Lighting Controls, Luminaires andDistribution, Daylighting, and Design Considerations. Lighting Technology Center (CLTC)The CLTC is a collaboration between the University of California, Davis and the California Energy Commission.This center focuses on emerging energy efficient lighting technologies and systems. Resources includedescriptions of CLTC projects, profiles of lighting demonstrations, reports and presentations on current lightingtopics, case studies, and information about educational opportunities.http://cltc.ucdavis.eduInternational Dark-Sky Association (IDA)The IDA seeks to advance awareness of and solutions for nighttime light pollution. Resources include outdoorlighting design information; a guide to approved fixtures; and the Model Lighting Ordinance, and a list of lightingordinances for states throughout the U.S. and Europe. Efficiency Class Resources Page 2 of 6
  4. 4. Lighting Research CenterThe Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s School of Architecture provides unbiasedtechnical and design information about lighting, lighting products, and lighting applications. Some of the topicscovered include outdoor lighting, controls, daylighting, environmental issues, street lighting, light and health, solid-state lighting, and lighting efficiency. Many of the LRC’s research program reports and articles are available fordownload.http://www.lrc.rpi.eduNational Lighting Product Information ProgramNLPIP researches and tests new lighting products. It provides unbiased information about energy-efficientlighting products and technologies. A glossary, NLPIP product reports, application guides, and searchablepublication database are among the sites many resources. NLPIP’s Lighting Diagnostics papers documentsolutions to actual lighting problems. Advanced Energy Design GuidesASHRAE developed design guides for six building types; schools, retail, healthcare, offices, hospitality, andwarehouses. The goal of these guides is to provide users with the tools to achieve building energy savings thatare 30% above the savings of buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999. for Energy Efficiency (CEE). Commercial HVAC Installation GuidelinesBoth the Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Commercial Unitary HVAC Systems and the accompanying White Papercan be downloaded from CEE’s site. The Guidelines provide best practices, selection criteria, and details ofcomponents and systems. HVAC commissioning is also outlined and discussed. Online. Iowa Energy CenterThe Iowa Energy Center provides unbiased information on Direct Digital Controls. This site includes a guide tocontrols manufacturers and their products, an introduction to Direct Digital Controls, and an Input/Output Tutorial.http://www.ddc-online.orgNational Building Controls Information Program (NBCIP)NBCIP was established by the Iowa Energy Center and provides unbiased information on building control systemproducts and strategies, including reports that describe the actual performance of products tested by the program.All publications on the site can be downloaded free of charge. Building Design Guide. High-Performance HVACThis recently updated section of the WBDG presents a comprehensive overview of high performance HVACequipment and systems. It also describes practices for reducing HVAC energy use, emissions, and costs. EnvelopeBuilding Science Corporation (BSC)BSC promotes the design and construction of sustainable, high performance homes and buildings. This sitecontains numerous BSC publications on a variety of building and design topics, including wall assemblies andinsulation. Publications can be searched by document type or topic. Conference and seminar presentationsmade by BSC staff are available for download. Efficiency Class Resources Page 3 of 6
  5. 5. High Performance Commercial Building FaçadesProduced by Building Technologies Program staff at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, this 133-pagedocument examines the performance of advanced building facades. The report includes technology overviews, alook at the design process, building performance, and case studies. It is available in both HTML and Acrobat®formats. or of Building Enclosure DesignIssues of this journal from the Building Enclosure Technology and Environment Council can be downloaded fromthe Whole Building Design Guide site. Building Design Guide. Building Envelope Design GuideThis comprehensive design guide was developed by the National Institute of Building Sciences. Topics includebelow grade systems, wall systems (including exterior insulation and finish system), fenestration, roofing, andatria systems. Building Design Guide. DaylightingThis comprehensive overview by Gregg Ander discusses the benefits of daylighting, basic concepts, designrecommendations, materials, and tools for analysis and design. The overview concludes with an annotated list ofdaylighting related publications. Roof Rating Council (CRRC)The CRRC provides unbiased ratings for roof products. The Product Listing Directory lists the solar reflectanceand thermal emittance of each product.http://www.coolroofs.orgEnergy Design Resources. Cool RoofsThis EDR Design Brief describes how cool roofing works and the benefits of its application to commercialbuildings. Estimating energy savings, design considerations, and long-term performance are also discussed. Star®: Reflective Roof ProductsEnergy Star qualified roof products and manufacturers, plus articles and case studies are provided on this site. and SkylightingEfficient Windows CollaborativeThe Efficient Windows Collaborative provides impartial information on the benefits of energy efficient windows,plus details on glazes, window types, how they work, a window selection tool, fact sheets, tool kits, and incentiveinformation.http://www.efficientwindows.orgEnergy Design Resources. SkyCalc™The SkyCalc software tool for calculating optimum skylighting strategies can be downloaded at no charge fromthe EDR site. They also provide a brief description of the tool, a User’s Guide and SkyCalc weather files. Efficiency Class Resources Page 4 of 6
  6. 6. National Fenestration Rating CouncilThe NFRC provides an energy performance rating system for window products. This site includes descriptions ofwindow products, information about their site-built certification program, access to NFRC publications, links tosoftware tools, detailed information about their rating system, and a product directory.http://www.nfrc.orgWhole Building Design Guide: Windows and GlazingThis comprehensive overview by Gregg Ander describes issues and features of window systems and glazing.Terminology and recommendations for specifying windows and glazing are discussed. A case study is includedalong with resources for additional information. Systems for High Performance BuildingsThis site, from the Center for Sustainable Building Research at the University of Minnesota, provides technicalinformation, performance data, and tools useful in the design of window systems for high performance buildings.Contents include a Façade Design Tool, Case Studies, and resources for additional information. Resources:Business ToolsPG&E Business Tools include Energy Usage, Billing History and Rate Comparison Tools. Response IncentivesInformation on the various Demand Response incentives offered by PG&E can be found here. Analyzer and AuditsHere are quick on-line tools for identifying and analyzing business energy use. Tools include an Online EnergyAnalyzer. Solutions for your Business by IndustryHere you will find information about cash rebates and incentives for replacing existing equipment with new energyefficient technologies or purchasing new equipment. Design assistance for a new facility and system process isalso available. ToolUse the Money-Back Tool to instantly get a list of rebates that fit your needs—and see how much you could besaving each year. PowerPathway™PowerPathway offers a Portfolio of programs aimed at building capacity within the state of California to producethe skilled workers needed by PG&E and the energy and utility industry. The PowerPathway Portfolio includesfour separate but interconnected efforts: Career preparation, Industry workforce challenges, Education, andGreen communities. and Trade ProfessionalsPG&E program partners, local contractors and trade professionals offer special assistance in implementingenergy efficiency measures for your business. Efficiency Class Resources Page 5 of 6
  7. 7. Self-Generation Incentive Program at Pacific Gas and ElectricFinancial incentive information, description of eligible technologies, forms, resources, and program contactinformation can all be accessed here. EnergyPG&E provides information on how a photovoltaic system works; steps to take before installing solar in your homeor business; solar schools; and requirements and applications for the California Solar Initiative Program. BookThis site contains all current gas and electric rate schedules. Party Incentive Programs and Fact SheetsPG&E has partnered with energy efficiency specialists in order to extend the reach and effectiveness of energyefficiency, demand response, renewable energy, and self-generation programs. A fact sheet describing all of thespecialists and their energy efficiency programs can be downloaded here. Use the search function to findinformation about all of the programs that are related to your market segment. Your BillSample business class bills with explanations for each bill item. Resources Available in the PEC’s Resource Center:  ASHRAE Greenguide. ASHRAE, 2003  ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. ASHRAE, 2009  Double-Skin Facades: Integrated Planning. Oesterle, Eberhard. Prestel Verlag, 2001  Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 90.1- 2007  Engineering Weather Data. Michael Kjelgaard. McGraw-Hill, 2001  Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Design Methods for Architects. Norbert Lechner. John Wiley & Sons, 2000 th  IES Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application, 10 edition. Illuminating Engineering Society, 2011  Intelligent Skins. Michael Wigginton and Jude Harris. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002 th  Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 11 edition. Walter Grondzik, et al. Wiley, 2009 rd  Residential Windows: A Guide to New Technologies and Energy Performance, 3 ed. John Carmody, Stephen Selkowitz, Lisa Heschong. Norton, 2007  Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings. ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009.  Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings. John Carmody, et al. W.W. Norton & Co., 2004Energy Efficiency Class Resources Page 6 of 6
  8. 8. moc.tfosygrene.www CLL ,tfoSygrenE ddoD .C nytraM :gnirutaeFsdradnatS 3102 ehthtiw dedaeH ereW erehW :42 eltiT
  9. 9. 2 .noitatneserp siht fo noisulcnoc eht ta desserdda eb lliw secivres dna ,sdohtem ,slairetam cificeps ot detaler snoitseuQ .tcudorp ro lairetam yna ni gnilaed ro ,gnitubirtsid ,gnisu ,gnildnah fo rennam ro dohtem yna ro noitcurtsnoc fo lairetam yna fo AIA eht yb tnemesrodne ro lavorppa na eb ot deurtsnoc ro demeed eb yam taht tnetnoc edulcni ton seod ti ,hcus sA .noitacude lanoisseforp gniunitnoc rof SEC/AIA eht htiw deretsiger si margorp sihT .tseuqer no elbaliava era srebmem AIA-non rof noitelpmoC fo setacifitreC .srebmem AIA rof sdroceR SEC ot detroper W eb lliw margorp siht fo noitelpmoc no denrae tiderC .smetsyS elc o noitacudE gniunitnoC stcetihcrA fo etutitsnI naciremA m ehT htiw redivorP deretsigeR a si retneC ygrenE cificaP ehT e
  10. 10. 3 stnemeriuqeR gnithgiL roodtuO stnemeriuqeR gnithgiL roodnI stnemeriuqeR lacinahceM stnemeriuqeR epolevnE noitacilppa dna epocs ni segnahc llarevO W e:gnidulcni sdradnatS ycneiciffE ygrenE gnidliuB 42 eltiT cl o 3102 eht ni egnahc fo saera rojam eht dnatsrednU m e sevitcejbO gnin raeL
  11. 11. gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL gniledoM ecnamrofreP ● serudecorP noitartsigeR weN ● egarevoC fo epocS lanoitiddA ● ?yhW dna nehW ● noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleW noitaci ppA noitacillppAdna epocS ni segnahC arevOdna epocS ni segnahC llllarevO
  12. 12. 5 /sdradnats3102/42eltit/ :ta elbaliava stnemucoD dna noitamrofnI S c o .sdradnatS 3102 eht ot tcejbus p e eb lliw 4102 ,1 naJ retfa ro no timrep rof ylppa taht stcejorp ynA & A p etaD noitatnemelpmI 4102 ,1 naJ p cil at oi noitpodA egaugnaL – gniteeM ssenisuB 2102 ,13 yaM n eludehcS etadpU eludehcS etadpU
  13. 13. 6 ecnamrofrep tnempiuqe lamitpo erusne ot yrtsudni CAVH epahseR ygrene ten orez noitcurtsnoc laicremmoc wen ainrofilaC llA :0302 yB tneiciffe ygrene semoh emocni-woL S c o ygrene ten orez noitcurtsnoc p e laitnediser wen ainrofilaC llA & A p p :0202 yB cil at sgnivas y grene rof seigetarts dlob ,giB oi n srev rD yc oP etadpU 3102 sreviirD yciilloP etadpU 3102
  14. 14. 7 .emas eht yats snoitnevnoc rehto llA 1.051 semoceb 151 noitceS 0.051 semoceb 051 noitceS metsys lamiced a gnisU derebmuner won era sretpahcbus sdradnatS llA sdradnatS des veR sdradnatS desiiveR
  15. 15. 8 detibihorp si )derarfni ,maets( noitacifidimuh citabaida-noN gnilooc dna gnitaeh suoenatlumis r o gniloocer ,gnitaeher tneverp taht slortnoC stinu not 5 rednu noitpecxE F55 fo S c o erutarepmet AO ta daol detcepxe fo %001 teem ot ,metsys p e naf gnilooc hcae rof deriuqer srezimonoce detargetnI & A p p smooR retupmoC rof stnemeriuqeR evitpircserP cil at )a(9.041 noitceS oi n smooR retupmoC smooR retupmoC
  16. 16. 9 gnitalucricer morf ria egrahcsid tneverp ot– tnemniatnoc rof sreirrab riA snoitatimil dnamed S c o rotom htiw snaf no lortnoc deeps elbairav ro deeps-owT p e & yticapac gnilooc elbisnes ten fo hutBk/W 72 deecxe ton llahs A p p metsys naf hcae fo snoitidnoc ngised ta rewop naf latot ehT cil at )tnoc( )a(9.041 noitceS oi n smooR retupmoC smooR retupmoC
  17. 17. 01 sdooh tsuahxe htiw secaps rof ria puekam delooc ro detaeh no snoitatimiL A–9.041 ELBAT– stnemeriuqer etar wolf tsuahxe mumixaM etar S c o wolfria tsuahxe dooh fo %01 ot detimil ria tnemecalper p e – sdooh tsuahxe nehctik fo gnitiucric-trohs ecudeR & A p p snehctiK laicremmoC rof stnemeriuqeR evitpircserP cil at )b(9.041 noitceS oi n snehct K a cremmoC snehctiiK llaiicremmoC
  18. 18. 11 gnitset ecnatpecca metsys tsuahxe nehctiK deloocnu ro detaehnu si emulov ria puekam fo erom ro %57 wolfria tsuahxe latot fo %05 tsael ta no %04 => ssenevitceffe yrevocer htiw secived yrevocer ygrenE metsys ria tsuahxe fo %57 => no slortnoc noitalitnev dnameD S c o ria refsnart si ria tnemecalper fo %05 tsael tA p e & mfc 000,5 A p p > sdooh tsuahxe II epyT + I epyT htiw snehctik roF cil at )tnoc( )b(9.041 noitceS oi n snehct K a cremmoC snehctiiK llaiicremmoC
  19. 19. 21 regral si revehcihw ,noitazirusserp niatniam ot yrassecen etar ro setar noitalucric muminim detaluger ot gnicuder S fo elbapac eb llahs setar wolfria puekam dna tsuahxe enoZ c o p e ruoh rep segnahc ria 01 =< setar noitalucric yrotarobal roF & A p p smetsyS tsuahxE yrotarobaL rof stnemeriuqeR evitpircserP cil at )c(9.041 noitceS oi n se rotarobaL seiirotarobaL
  20. 20. 31 rooD gnisolC niatruC riA S tnemeriuqer reirraB noitartlifnI deddA c o p e stnemeriuqer lacinahcem ot segnahc emoS & A p p stnemeriuqer noitalusni ni sesaercni emoS cil at )a(6.021 noitceS oi n sesuoheraW detareg rfeR sesuoheraW detaregiirfeR
  21. 21. 41 stnemeriuqer yrevocer taeh noitaregirfeR stnemeriuqer lortnoc gnithgil esac yalpsiD stnemeriuqer rosserpmoC stnemeriuqer resnednoC stinu gnisnednoc ro stinu rosserpmoc etomer ot detcennoc srezeerf ro srelooc ni-klaw evaH S ro c o p e sesac yalpsid detaregirfer evaH & A p p aera denoitidnoc fo teef erauqs 000, 8 > serots doof liateR cil at )b(6.021 noitceS oi n no tareg rfeR a cremmoC noiitaregiirfeR llaiicremmoC
  22. 22. 51 .tf qs 000,5 rep rosnes OC enO .wolfria ngised fo %05 ta egattaw ngised fo tnecrep 03 naht erom on fo dnamed rotom naf ni tluser lliw taht secived ro/dna slortnoc evaH .deniatniam era slevel tnanimatnoc elbatpecca dedivorp yticapac ngised fo ssel ro %05 ot setar wolfria naf etaludom ro S snaf egats dna slevel tnanimatnoc tceted yllacitamotuA c o p e mfc 000,01 > si & egarag eht rof etar tsuahxe ngised latot eht erehw segarag A p p gnikrap desolcne rof smetsys noitalitnev lacinahceM cil at )c(6.021 noitceS oi n segaraG gn kraP segaraG gniikraP
  23. 23. 61 .senigne noitsubmoc enilosag non evah derots eb ot detcepxe selcihev eht fo %02 naht erom erehw ,egarag a fo noitrop ro ,egarag ynA :)c(6.021 noitceS ot NOITPECXE .deipucco eb ot deludehcs si egarag eht nehw secaps elbaipucco rehto ot evitaler erusserp lartuen ro evitagen ta egarag eht niatniam llahs metsys ehT S .deipucco eb ot deludehcs si egarag eht c o p e nehw tf qs/mfc 51.0 tsael ta eb llahs etar noitalitnev ehT & .semit lla ta )mpp( noillim rep A p p strap 52 ≤ deniatniam si srosnes lla ta noitartnecnoc OC cil at oi )tnoc( slortnoC egaraG gnikraP n segaraG gn kraP segaraG gniikraP
  24. 24. 71 %3 =< snoitartnecnoc negyxo )sag kcats( ssecxe niatniaM h/utB 000,000,01 > yticapac tupni htiw relioB %5 =< snoitartnecnoc negyxo )sag-kcats( ssecxe niatniaM h/utB 000,000, 5 > yticapac tupni htiw relioB tnelaviuqe ro evird deeps elbairaV rewopesroh +01 ta detar srotom naf ria noitsubmoc htiw relioB S )repmad tnev a ro repmad c o eulf( .ffo-tuhs evitisop ria noitsubmoc a htiw deppiuqE p e & h/utB 000,005,2 > fo yticapac tupni taeh denibmoc a htiw A p p kcats tsuahxe nommoc a yb devres sreliob fo puorg ro ,relioB cil at )d(6.021 noitceS oi n sre oB ssecorP srelliioB ssecorP
  25. 25. 81 .rosnes a yb derusaem sa dnamed ria tnerruc eht no desab metsys eht nihtiw srosserpmoc fo noitanibmoc tneiciffe ygrene tsom eht esoohc ot elba si taht rellortnoc devorppa na htiw etarepo tsum ,ph 001 > gnitar rewopesroh denibmoc a gnivah ,rosserpmoc eno naht erom htiw smetsys ria desserpmoC .spag lortnoc diova ot dna metsys a fo egnar eht ssorca ecnamrofrep elbatpecca edivorp S c o ot egarots yramirp dna rosserpmoc mirt dezis etairporppa p e na htiw deppiuqe eb llahs metsys ria desserpmoc ehT & A ph 52 > si rewop rosserpmoc denibmoc p p latot eht erehw smetsys ria desserpmoc fo snoitaretla cil at oi ro snoitidda lla dna ,smetsys ria desserpmoc weN n r A desserpmoC riiA desserpmoC
  26. 26. 91 )EP( reenigne lanoisseforp desnecil a yb dengis dna detelpmoC ecnailpmoC fo )s(etacifitreC tsilkcehC weiveR ngiseD tnemucoD noitcurtsnoC S c o p e dna ecnailpmoC fo )s(etacifitreC & ffokciK weiveR ngiseD a seriuqeR A p p laitnediser esirhgih cil at oi & letom/letoh ,laitnedisernon llA n we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
  27. 27. 02 .ytrap driht a eb llahs reenigne lanoisseforp desnecil eht ,smetsys lacinahcem xelpmoc htiw sgnidliub lla dna tf qs 000,05 naht retaerg sgnidliuB reenigne ytrap driht a ro tnemevlovni tcejorp rehto S on htiw reenigne esuoh-ni deifilauq c o p e a eb llahs ,tf qs 000,05 naht ssel & tub tf qs 000,01 naht retaerg sgnidliuB A p p .drocer fo reenigne eht eb cil at oi yam tf qs 000,01 naht ssel sgnidliuB n we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
  28. 28. 12 A/N C- 34 1 ELBAT ro ,B- 3 41 ELBAT ,A- 34 1 ELBAT n i eu l av e lb ac i lpp a eht n aht ret ae rg on n i ag C-B.5) a( 3 41 t aeh r a lo s ev it ce lfer dn a rot c af-U a ev ah l l ah s swodn iW A/N ret ae rg s i reveh c ihw , retem i rep y a lp s id gn ic af t sew eht sem it 6 ro ae r a l l aw ro i ret xe gn i c af t sew s sorg fo %0 4 n aht A. 5) a(3 4 1 ret ae rg on eb l l ah s ae r a wodn iw gn i c af-t sew dn a l atoT A/N .) sthg i lykS :no itpec xE( .B-6 1 1 ELBAT n i ht rof te s CGHS t lu afed e lb ac i lpp a eht e su ro ,no it a rt senef t l iub-et i s rof 0 02 CRFN ht iw ecn ad ro c c a 3) a( 61 1 n i det ar eb l l ah s CGHS s’t cudo rp no it a rt senef A A/N .) sthg i lykS :no itpec xE( .A- 6 11 ELBAT n i htrof te s rotc afU t lu afed e lb ac i lpp a eht ro , 0 01 CRFN ht iw ecn ad ro c c a n i det a r eb l l ah s rot c af-U s’t cudo rp no it a rt senef A 2) a( 61 1 SROOD ROIRETXE D NA STCUDORP NOITARTSE NEF s eto N P r B e C C o o D C o erusaeM a c t n m oe m t t e si s p noitceS ci r d p N l l e e y o ei edoC r t s E POLEVNE S c o et a D : e sU yc n egA t n em ecr of nE y b d ekc e hC : e sU yc n e gA t n em ecr of nE p e :r e bm uN t imr eP :yc n e gA t n em ecr of nE & detti m bus e b ts u m m etsys b us/ metsys hc a e r of w eiv eR ngise D : eto N A :yc n e gA sr e w e iv eR : e m a N sr e w eiv eR p p :)f s( a erA d e n o it id n o C : e pyT gn i d l iuB : e n oZ et a m i lC noit amrofnI lar en eG cil at : s s erd dA/ e m aN tc ej orP oi)xx fo x egaP( S TNEMUCOD N OI TCUR TSN OC nC2-CSED TSILKCEHC WEIVER NGISED dna ECNAILP MOC FO E TACIFI TREC we veR ng seD weiiveR ngiiseD
  29. 29. 22 troper gninoissimmoC gniniart dna noitatnemucoD gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF nalp gninoissimmoC stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni nwohs serusaem gninoissimmoC weiver ngised esahp ngiseD S c o ngised fo sisaB p e stnemeriuqer tcejorp s’evitatneserper renwo ro s’renwO & A p p tf qs 000,01 > sgnidliub laitnedisernon llA cil at )dradnatS gnidliuB neerG morf devom( 8.021 noitceS oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  30. 30. 32 snoitatcepxe smetsys dna tnempiuqE noitarepo sruoh retfa rof deen dna ,noitarepo fo sruoh dna snoitcnuf ytilicaf gnidulcni ,margorp tcejorP stnemeriuqer noitalitneV slaog ycneiciffe ygrenE :gniwollof S eht edulcni llahs noitatnemucod sihT .snigeb tcejorp c o p e eht fo esahp ngised eht erofeb detnemucod eb llahs gnidliub & eht fo stnemeriuqer dna snoitatcepxe detaler-ygrene ehT A p p )RPO( cil at oi stnemeriuqeR tcejorP s’evitatneserper renwO ro s’renwO n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  31. 31. 42 sessecorp derevoC .4 metsys gnitaeh retaW .3 slortnoc dna metsys gnithgil roodnI .2 slortnoc dna smetsys )CAVH( gninoitidnoc ria ,noitalitnev ,gnitaeH .1 :smetsys gniwollof eht revoc llahs tnemucod ngiseD S fo sisaB ehT .sesahp noitcurtsnoc dna ngised eht gnirud c o p e yrassecen sa detadpu dna ,tcejorp gnidliub eht fo esahp & ngised eht ta detelpmoc eb llahs RPO eht steem smetsys A p p gnidliub eht fo ngised eht woh fo noitanalpxe nettirw A cil at )DOB( ngiseD fo sisaB oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  32. 32. 52 noitatnemucod ecnailpmoC fo etacifitreC eht ni mrof ecnailpmoc tsilkcehC weiveR ngiseD eht edulcni llahs evitatneserper srenwo ro renwo gnidliub ehT .maet tcejorp eht S htiw etanidrooc lliw reweiver ngised eht woh dna eludehcs c o p e ,epocs tcejorp eht ssucsid ot teem tsum reweiver ngised & dna maet ngised ,evitatneserper s’renwo ro renwo eht A p p ,tcejorp gnidliub eht fo esahp ngised citamehcs eht gniruD cil at weiveR ngiseD esahP ngiseD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  33. 33. 62 noitatnemucod ecnailpmoC fo etacifitreC eht ni mrof ecnailpmoc weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC siht edulcni llahs evitatneserper srenwo ro renwo gnidliub ehT .ffo-ngis dna weiver rof maet S ngised dna renwo eht ot denruter eb llahs mrof detelpmoc c o p e ehT .weiver tnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht gnirud reweiver & ngised eht yb dekcehc eb llahs taht smeti eht stsil mrof A p p ecnailpmoc weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC ehT cil at weiveR ngiseD stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  34. 34. 72 .seitrap rotcartnoc-non fo selor ,ylno noitamrofni rof ,edulcnI .noitatnemucod dna noitucexe ,tnempoleved mrof tset dna tsilkcehc fo ,gniniart fo dna tnempoleved launam ecnanetniam dna snoitarepo fo ,eludehcs gninoissimmoc eht fo ,seussi fo tnemeganam ,sgniteem rof stnemeriuqer ,srotcartnoc fo seitilibisnopser dna selor ,epocs gnitset ,denoissimmoc seilbmessa dna smetsys fo tsil eht edulcni dluohs stnemeriuqer esehT .ssecorp gninoissimmoc eht yfiralc ot etelpmoc dna deliated ,raelc eb dluohs stnemeriuqer ro serusaem gninoissimmoC )snoitacificeps dna snalp( stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni stnemeriuqer ro serusaem gninoissimmoc edulcnI stnemucod noitcurtsnoc eht ni nwohs serusaem gninoissimmoC gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  35. 35. 82 .denoissimmoc eb ot smetsyS ;slaog gninoissimmoC ;noitamrofni tcejorp lareneG :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs nalP gninoissimmoC ehT S .tcejorp gnidliub eht fo c o p e esahp ngised eht gnirud detrats eb llahs dna denoissimmoc & eb lliw tcejorp eht woh tnemucod ot detelpmoc A p p eb llahs nalp gninoissimmoc a ecnaussi timrep ot roirP cil at nalP gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  36. 36. 92 .noitelpmoc eht rof snalP .seitilibisnopser dna seludehcs ,seitivitca ssecorp gninoissimmoC noitamrofni maet gninoissimmoC ecnamrofrep elbatpecca rof airetirc elbarusaeM demrofrep eb llahs tset eht hcihw rednu snoitidnoC detset eb ot snoitcnuF stset fo S c o tnetxe eht gnidulcni ,detset eb ot smetsys dna tnempiuqE p e tnetni ngised lanigiro eht fo noitanalpxe nA & A p p :edulcni llahs stnenopmoc dna smetsys tset ot snalP cil at )tnoc( nalP gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  37. 37. 03 .gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuf siht fo trap sa detelpmoc eb llahs ecnailpmoC edoC rof stnemeriuqeR ecnatpeccA llA .edam stnemtsujda dna sgnidaer yna edulcni dna ,dezilitu sdohtem gnitset eht ,detset stnenopmoc gnidliub eht fo hcae gnisserdda noitamrofni niatnoc llahs stroper gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF S .stnemucoD noitcurtsnoC c o p e eht htiw ecnadrocca ni ecafretni metsys-ot-metsys & dna metsys ,tnenopmoc hcae fo noitarepo dna noitallatsni A p p tcerroc eht etartsnomed llahs stset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF cil at gnitset ecnamrofrep lanoitcnuF oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  38. 38. 13 gol stneve etis ,stnemeriuqer ecnanetniam dednemmocer ,gnitoohselbuort cisab ,serudecorp gnitarepo etis lareneg gnidulcni ,ecnanetniam dna snoitarepo cisaB noitamrofni tcatnoc etiS stnemeriuqer tnerruc dna yrotsih ,noitpircsed ytilicaf gnidulcni ,noitamrofni etiS :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs launaM smetsyS ehT .rotarepo seitilicaf dna evitatneserper ro renwo gnidliub eht ot S c o dereviled dna launaM smetsyS eht nihtiw detelpmoc eb llahs p e gnidliub eht fo stcepsa lanoitarepo eht fo noitatnemucoD & A p p .detelpmoc eb llahs launaM smetsyS A cil at gniniart dna noitatnemucoD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  39. 39. 23 .noitatnemucod dna secruoser rehtO edoc siht ro ycnega gnicrofne eht S c o yb deriuqer snoitacifirev noitcepsni laiceps lla fo ypoc A p e & seton ecnanetniam dna yrotnevni tnempiuqe etiS A p p smetsys rojaM cil at oi )tnoc( launaM smetsyS n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  40. 40. 33 tnempiuqe/metsys eht no sgniward drocer eht fo weiveR launaM smetsyS eht ni noitamrofni eht fo weiveR ecnanetniam evitneverp dna gnicivres ,noitarepo fo noitartsnomed dna weiveR )secafretni ti tnempiuqe ro/dna smetsys rehto tahw htiw dna seod ti tahw ,si ti tahw( weivrevo tnempiuqe/metsyS :gniwollof eht edulcni llahs dna troper gninoissimmoc eht ni S c o detnemucod eb llahs metsys ro/dna epyt tnempiuqe hcae p e rof ffats ecnanetniam etairporppa eht fo gniniart ehT & A p p gniniart snoitarepo smetsyS cil at gniniart dna noitatnemucoD oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  41. 41. 43 .evitatneserper ro renwo S eht ot dedivorp dna detelpmoc eb llahs tcejorp gnidliub c o p e eht fo sesahp noitcurtsnoc-tsop rof snoitadnemmocer & gnitroper dna noitcurtsnoc ,ngised eht hguorht nekatrednu A p p seitivitca ssecorp gninoissimmoc fo troper etelpmoc A cil at troper gninoissimmoC oi n gn no ss mmoC gniinoiissiimmoC
  42. 42. 53 qe R doirep etar rep hWk qeR qeR qeR qeR hWk elbatteseR qeR qeR )Wk( dnamed kaep lacirotsiH qeR qeR qeR qeR dnamed Wk )emit eht ta( suoenatnatsnI aVk 0001 > aVk 0001 =< aVk052 =< S secivreS secivreS secivreS AVk05 =< epyT reteM c < AVk 052 < AVk 05 secivreS o p stnemeriuqeR gnireteM e & A p p daol lacirtcele fo gniretem rof tnemeriuqer muminiM cil at )a(5.031 noitceS oi n no tub rts D rewoP ac rtce E noiitubiirtsiiD rewoP llaciirtcellE
  43. 43. 63 )sliated rof dradnats ees( detagerggasid sdaol llA :D daol detagerggA :A A A A A snoitatS gnigrahC A A A sdaoL elbaweneR puorG hcaE puorG hcaE puorG hcaE puorG hcaE ecruoS rewoP elbaweneR D D A rehgih ro aVk 52 sretneC daoL D D A rehgih ro aVk 52 secnailppA A A A srotalacsE & srotavelE D A A sdaoL gulP A A A retaW toH citsemoD D D A smetsyS CAVH S D D A c gnithgiL o aVk 0001 =< aVk052 =< p e aVk 0001 > AVk05 epyT daoL & secivreS secivreS secivreS =< secivreS < AVk 052 < AVk 05 A p p daol lacirtcele fo noitarapes rof tnemeriuqer muminiM cil at )b(5.031 noitceS oi n no tub rts D rewoP ac rtce E noiitubiirtsiiD rewoP llaciirtcellE
  44. 44. 73 sgnidliub laitnedisernon lla ot ylppa lliw siht ,laitnediser ekilnu taht etoN )erutcurtsarfni eht eraperp ot emit wolla ot si yaled raey-1( 5102 ,1 yraunaJ :etad noitatnemelpmI tnemtraped gnidliub eht yb deriuqer eb lliw smrof ecnailpmoc eht fo snoisrev deretsigeR redivorp eht yb S c o deussi eb lliw smrof ecnailpmoc eht fo snoisrev deretsigeR p e & won ecalp ni ssecorp noitartsiger SREH ot ralimiS A p p )cte ,STREClaC( redivorp SREH a htiw stnemucod cil at oi ecnailpmoc laitnedisernon lla fo noitartsiger eriuqer lliW n no tarts geR sm roF a tned sernoN noiitartsiigeR sm roF llaiitnediisernoN
  45. 45. 83 CEC eht rof gnidliub eht fo ”tohspans“ devihcra na edivorp lliW S yrotisoper c o p e eht otni sgnidliub eht gnibircsed selif atad ylbaborp & dna ,stnemucod deretsiger ecalp lliw sredivorp SREH A p p stnemucod ecnailpmoc laitnedisernoN dna SREH cil at oi laitnediser lla evihcra ot msinahcem egarots cinortcele nA n y rot sopeR y rotiisopeR
  46. 46. 93 ruoh dna etad )laitnediser esir-wol .g.e( epyt gnidliub enoz etamilc epyt ygrene S c o yb yrav sreilpitlum VDT p e & )reilpitlum VDT elbacilppa( x )stinu ygrenE( A p p enaporp cil a dna ,sag larutan ,yticirtcele rof snoitaulaV t oi n ygrenE )VDT( no tau aV tnednepeD em T ygrenE )VDT( noiitaullaV tnednepeD emiiT
  47. 47. 04 etadpU sdradnatS ycneiciffE ygrenE gnidliuB 42 eltiT 5002 lasoporP egnahC edoC E&GP :ygolodohteM scimonocE – )VDT( noitaulaV tnednepeD emiT :ecruoS yadirF yadsruhT yadsendeW yadseuT yadnoM )thgin etal ,gninrom ylrae( ygrene eulav-rewoL E n e gr y V a ul e S c o )noonretfa ylrae ,yad dim( p e eulav ygrene VDT ygrene eulav-hgiH & A eulav ygrene talF p p cil a ruoh kaep-ffo na gnirud devas hWk a naht ylhgih erom t oi n deulav si ruoh kaep tsoc-hgih a ta devas hWk a ,eulav VDT htiW skaeP yaD-fo-em T yt c rtce E dna VDT skaeP yaD-fo-emiiT ytiiciirtcellE dna VDT
  48. 48. 14 D N O S A J J u M A M F J a e c o v c e p u g u n a p a e b n 1t 1l 1 y 1r r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 02 04 k 06 B t u 08 / k W h 001 S c o p e 021 & A 041 p p cil a 061 t 21 enoZ etamilC — yticirtcelE laitnediseR launnA oi n skaeP raeY-fo-em T dna VDT skaeP raeY-fo-emiiT dna VDT
  49. 49. 24 ecnerefnoc CEBAC 1102 voN ,relttiN neK :ecruoS %25 %611 %8 esaercnI 32.6 11.4 06.1 3102 90.4 09.1 84.1 8002 yticirtcelE enaporP saG larutaN raeY S c o sreilpitluM VDT egarevA p e & A p p enaporP dna yticirtcelE ni sesaercni tnacifingiS cil at oi esaercni lliw ygrene VDT rof seulaV n no tau aV tnednepeD em T noiitaullaV tnednepeD emiiT
  50. 50. 34 emas eht niamer seiradnuob enoz etamilC noynaC eulB – 61 enoZ sgnirpS mlaP – 51 enoZ eladmlaP – 41 enoZ notrelluF – 8 enoZ ecnarroT - 6 enoZ S ”seitic ecnerefer“ weN c o p e egareva lacirotsih nopu desab ataD & A p p 9002 morf tesatad LERN sesU cil atecnamrofrep ni desu atad rehtaew weN oi n rehtaeW detadpU rehtaeW detadpU
  51. 51. 44 stluser 42 eltiT rof ni-gulp reganaM ecnailpmoC emas eht esu lliw srodnev erawtfos llA gniledom selur gnidliub desoporP/dradnatS edivorp lliw taht erawtfos reganaM ecnailpmoC wen niatniam lliw CEC senoz etamilc niatrec ni smetsys ciatlovotohP rof tiderC rewols eb lliw semit nuR snoitalumis ssam etarucca erom rof S c o ruoh rep semit 03 ot ruoh rep ecno morf og lliw noitalumiS p e & )enignE noitalumiS A p p ainrofilaC( ESC enigne noitalumis wen esu lliw gniledoM cil at tnempoleved rednu llits selur dna launaM MCA oi n gn edoM ecnam rofreP a tned seR es r-woL gniilledoM ecnam rofreP llaiitnediiseR esiir-woL
  52. 52. 54 S c o nosirapmoc p e rof sepyt metsys ”dradnats“ lanoitidda edulcni lliW & A p p sepyt gnidliub lanoitidda ssapmocne lliW cil at tnempoleved rednu senilediug gniledom ecnamrofrep weN oi n gn edoM ecnam rofreP a tned sernoN gniilledoM ecnam rofreP llaiitnediisernoN
  53. 53. gnithgiL roodtuO laitnedisernoN gnithgiL roodnI laitnedisernoN gnithgiL laitnediseR lacinahceM laitnedisernoN lacinahceM laitnediseR esir-woL epolevnE laitnedisernoN senoZ raloS ● snoitaretlA dna snoitiddA ● sreirraB tnaidaR ● noitalusnI & noitartseneF ● serusaeM yrotadnaM ● epolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL noitacilppA dna epocS ni segnahC llarevO emocleWepolevnE laitnediseR esir-woLepolevnE laitnediseR esir-woL
  54. 54. 74 noitartsenef fo )aera roolf semit %5.0 ro( tfqs 01 ot pu :noitpecxE emoh eritne ssorca egareva naC 85.0 = rotcaf-U noitartsenef mumixaM L reirrab ropav ecapslwarc detnevnu ,senoz llA o w - r si 61 & 41 senoZ ni sllaw no reirrab ropaV e R e s 91-R = muminim noitalusni roolf desiaR di e n t 91-R = noitaretlA/noitiddA :noitpecxE ai l E n v 03-R = muminim noitalusni fooR/gnilieC e ol p 31-R = muminim noitalusni llaw emarF e serusaeM y rotadnaM
  55. 55. 84 noitartsenef tliub-etis gnisu nehw ssalg fo retnec rof salumrof 6-AN esu naC L o w - )6 & 5,3,1 senoz tpecxe( %5 r si fo aera tsew mumixam evitpircserP e R e s i )5 & ,3,1 senoz d e tpecxe( 52.0 = CGHS evitpircserP n t ai l senoz etamilc E n lla ni 23.0 = rotcaf-U evitpircserP v e ol p :swodniW e noitartseneF
  56. 56. 94 61 > IRS /rotaluclac_irs/sdradnats8002 RO /42eltit/ rotaluclaC 57.0 > ecnattimE )IRS( xednI ecnatcelfeR raloS 02.0 > ecnatcelfeR)51-01 senoz( 21/2 > epols-peetS L o w - 57 > IRS r si e R RO e s 57.0 > ecnattimE di e n t 36.0 > ecnatcelfeR ai l E )51 ,31 senoz( 21/2 < epols-woL n v e ol p e tnemeriuqeR evitpircserP sfooR looC
  57. 57. 05 L o w - r si e R e s di e n t ai 01-2 senoz ni 03-R l E n v e l )61-11 ,1 senoz( 83-R ot o p sesaercni noitalusni gniliec evitpircserP e no ta usnI noiitallusnI
  58. 58. 15 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI srebmem gnimarf revo digir 5-R lanoitiddA ytivac llaw 4x2 ni 31-R L o w - ;ro r si e R e srebmem s gnimarf revo digir 4-R lanoitiddA di e n t ytivac llaw 4x2 ni 51-R ai l E n v 560.0 = rotcaF-U e ol p noitalusnI llaW evitpircserP e no ta usnI noiitallusnI
  59. 59. 25 tnirp ot noissimrep tnarg ton did renwo sthgiR .dettimo egamI L o w - r si e R e s di e n t ai l E n v e l 51-2 senoz o p etamilc ni tnemeriuqer evitpircserP e sre rraB tna daR sreiirraB tnaiidaR