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Copyright multimedia resources


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Copyright multimedia resources

  1. 1. Images, music, video footage - copyright issues Presentation by Mrs Caroline Loh for IS Tech Module “Flash Applications” (Mr Lek Ngee Seng/ECE Div) 23 Jan 2006 Ngee Ann Polytechnic Library © 2006
  2. 2. Scope <ul><li>Copyright basics </li></ul><ul><li>What is copyright ? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it protect and not protect? </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns © ? </li></ul><ul><li>Legal rights of © owners </li></ul><ul><li>Fair dealing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Scope <ul><li>© Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Images of People, Places, Buildings, Things </li></ul><ul><li>Images produced by Government Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Public Domain images </li></ul><ul><li>Infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Rights Management Information </li></ul><ul><li>Circumvention of Technological Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Online Database </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Copyright <ul><li>Form of protection given by S’pore laws to authors of original works such as literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and certain other intellectual works </li></ul><ul><li>Confers on author the right to make and sell his own works </li></ul><ul><li>Infringement is illegal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Copyright <ul><li>Copyright Act 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Amended 1999 to incorporate © in the digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Amended 2004 to keep pace with new Internet technologies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nature of Copyright <ul><li>Protection is almost worldwide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Berne Convention –© treaty adhered to almost internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works – 21 Sep 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works first published in S’pore, or by S’pore citizens/residents entitled to © protection in > 100 countries party to Convention. Citizens from member countries reciprocally enjoy copyright protection in Singapore for their works. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>© symbol unnecessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical significance – alerts user of a copyright claim </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What does Copyright Protect ? <ul><li>Literary works – books, articles … </li></ul><ul><li>Compilations – directories, databases </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic works – choreography, screenplays, plays and mime </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Artistic works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include “graphic works” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>paintings, drawings, diagrams, maps, charts, plans, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>engravings, etchings, lithographs, woodcuts or similar works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs (includes slides, negatives, microfilm, exclude stills from movies), cartoons, collages, craft work, sculpture, buildings and model of buildings, maps and plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Films – separate protection for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visual images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other components, such as script and music </li></ul></ul>What does Copyright Protect ?
  9. 9. What does Copyright Protect ? <ul><li>Sound recordings – CDs, cassettes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the particular recording itself </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is not protected ? <ul><li>Information, ideas, styles or techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Free to research material and take info, facts or ideas for a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Copying another person’s words – no acknowledgement – plagiarism – non-ethical -- copyright infringement </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who owns copyright ? <ul><li>General rule – creator owns copyright – students own copyright in material they create </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Material created by employees as part of their job – copyright owned by employer </li></ul><ul><li>Some commissioned material </li></ul><ul><li>Material created for government </li></ul>
  12. 12. Legal rights of copyright owners <ul><li>Exclusive rights to do certain things with their material. Anyone who wants to use copyright material in any of these ways needs permission. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Legal rights of copyright owners <ul><li>This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To “reproduce” the work (such as making photocopies, digitising it, or printing a file) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To “communicate” the work to the public, eg. putting onto a website, broadcasting or faxing it or emailing digital files containing the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform the work in public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify, create derivations such as make a translation, dramatised version or a picture version of a work, eg. a cartoon, or arrange a piece of music </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fair Dealing & Reasonable Portion <ul><li>Fair dealing for research or study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reasonable portion : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For a work of more than 10 pages : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the number of pages in that edition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 chapter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the total number of bytes in that edition, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains only the whole or part of a single chapter of the work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying more than entitlement – obtain permission from © owner </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fair Dealing <ul><li>Allows reasonable extent of copying without infringing copyright for following purpose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research or study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasonable portion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticism, review, comment, opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of works. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In newspaper, magazine or periodical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Via broadcasting/cable programme service/film </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>celebrities / ordinary people, living / dead are allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sufficient acknowledgment of item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain permission if you need to copy whole work </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Fair Dealing <ul><li>The courts will consider the following : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the purpose and character of the use, including whether it is for commercial or non-profit educational purposes ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the nature of the work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount and substantiality of the part copied taken in relation to the whole work or adaptation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the effect of the use upon the potential market of the copyrighted work. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Media (US Consortium of College & University Media Centers) 10% or 1,000 words , whichever is less Text Collective work – 10% or 15 images, whichever is less Illustrations and photographs 10% or 30 seconds from an individual musical work Music, lyrics and music videos 10% or 3 mins , whichever is less Videos Maximum Material Type
  18. 18. Duration of Copyright 70 yrs after photo was taken Photographs <ul><li>Perpetual if unpublished </li></ul><ul><li>70 yrs after first publication </li></ul>Films/videos 70 yrs after first publication Sound recording Author’s copyright : Life + 70 yrs Publisher’s copyright : 25 yrs after first publication Published works 70 yrs after first publication Anonymous works <ul><li>Author’s life + 70 yrs after death </li></ul>Unpublished works
  19. 19. Using Images of People <ul><ul><li>Taking pictures of people in public places is permitted, provided you do not intrude into their privacy, eg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- picture illustrating people skiing is OK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>patients inside hospitals – NO </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Using Images of People <ul><li>Careful not to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invade people’s privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defame the person in the image through captions or narration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portray them in a false light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>libel them or slander them with falsehoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>injure their reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hold them up to ridicule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distort their image by cropping or altering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual can sue for monetary losses and mental anguish </li></ul>
  21. 21. Using Images of People <ul><li>Presidents / politicians – normally permissible if there is no suggestion of endorsement of a commercial product, service or enterprise. However, best to seek permission </li></ul>
  22. 22. Using Images of Places <ul><li>Shot on someone’s property – you need his permission. A signed “location release” can prove photographer had permission </li></ul><ul><li>Police scenes – police may legally prevent you from shooting if they think you are interfering with their work </li></ul>
  23. 23. Protected Places or Items Inside a Building/Property <ul><li>Many businesses prohibit photos or videos for security reasons, to protect their trade secrets or their “trade dress” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot photograph military or naval installations & equipment </li></ul>
  24. 24. Using Images of Buildings <ul><li>Pictures of buildings in public places / ordinarily visible from public places are permitted by law </li></ul><ul><li>Making, distributing, or public display of pictures, paintings, photographs, or other pictorial representations of places is permitted </li></ul>
  25. 25. Using Images of Private Properties <ul><li>Seek permission for non-commercial use </li></ul><ul><li>For commercial or advertising use -- obtain a signed property release from the owner so that there is no accusation of violation of property rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers and advertising agencies insist on having property releases </li></ul>
  26. 26. Using Images of Things <ul><li>Logos, symbols, devices, brand names, company names, anything which are marked with TM (trademark) SM (service mark) or ® (Registered trademark) in an image. Trademarks are protected as long as they are in use by the owner, eg. a public domain picture of Donald Duck or Mickey Mouse. Get permission. </li></ul><ul><li>More acceptable will be its use to illustrate a video box or to put in a catalogue to describe the film. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Shapes of Objects <ul><li>If the shape of an object, eg. Wine bottle, identifies goods or distinguishes it from others, the shape may be protected. Trademarked shapes include Coca-Cola bottle, KitchenAid® Stand Mixer, Mickey Mouse ears. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Use of Reproduction of Currency <ul><li>Conditions on Reproduction of Currency Notes and Coins / Board of Commissioners of Currency, S’pore : </li></ul><ul><li>In b&w or the same colours as the actual </li></ul><ul><li>No distorting its shape and design </li></ul><ul><li>No protruding from objects /receptacles, overlaid with any object or article, or folded or rolled or depicted in the shape of any object </li></ul><ul><li>No featuring with any design which shows disrespect to any other country </li></ul><ul><li>No using with adverts related to alcoholic drinks or smoking of cigarettes or other forms of tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>No using for ornamental or decorative purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Coins may be used in its actual size . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Reproduction of Currency Notes <ul><li>Must be at least 1½ times larger or at least 3/5 the original size </li></ul><ul><li>Must be enlarged or reduced in size in right proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be by way of duplex printing (ie printing of the design of currency notes on the front and back of any paper is not permitted) </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be on watermarked currency paper </li></ul><ul><li>All negatives, blocks, plates and other materials used in the reproduction must be destroyed when not required. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Must contain the word “SPECIMEN” in black and bold, lettering diagonally across the reproduction (but not to cover any part of any portrait)
  31. 31. Reproduction of Stamps <ul><li>Adopt same size constraints for uncancelled stamps in colour as for currency notes, ie. 1 ½ times or 3/5 of original size </li></ul>                                                     
  32. 32. Government Images <ul><li>Many public domain images come with the restriction that they may not be used to state or imply the endorsement of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that may mislead. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for any terms and conditions against its free use . The US Govt makes available many free images eg. NASA photo of the earth taken by NASA’s Apollo 17 astronauts. </li></ul>
  33. 33. How to Tell if Images are in Public Domain <ul><li>Published or © 1936 or earlier. By law, copyright on these images would have expired </li></ul>
  34. 34. Public Domain Images <ul><li>If you take a public domain photo from a published book or on a Web page (ie. reproduction), you must : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>get permission from the publisher as he owns rights to the reproduction . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, go to the original source and make a copy from there </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Public Domain Images <ul><li>Anyone who makes copies of public domain images may claim copyright to the reproduction of them. </li></ul><ul><li>You may not use reproduction without permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Users of another’s property may be sued for misappropriation. So, getting an original is crucial. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Captions and Credits <ul><li>Organisations do not want to be viewed as giving endorsement of your product or use. </li></ul><ul><li>If you use a public domain image of a piece of art that may be say, in a museum, don’t mention the name of the museum in a caption or credit line without permission. </li></ul>
  37. 37. People, Place, Things, Events <ul><li>People, place, things and events all have rights to consider when using an image. </li></ul><ul><li>Know as much as you can about the who, what, when, where and why of the images you use or make </li></ul><ul><li>Get releases and document facts as you go along </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to see everything in the images, even the fleeting or what is in the backgrounds, and think in terms of “underlying rights”. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Commercial/Advertising Use <ul><li>Seek permission at all times. Cannot use : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Singapore flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone’s property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone’s things – property rights violation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prior written consent (Model Release) needed to use a living person’s name, portrait or picture. Avoid giving impression of implied endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>T-shirts, posters or other merchandise -- commercial use </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial magazine cover -- requires a model release just like an advertisement. If you cannot get model release, modify image to make the people unrecognizable </li></ul>
  39. 39. Using Images, Sounds and Movie Clips from Internet <ul><li>Illegal to use a © image without permission from © holder. </li></ul><ul><li>Check © status of an image before using it </li></ul><ul><li>Check © policy of original source of any sound file </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics – look for royalty-free / free-to-use / non-commercial use / educational use of graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Photos with people – copyrighted. Look for instructions, eg. must cite URL when using their photographs. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Seeking Permission <ul><li>Consideration based on : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>territory of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Term of use (1 year / perpetual, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusivity (you are the one and only user, or you share use with other users) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How large it will be reproduced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many people will see it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of your use (in a TV broadcast, a brochure, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of your organisation (educational institution, not-for-profit organisation, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Seeking Permission <ul><li>Copyright owners can charge a “permission fee”, eg. Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) charges reproduction fee of $750 per image for 3 months for posting on individual or corporate websites </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright owners can dictate restrictions, eg. Works not to be used for “advertising or trade purposes” </li></ul>
  42. 42. Using Music <ul><li>Music is a problem in public domain films and videos, as it is an underlying work – there may not be copyright on the film itself but the soundtrack has an underlying rights problem, eg. It’s a Wonderful Life; Over the Rainbow. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear copyright according to nature of use. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Composers and Authors Society of Singapore (COMPASS) – 1 stop centre for licensing musical works for digital distribution </li></ul><ul><li>2 important criterias for consideration : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how application is to be hosted, eg. websites, multimedia guides, courseware etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COMPASS has expressed that they are not concerned with use of musical works for educational purpose hosted on Intranet. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek permission for : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where applications are hosted on publicly accessible web pages. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. National & Community Songs Check out Terms & conditions of use
  45. 45. Bloggers & Use of Music <ul><li>Bloggers /personal website owners – may soon have to license the background music used on their online journals / websites. </li></ul><ul><li>Websites where song cannot be downloaded or with no advertising : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pay $1,000 a year for up to 10 songs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$5,000 for playing 11 to 49 songs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$10,000 for over 50 songs </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Uploading songs on Net chat channel for people to download – distributing illegal digital music files on Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Case involving 2 youths – trial in early Feb </li></ul><ul><li>Sued by Recording Industry Association of S’pore (Rias) – represents music companies like Sony and Warner Music here. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Using Stock Footage <ul><li>Public domain films may contain stock footage, news footage and other elements licensed only to the producer for specific use in the film. </li></ul><ul><li>Study the film credits to confirm if the segment you are interested has any third party proprietary rights </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Using all / significant part of a copyright material requires permission, unless : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>© has expired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special exception applies, usually to educational institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where there is fair use </li></ul></ul>Infringement
  49. 49. Actions for Infringement <ul><li>Types of relief court may grant includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An injunction – court order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages – compensation money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An account of profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where plaintiff elects for an award of statutory damages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$10,000 max for each work infringed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$200,000 max in total, unless plaintiff proves his actual loss exceeds the amount </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright owners may follow up on infringements within 6 years </li></ul>
  50. 50. Consideration for Statutory Damages <ul><li>Nature and purpose of infringing act, including whether commercial nature </li></ul><ul><li>Flagrancy of infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Whether defendant acted in bad faith </li></ul><ul><li>Any loss suffered/will be suffered to plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>Any benefit to have accrued to defendant </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct of parties before and during proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Need to deter other similar acts </li></ul><ul><li>All other relevant matters </li></ul>
  51. 51. Presumption of Copyright and Ownership <ul><li>In an issue before the court, presumption of copyright subsistence or ownership in the plaintiff applies. </li></ul><ul><li>Defendant cannot satisfy court of his action, he is guilty </li></ul>
  52. 52. Rights Management Information (RMI) <ul><li>Includes info which identifies a work or subject matter, eg. watermark </li></ul><ul><li>Offence to remove any RMI attached </li></ul>
  53. 53. Circumvention of Technological Measures <ul><ul><li>Technological access control measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological protection measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any technology, device or component that controls access, or prevents or limits doing of any act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cracking of passwords </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unscrambling encrypted info (except: research on encryption technology) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of digital watermarks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><ul><li>Penalty fine : $20,000 or 2 yrs imprisonment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minister may exempt educational institutions from penalty </li></ul></ul>Circumvention of Technological Measures
  55. 55. Infringements & Unauthorised Use <ul><li>Any infringements/unauthorised use before the amended Act will be dealt with according to the Act which was in force prior to 29 Nov 2004 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Criminal Offence <ul><li>Wilful infringement of copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent is significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is commercial advantage in the process (substantial prejudicial impact) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal offence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fine $20,000 max and/or imprisonment 6 months max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd or subsequent offence, fine $50,000 and/or imprisonment 3 yrs </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. FAQs <ul><li>May I put unaltered images on Intranet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, for educational use. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May I put unaltered images on my website? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, for advertising / commercial use on Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, no advertisements, no sponsors, no charge, does not offer any products for sale </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. FAQs <ul><li>May I print images from this website for an assignment? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, for personal or academic work, not for publication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do I obtain permission for other forms of publication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain prior written approval from relevant authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually case-by-case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage fee may be involved </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. Scope <ul><li>Copyright basics </li></ul><ul><li>What is copyright ? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it protect and not protect? </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns © ? </li></ul><ul><li>Legal rights of © owners </li></ul><ul><li>Fair dealing </li></ul>
  60. 62. Scope <ul><li>© Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Using Images of People, Places, Buildings, Things </li></ul><ul><li>Images produced by Government Bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Public Domain images </li></ul><ul><li>Infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Rights Management Information </li></ul><ul><li>Circumvention of Technological Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Online Database </li></ul>
  61. 63. Images, music, video footage - copyright issues The End Reference : Tambert, Scott. How to Use Images Legally . Washington, D.C. Alexander Media LLC, 2002. Source of Images :; © 2006 NP Library. Revised : 15 Jan 2006