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KJ Poppe integration of AR and ARD

presentation given for ARCH and SCAR on options to link Agricultural Research for Europe with Agricultural Research for Development.

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KJ Poppe integration of AR and ARD

  1. 1. Options to combine AR and ARD in the European AKIS Krijn J. Poppe, LEI Wageningen UR & SCAR AKIS with thanks to Floor Geerling – Eiff for interviews in WUR
  2. 2. My introduction Co-chair Strategic Working Group AKIS (Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems) of the EU SCAR (Standing Committee on Agricultural Research) Economist and Research Manager at LEI Wageningen UR My perspective: • Wageningen UR has always integrated AR and ARD • I approach the issue from the interests of AR: why should AR welcome an integration with ARD
  3. 3. Different objectives, methods, and public roles
  4. 4. ERANETs JPIs Research Education Consumers Retailer s Food processo rs Extensi on Input suppliers Farmers Member states
  5. 5. Research Education Consumers Retailer s Food processo rs Extensi on Input suppliers Farmers Member states ERANETs JPIs EIP-Agri’s Operational Groups
  6. 6. Interactive innovation and transdisciplinary research Large pool of OGs Many Networks Operational Group Thematic Network Multi-actor Research Project Farmers For replication and up-scaling: • End user material • Identify blockades • Research agenda Transdisciplinary research: Operational Groups as cases and co-innovatorsNGO Food company Researcher Several Projects Focus groups
  7. 7. Policy Brief ARCH and AKIS, 2014 Reasons to revisit the communality between AR and ARD: 1. Both now address global challenges such as climate change, sustainable agricultural production and use of natural resources, food and nutrition security, poverty and social equity and demands for energy. 2. The world has become smaller in recent decades as food systems between the continents are now more integrated by international trade and foreign direct investment.
  8. 8. Opportunities to align research themes  Research themes, like food and nutrition security, climate change, poverty alleviation and many others.  Multi-stakeholder collaboration  Cooperation between countries, regions and continents on common problems like infectious pests and diseases  Methods are often common and can be developed  Research infrastructures (like gene banks, expensive technical equipment or soft infrastructures like databases)  Institutional and governance aspects of research like new forms of public-private partnerships or societal aspects of research
  9. 9. Strategies for aligning funding for research and innovation  Lessons on alignment and stimulation of innovation can be learned from research projects that have recently been carried out: ● Solinsa project (AR) ● ESFIM (ARD) ● Jolisaa project (ARD)  Build on innovation in practical situations (“innovation in the wild”); Combine local and external knowledge and ideas to enhance innovative capacity; Encourage access to diverse value chains to lower the innovation risks; Support unpredictable innovation processes and Address the multiple dimensions of innovation.
  10. 10. Other remarks in ARCH-AKIS policy brief  Policy makers at national and EU levels should seek for cross-policy collaboration to reduce barriers  New bottom-up models have to be designed and technology has to be adapted  Promote private sector involvement - should be elaborated and diversified.  The added value of European international research and innovation practices must be made explicit.  Policy makers should discuss the desired flexibility in the application of funding mechanisms  Evaluation of research projects should be renewed  New intercontinental innovation partnerships should become part of a policy framework
  11. 11. Reasons to combine AR with ARD: Grand societal challenges cross borders: ● Common interest ● The best and cheapest solution are not necessarily in Europe ● Pests and diseases (human, animal, plant) cross borders Topics for international food chains (e.g. Seeds for West Africa) especially if Europe ● supplies inputs or ● sources products from a developing country ● sees options for new commercialisation (e.g. indeginous plants; “by-products” from European slaughterhouses for e.g. China)
  12. 12. Reasons to combine AR with ARD: (2) Developing countries are the economic motors of tomorrow: invest in your market Topics where there are not much differences in research objective. Example: ICT for family farms (Kenya’s M-Pesa leads in mobile payments) Topics where variations in cases can help to solve the research questions. Examples: family farming, cooperatives.  Widening of solution space (e.g. new methods for cooling fruits in India can help energy saving in Europe)  International standardisation (reference labs, standards in ICT)  Last but not least: efficiency
  13. 13. Some topics mentioned in interviews at Wageningen UR (experience based)  ICT and big data  Water management  Food security  Biobased production and chain development  Climate smart agriculture  Integrated Pest Management - IPM  Sustainable intensification including plant breeding  Small family farms and innovation
  14. 14. Other suggestions from interviews  More collaboration CGIAR and AR-system needed  More policy coherence between DG-DEVCO and DG-RTD (and DG-AGRI) is welcome. Why is Devco’s AR4D agenda not integrated in H2020?  Public-private partnerships are difficult in an intercontinental context (in different cultures multinationals, NGO, (local) sme are hard to bring together) >> how to overcome ? More subsidies for number of global innovation platforms ?  lower transaction costs for research collaboration and exchange  Also Dutch PP-Partnerships need to look more to this issue of integrating AR and ARD
  15. 15. Horizon 2020  Relatively easy – see current call H2020 SC SFS18 on family farming: ● “In line with the objectives of the EU strategy for international cooperation in research and innovation and in particular with the implementation of the EU- Africa dialogue, proposals are encouraged to include third country participants, especially those established in Africa and Asia.´
  16. 16. JPI and ERAnets:  More difficult ?  Already complicated: member states provide capacity in kind, not money. ● Contributes to widening participation ● But inefficient use of resources ● Pooling the money? ● Would lead to a more money driven system ● With more specialisation also based on different labour costs ● Governments have to separate science for solving a common issue and projects for (local) innovation
  17. 17. Thank you for your attention References • Reflection paper AKIS 1 • Orientation paper AKIS 2 • Summarizing powerpoint presentation available on SlideShare • ARCH – AKIS Policy Brief, 2014
  18. 18. Innovation is a broad concept  The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations. [source: OECD]  Also the public sector can innovate ! (and public aspects of agriculture)
  19. 19. Knowledge & Innovation System: 7 functions 1.Knowledge development and diffusion 2.Influence on direction of search and identification of opportunities 3.Entrepreneurial experimentation and management of risk and uncertainty 4.Market formation 5.Resource mobilisation 6.Legitimation 7.Development of positive externalities (c) M. Hekkert et al.
  20. 20. Innovation by interaction in networks  Innovation as a process has strong learning aspects: learn how to do new things, bottom-up. ● Alternative: force (or pay for) quality standards, mandates  Thematically-focused learning networks of different actors can help.  Generating learning and innovation through interactions between the involved actors. ● participation for all in the planning of work and experiments, their execution up until the dissemination of results and the demonstration phase  Members can include farmers, extension workers, food industry, researchers, government and ngo representatives and other stakeholders.