ICSN 2010


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Growth in K-12 online learning continues at a rapid pace, but what do we know about best practice when learners are physically separated from their teachers and peers? Find out about the latest trends and research in online learning environments with a special focus on Idaho as a national leader in providing transformative educational opportunities for learners.

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  • Tell them how you’re going to bore themBore themTell them how you bored them
  • You noticed when I introduced myself ….
  • The use of asynchronous and synchronous tools to facilitate learningTeachers assume role of facilitator and co-learners
  • Online: courses where most or all of the content is delivered online. 80% of seat time is replaced by online activity.Blended/Hybrid: courses that blend online and face-to-face deliver with 30 – 79% of content delivered online.Not only delivery method change but change in how we think about teaching and learningTransformative potential
  • Now, I’d like to share a national view of online learningThis illustrates the growth of online learning – 45,000 in 2000 and now over 1 million last year.47% enrollment increase from 2007Definition of online learning – offered over the Internet – not Interactive TV, televised courses, etc. According to the Sloan Report – Online learning is distributed as follows – 69% 9-12, 17% 6-8, 14% K-5Over 4 million students are now enrolled in full-time courses at colleges and universities – this does not include blended content that supports face-to-face coursesKeep in mind that this 1 million number is out of a nationwide 49 million public school students – we are early – this is still developingThe Sloan group is predicting 5-6 million online enrollments by 2016 – this would mean that over 10% of students nationally would be taking an online courseThink about your class, your school or your district – how does this align with what you are doing?
  • The way to read this graph – state with the dark purple have both supplemental programs like IDLA and full-time Virtual Charter schoolsThose in the white have neither – you can see that the Northeastern U.S. is certainly behind the curve in online learningOverall, this is an area of rapid growth and constant change34 states with state-led programs.21 states with full time multi-district programs.44 states with combo/either. 6 states with 0.20% of all programs growing more than 50% per year.Two states require online learning for high school graduation - Michigan & Alabama
  • 38% of all charter school enrollments in the state of Idaho2% of all enrollments in the state – national average
  • Online Teacher QualificationsThe standards and guidelines suggest that teachers responsible for delivering online instruction must possess a unique set of prerequisite skills to be effective. Skills in facilitating online communications, promoting and sustaining appropriate interactions (i.e., timely feedback, facilitated discussions and collaboration), designing web-based curricula, and proficiencies in using the available technology to support instruction are essential for creating meaningful and productive electronic learning experiences.  Skill Set: While there are minor differences, all organizations recommend that teachers possess prerequisite technology skills including skills in the use of technology applications (i.e. word-processing, spreadsheet, presentation software), Internet applications, Learning Management Systems, and communication tools. Typically, course design recommendations have been handled as a separate set of standards, but because course design is so tightly intertwined with the instructional process in online environments there are instances of their inclusion in the teaching standards.  Academic Preparation and Credentials: Academic preparation of teachers is addressed by all organizations with the assumption that the online teacher meets the professional teaching standards for the state or program in which they will teach.  Online Experience: In general, all organizations recognize the importance of online experiences for teachers that serve as a model of the experiences their students will face. They recommend that online teachers experience online learning environments themselves.  Professional Development: All organizations recommend that teachers participate in continuing education opportunities related to online teaching. Online teachers should demonstrate proficiency in content and online pedagogy as well as be provided with appropriate technical, administrative and educational (e.g. release time, mentoring, clear evaluation criteria, continuous PD) support. There is a specific skill set that online teachers should be able to demonstrate as well. These skills revolve around effective design capabilities as well as instructional strategies promoting student interaction and engagement with each other, with the instructor, and with the content. The ISTE standards emphasize that teachers not only focus on local online learning communities, but also expand their discussions to include global learning communities. Teacher PracticeThe need for teachers to understand best practice in online environments is recognized as essential. This includes how and when to apply appropriate instructional strategies, leadership and participation in professional learning communities, and knowledge of legal and ethical issues in online environments.  Instructional Strategies: All organizations recognize that online learning environments should be student-centered, flexible and inquiry oriented and that the teacher should possess the ability to incorporate effective instructional strategies through planning and design to encourage active learning, interaction, participation, and collaboration.  Leadership: Leadership is defined as those items that require interaction or involvement of the teacher in ways other than content area instruction. This may include, but is not limited to, parent contact, establishment of feedback and communication protocols, clear expectations, and teacher collaboration. NEA provides the only recommendation that specifically states that teachers should log into the course everyday for the purpose of reviewing student participation and providing feedback. Noteworthy as well, is the focus by the iNACOL standards of the development of 21st century skills and the importance of teacher-to-teacher collaboration and networking.  Learning Community: The ISTE standards focus on developing and utilizing the online learning community to not only learn course content, but to also foster collaborative learning, research skills, creativity, and innovation. ISTE standards emphasize the use of an online learning community to foster student collaboration, peer-to-peer teaching, and shared decision making.  Legal, Ethical, and Safe Environments: SREB, NACOL, and ISTE contain a section devoted to legal and ethical considerations of online education and the ability of the teacher to model appropriate behaviors and establish guidelines for a safe and healthy environment for student learning. EvaluationEvaluation and assessment are key components in online educational environments and applies to both student assessment and approaches to teacher and program evaluation.  Teaching/Program Evaluation: This is not addressed universally in the standards and guidelines. However, within the specific skill set recommended in their PD framework, NEA addresses the need for and challenge of developing the critical knowledge and skills administrators should possess to effectively evaluate online teaching; Underscoring the benefit of meaningful evaluation and guidance by administrators who possess the necessary skills to evaluate online teaching. Suggested criteria for evaluating teachers includes: developing communities of learners, fostering online discussions, collaboration, use of course delivery tools, online voice and presence, feedback, updating course content, modifying content, and selecting and using appropriate tools to support instruction.  Student Assessment: Student assessment is addressed extensively by both SREB and NACOL and in several ways. Developing and delivering valid and reliable assessments that are authentic and standards-based, in using data from assessments to modify instruction and in enabling the development of independence and autonomous learning through self and peer review. Special Needs/Diverse Learners Meeting the needs of diverse learners is addressed in a variety of ways by all organizations. NEA makes specific reference to the Section 508 requirements for accessibility. While SREB and NACOL do not specifically reference Section 508, they do recommend that teachers can accommodate learners with special needs and are equipped with skills which allow them to employ instructional modifications, multiple paths for learning, strategies for non-native English speakers, interactive and student-centered instructional strategies, variety in assessments, and enrichment opportunities. ISTE recommends utilizing digital tools and resources to accommodate diverse needs; as well as, adapting these tools to provide customized, student-centered learning environments.
  • Online quizzes made no difference. Those that incorporated online discussions performed better
  • Changing the way we think about educationBreaking down the barriers of time and place....An engaging, challenging education regardless of zip code.Student learning utilizing the tools of their digital world.Highly qualified teachers available to students without regards to geography.Supporting teachers as providers of individualized instruction.Students "owning" their learning...their pace, their time, their place....thinking beyond traditional school structures and schedule… alternatives to cutting programs1994 report “Prisoners of Time”
  • In 2007 conducted the first phase which looked at the status of PD for K-12 online teachers.In 2008 conducted phase II looking at unique need of K-12 online teachers2009 began two evaluations as pilot investigations into the evaluative phase of the research series. Primarily to help us understand more clearly the factors in evaluating teacher effectiveness as well as how best to gather data on a national level. Discuss complexity of measuring effectiveness of teacher training on student outcomes.
  • Additionally, it was found that respondents who have previous online teaching experience can be expected to spend more hours per week online and offline - indicating a higher engagement level.
  • Classification of survey questions and online engagement behaviors based on similarity of participants’ responses.
  • Alliance for Excellent Education
  • Technology is the medium for delivering instruction
  • Social and participatory cultureAlso a rich environment for interaction, collaboration, reflection
  • EvernoteGlogsBlogs
  • GoogleBaseCampZoho
  • VideoAnimationsSimulationsVoki/site palsVoiceThreadSlidesharePrezi
  • NingFacebookProfessional Learning Communities
  • When we talk about online teaching – we tend to be very tool centric which can be pretty overwhelming…
  • Tech years are like dog years – every year of my life = 5 tech years.
  • Add tools for younger children here – you might want to take the lead here.
  • As we explore research learners can post their findings on our citeulike or diigo site. Peer tutoring and feedback (students and teachers), student teachers, professional learning communities, community service
  • Professional Learning communities
  • PLC’sePortfoliosReflective writing
  • Global SchoolNet's mission is to support 21st century learning and improve academic performance through content driven collaboration. We engage teachers and K-12 students in meaningful project learning exchanges worldwide to develop science, math, literacy and communication skills, foster teamwork, civic responsibility and collaboration, encourage workforce preparedness and create multi-cultural understanding. 
  • ICSN 2010

    1. 1. K-12 ONLINE: MOVING FORWARD IN BEST PRACTICE<br />Dr. Kerry Rice<br />Associate Chair<br />Department of Educational Technology<br />Boise State University<br />
    2. 2. Trends<br />
    3. 3. Image created using wordle: http://www.wordle.net/<br />
    4. 4. The “TEACHER” in Online Teaching<br />
    5. 5. What is Online Learning?<br />It IS…<br />Learning that takes place partially or entirely over the Internet<br />Inquiry-based<br />Interactive <br />Collaborative<br />It is NOT…<br />Print-based correspondence<br />Broadcast TV and radio<br />Satellite Videoconferencing (“yoked” or “hub & spoke”)<br />Videocassettes<br />Stand-alone computer software<br />
    6. 6. What is Online Learning?<br />
    7. 7. National Trends<br />2019<br />2016<br />2008<br />2000<br />North American Council for Online Learning<br />Anthony G. Picciano and Jeff Seaman, Sloan Consortium Report 2009<br />
    8. 8. National Trends<br />Online Learning will disrupt traditional educational systems by the year 2019<br />
    9. 9. (Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning, 2009) <br />
    10. 10. Virtually every Idaho district has a student in an IDLA course (about 14,000 students)<br />
    11. 11. Whydostudentsenrollinonlinecourses?<br /><ul><li>Scheduling conflicts
    12. 12. Credit recovery
    13. 13. Course not offered
    14. 14. Early graduation, self-paced
    15. 15. Home school
    16. 16. Medically home-bound
    17. 17. Pregnant teens
    18. 18. Pre-expulsion
    19. 19. Bullied
    20. 20. Incarcerated youth
    21. 21. Athletic conflicts
    22. 22. Traveling/overseas students</li></li></ul><li>Idaho: Cutting Edge?<br />Idaho Recognized as a leader in providing transformative educational opportunities for all students. Ranked 3rd in the country for online learning policy and practice (Center for Digital Education, 2008). <br />K-12 Online Teaching Standards<br />BSU EDTECH leader in K-12 online teacher training.<br />Supportive legislation and funding policies. <br />iOPD (http://idahoednet.org)<br />IEN (http://ien.idaho.gov/)<br /> Yes!<br />
    23. 23. State and National Standards for Quality Online Teaching<br />International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) <br />National Standards for Quality Online Teaching<br />National Education Association (NEA) <br />Guide to Teaching Online Courses <br />Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)<br />Standards for Quality Online Teaching <br />International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)<br />Educational Technology Standards (NETS)<br />
    24. 24. Synthesized National Standards<br />Online Teacher Qualifications<br />Skill Set<br />Academic Preparation and Credentials<br />Online Experience<br />Continuing Professional Development<br />Teacher Practice<br />Instructional Strategies<br />Leadership<br />Learning Community<br />Legal, Ethical and Safe Environments<br />Evaluation<br />Student Assessment<br />Special Needs/Diverse Learners<br />Instructional Modifications<br />508 specific<br />
    25. 25. Knowledge of Online Education<br />Knowledge of Human Development and Learning<br />Modifying Instruction for Individual Needs<br />Multiple Instructional Strategies<br />Classroom Motivation and Management Skills<br />Communication Skills, Networking and Community Building<br />Instructional Planning Skills<br />Assessment of Student Learning<br />Professional Commitment and Responsibility<br />Partnerships<br />Idaho K-12 Online Teaching Standards <br />
    26. 26. In a review of empirical studies, the U.S. Department of Education concluded, “...on average, students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face classes.” (Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices in Online Learning, May 2009)<br />Key Findings<br />The effectiveness of online learning is tied to learning time, curriculum, pedagogy, and opportunities for collaboration.<br />Online learning can be enhanced by giving learners control of their interactions with media<br />Online learning can be enhanced by prompting learner reflection.<br />
    27. 27. What doesn’t impact learning?<br />Incorporating online quizzes<br />Media combinations don’t necessarily matter, but control over them does<br />Scripts to support interaction can influence HOW learners interact, but don’t improve learning<br />
    28. 28. “No Significant Difference”<br />“Florida Connections Academy 2009 State Test Scores Exceed Overall State Results” (Connections Academy)<br />“Newly released state data reveal that e-schools perform better academically than Big 8 districts at lower cost “ (Ohio Alliance for Public Charter School)<br />
    29. 29. The future is NOW<br />Dual degrees and success measured by completion (not seat time)<br />4 dayschool week http://www.sde.idaho.gov/site/ruraleducation/<br />Online teaching experience = professional development<br />
    30. 30. Going Virtual! Research Series<br />
    31. 31. Going Virtual! Research Series<br />
    32. 32. Going Virtual! Research Series<br />
    33. 33. Phase I: Summary of Findings<br />PD is …<br />Dependent on the organization<br />Driven by context<br />Online<br />Ongoing<br />Focused on skills<br />
    34. 34. Phase II Key Findings<br />Experienced Workforce<br />99% - credentialed teachers<br />27% - new to onlineteaching <br />2% - new to the teaching profession<br />55% - between 6 and 15 years of total teaching experience<br />18% - more than 16 years total teaching experience<br />55% - master’s degree or better<br />
    35. 35. PD Hours and Opportunities<br />72% - participated in ongoing training in online teaching<br />
    36. 36. In their own words...<br />What are your unique needs and challenges as a K-12 online teacher? <br />536 open-ended comments generated 18 themes <br />
    37. 37. Self - Reported Needs (sorted by Online Teaching Experience)<br />
    38. 38. Leveraging Data Systems: INSPIRE Connections Academy – STS Evaluation<br />
    39. 39. Leveraging Data Systems: Program Evaluation<br />Self report<br />Self report<br />Data mining<br />Observation <br />
    40. 40. Pass Rate Predictive Model<br />Decision Tree Analysis<br />Improved grades (from 88% to 92%) when participants’ logged into LMS more than 10 times over six weeks. The average is further improved to 98% when frequency of logins increased to 17 times. <br />
    41. 41. Engagement<br /><ul><li>Clustering
    42. 42. More time spent online = more time spent offline.
    43. 43. Previous online teaching experience = more hours spent both online and offline. </li></li></ul><li>WHY NOW?<br />Improvements in Technology<br />LoomingCrises http://www.all4ed.org/files/OnlineLearning.pdf<br /><ul><li>the funding cliff;
    44. 44. a looming teacher shortage; and
    45. 45. global skill demands vs. educational attainment. </li></ul>Change in thinking about teaching and learning?<br />
    46. 46.
    47. 47. What does education look like in a connected world?<br />
    48. 48. Technology<br />
    49. 49.
    50. 50. Learning Portals<br />
    51. 51. Communication Tools<br />
    52. 52. Writing and Reflection Tools<br />
    53. 53. Collaboration Tools<br />
    54. 54. Web-Based Multimedia Tools<br />
    55. 55. Networking Tools<br />
    56. 56. Web-Based Instructional Teaching Aids<br />
    57. 57.
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60. Tool-Centered vs. Learner-Centered<br />
    61. 61. BestPractice<br />21st Century Skills<br />
    62. 62. Active Participation<br />Collaboration and Community Building<br />Learner Autonomy<br />Authentic Assessment<br />21st Century Skills<br />
    63. 63. The ability and motivation to take responsibilityfor one's own learning.<br />Learner Autonomy<br />Supported through:<br />scaffolding and careful guidance <br />instructional learning aids <br />modeling and prompting<br />coaching strategies<br />reflective thinking and problem solving<br />
    64. 64. Learner Autonomy<br />John Travoltage web-based simulation at Phet (interactive simulations)<br />Learner Autonomy<br />
    65. 65. Learner Autonomy<br />Multimedia<br />Learner Autonomy<br />
    66. 66. Learner Autonomy<br />Negotiated inputs and outcomes<br />Learner Autonomy<br />
    67. 67. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Strong feelings of community have been shown to promote a greater sense of well-being among learners as well as increases in engagement, cooperation, commitment to group goals, information flow, and satisfaction in group interactions.<br />Supported through:<br />authentic projects and assessments<br />role assignments<br />teamwork<br />peer review<br />strategies to structure activities (consensus building, Tuning Protocol, Fishbowl Method)<br />
    68. 68.
    69. 69. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Collaborative Resources<br />
    70. 70. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Collaborative Spaces<br />
    71. 71. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Learner Autonomy<br />Glogster Poetry Project<br />
    72. 72. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Online Instructional Spaces<br />Role Play<br />Think-Pair-Share by assigning email pals or “web-buddies”<br />Modify fishbowl by dividing the class into 2 groups, allowing group 1 to contribute the first half of the week and group 2 to contribute the second half. <br />Writing Roulette – each learner adds to expanding class story<br />Class voting and polling<br />Debate<br />Consensus building<br />Student generated discussion questions<br />Peer review<br />
    73. 73. Collaboration and Community Building<br />Online Social Spaces<br />Virtual Icebreakers<br />Share favorite Websites<br />“Student lounge”, “Recess”<br />Question Cafe <br />PLC’s<br />http://teacherstream.org<br />
    74. 74. Global Spaces<br />
    75. 75. Active Participation<br />Interactions within the learning community as well as engagement with the content being studied.<br />Supported through:<br />Authentic, collaborative, inquiry-based projects<br />negotiated learning outcomes <br />active research in the field<br />partnerships with the outside community<br />
    76. 76. Active Participation<br />Discussion leader<br />Resource provider<br />Tech support<br />Class Twitter contribution<br />
    77. 77. Active Participation<br />
    78. 78. Active Participation<br />Real-time communication<br />Live presentations and lectures<br />Guest speakers<br />One-on-one tutorials and mentoring<br />Group discussions and activities<br />Informal chat sessions<br />Question and answer sessions<br />
    79. 79. Instructional environments that promote a process rather than an end product necessitate the development of assessments that are progressive rather than summative. <br />Authentic Assessment<br />Supported through:<br />Timely and consistent instructor and peer feedback<br />reflection<br />dissemination to “real-world” audiences<br />
    80. 80. Written assignments <br />Participation in online discussions<br />Publication of student work /presentations<br />Online quizzes and questions<br />Experiential activities, such as role-play<br />Collaborative assignment work <br />Debates<br />Portfolios<br />Reviews<br />Online Exams (open-book; structured; timed<br />Journals and reflection<br />Complete a simulation or win a game<br />Authentic Assessment<br />
    81. 81. Authentic Assessment<br />
    82. 82. “Our Environment” Wiki<br />Authentic Assessment<br />“I started making this website because I had the Idea of instead of just doing a project paper for my class I could spread my information around the continents...” <br />
    83. 83. 21st Century Skills<br />A major challenge facing educators in the 21st century "is how to design our educational system... in order to produce graduates who are better prepared to take up jobs in a knowledge-based environment characterized by a pervasive use of information communications technology" (Bodomo 2006, ¶1)<br /><ul><li>Communication and collaboration
    84. 84. Flexibility and adaptability
    85. 85. Initiative and self-direction
    86. 86. Leadership and responsibility
    87. 87. Productivity and accountability</li></ul>Global awareness<br />Digital, information, media and social literacy<br />Financial, business and economical literacy<br />Creativity<br />Critical thinking and problem solving<br />
    88. 88.
    89. 89. Elearning: Transforming the way we teach AND learn<br />Kerry Rice<br />Department of Educational Technology<br />Boise State University<br />krice@boisestate.edu<br />
    90. 90. Resources<br />Boise State University, Department of Educational Technology:http://edtech.boisestate.edu<br />K-12 Online Teaching Strategies resource site:https://sites.google.com/site/onlineteachingstrategies/<br />A Summary of Research on the Effectiveness of K-12 Online Learning, iNACOL (September 2009)<br />Getting Students More Learning Time Online: Distance Education in Support of Expanded Learning Time in K-12 Schools, by the Center for American Progress (May 2009) -<br />Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, U.S. Department of Education (June 26, 2009)<br />The Online Learning Imperative: A Solution to Three Looming Crises in Education, Alliance for Excellent Education Issues Brief (February 2010)<br />K-12 Online Learning: A 2008 Follow-up of the Survey of US School District Administrators, Sloan Consortium (2009)<br />Research Committee Issues Brief: Examining Communication and Interaction in Online Teaching, iNACOL (September 2009)<br />Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-To-Face Education<br />Project Based Learning: http://pbl-online.org<br />Partnership for 21st Century Skills. 2004. Framework for 21st century learning. http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120<br />