When land meets water our imagination is captured, but shores
and coasts can also be places of worry and concern.
Globally the claim of humans on coasts and shores is increasing.
Sea levels rise and lakes are shrinking.
The dividing line between land and water is always dynamic and dramatically changing.
Shores and coasts are more and more a place of focus for
architects, waterfornt development is globally a challange.
How to deal with coastal regions in a way that sustains the landscape,
increasing of safety and quality of life.
Understanding the waterforont as a site of dynamic landscape forces,
both urban and ecological.
Waterfronts often define the identity of cities at a seaside.
How to deal with the urban waterfront when major changes
are taking place?
The city has slipped further and further away from the sea.
The boundaries between sea and land is constantly changing.
expansion of Malmö 1860 1940 2000
Access to sea is limited both visually and physically
Which has the effect that the city experienced as separate from Øresund.
WHAT TO DO IF AN ALGAL BLOOM OCCURS
Malmøs new waterfront of a
sea rise of 2 meters.
What could bee the effect for Wester Harbour if the pollution and the global warming continues on:
How can we deal with these changes?
Fish, birds and mammals
can all be killed by algal toxins.
The main reason why fish and other aquatic animals die
in the wake of a bloom is the shortage of oxygen
that arises when large masses of algae decompose.
Utfylling av Dokken:
ca 200 000 m2
Utfylling av vestre havnen:
219 ha = 2 190 000 m2
We see the seascape as blue and beautiful
How can this become the reality?
What is the reality?
and not this dead zone
Green areas in the city is obvious.
But what about the marine community?
Why not have the same active attitude towards the sea that we have to the green lungs of the city
In new urban areas, we take it for granted that it is establishing parks and green areas by sowing grass and planting trees,
shrubs and owering plants.
After establishing the areas tended by expert gardeners that they should appear as beautiful and well groomed.
In green areas, emphasis is also to facilitate a variety of plant and animal life. The same thinking is not common for ocean regions.
Waterfronts de ne the identity of cities at a seaside. How to deal with the urban waterfront when
major changes are taking place?
Artificial Reefs and islands
Examples of reef materials
The use of artificial reefs to increase fish yields or for algaculture has a long history.
Many reefs are built by deploying existing materials in order to create a reef.
Artificial Reefs provide shelter, calm waters, influence water currents and contribute to biodiversity
and increased self-cleaning ability.
Attract smaller organisms which are vital sources of food for different marine species.
Artifical reefs as promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom.
Artificial reefs may also control beach erosion.
At sites where erosion from a particular direction is a problem,
the shape and alignment of the islands have to be determined by the prevailing current.
Construktion of artificial island can also benefit the marine life.
The sand winning will case deep troughts.
Within this special habbitat, resting areas and spawing grounds will develop, causing an increase in the
number of species. By combining thes different intersts, the island and reefs form a sustainable gift for
Out used materials such as concrete, ships, old vehicles, old pipes
and metals.can be used in the construktion of reefs and islands.
Mussels as water treatment plants
A shell with a length of 6 cm can filter about 3 liters of water per hour.
In the lifespan of 1 mussel, (4 years) The mussel is capable to clean ca 50 000 liters.
Mussels eat living algae, bacteria, excrement and remains of decaying plants and animals (waste products).
The mussel prodject at AUC concluded that 36 kg shell puri es 1 PE (person equivalent)
emissions to ordarea.
If Vestern Harbour has about 10 000 people, we need an annual production of 360 tonnes
of mussels to take away the anthropogenic emissions of nutrients
A large quantity of shells can therefore serve as a "plant" for the sea areas that are
Inner basin of Malmø characterized by the large supply of nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus.
AUC Aalborg University
550 mil. liters
Ca 20 kg off mussels pr meter rope.
To clean the inner basin
of Malmø, we need 460 000
Mussels can be put in "work" everywhere.
Production cycle of a mussel
Resource friendly food production.
clean water and a healthy
Fish or animal food
harvesting of mussels
Fertilizer for agriculture
Harvesting of mussels removes biomass
from the water and may thus counteract Composting
a eutrofieringssituasjon and improve water quality.
A female mussel can release between 5-12 million eggs.
Food for fish and birds.
A call for action
Øresund /Baltic sea
most threatned marin ecosystem on the planet. 100 000 new inhabitants
Sea level rise
Algal bloom Eutrophication
Transforming industry to housing/parks/edu.
90% of wetlands have been drained
Pressure from agriculture and industry
Climate change makes the challenge greater.
Increasing rainfall also leads to increased runoff of nutrients to the ocean
Marine life decreasing
Rules of engagement
Reduce polluted water from VH. No surfacewater direct into the sea (reuse of water)
Do not add more land/ relocation possible.
Public transport/connecting seafornt. bike lines, tram, bus, boat
Increased oxygen in the sea/ divers marine life /fish/algal
Sightlines sun/wind situations
250 m distance from sea/water (wetland)
Renewable energy, windmills, sun, etc.
Sea level rise, stormwater waves make a buffer zone
Increased use of the sea, leisure activities, sports, wildlife
Diversity of VH. Both urban/nature. Marinelife and flora and fauna
Refrences to the existing regulation plan
Increased circulations of seawater
Future expansion possible
Waves, current and rivers
Coastline 1973 Identity old dock/slipp
Currents in Øresund at different wind directions and speed:
10 knots wind
NORTHERLY WINDS EASTERLY WINDS SOUTHERN WINDS WESTERLY WINDS
0,5 - 1,0 kn.
1 - 1,5 kn.
1,5 - 2 kn.
> 2 kn. 25 knots wind
NORTHERLY WINDS EASTERLY WINDS SOUTHERN WINDS WESTERLY WINDS
Distance to sea/water Distance Transport 400 m
250 meter zone
Housing Master plan VH and NH Cityrail
Offices/edu Tram VH
Kelp forest are known as the rainforest of the ocean. They are among the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on the planet.
Kelp is an important oxygen producer.
Nearly 70- percent of the world's oxygen comes from the ocean.
Provide habitat, protection and feeding grounds for
thousand underwater species.
Several of the most important of our fish, in addition to the crab
and lobster, are directly or indirectly dependent on the kelp forest
to grow up.
Kelp forests are valued for recreational activities such as
scuba diving and kayakin
Acting as a type of buffer from rough water.
Multiple kelp species often co-exist within a forest