National Policies for Better Teacher Quality - Mae Chu Chang
1. National Policies for Better
International experience on Developing
and Implementing Comprehensive National
Policies for Better Teacher Quality
Mae Chu Chang
Human Development Sector
The World Bank
How are teacher quality,
student achievement and
national economic growth related?
So, what do the latest test results show?
Mean PISA 2009 Score
Reading Scale Mathematics Scale Science Scale
Source: OECD, PISA 2009 Database
Is there a link between student
achievement and teacher quality?
The Importance of Teachers for Student Achievement
Based on research by Professor John Hattie from the University of Auckland who
used meta analysis to estimate the overall effect on student achievement to the Then
above factors what?
Teachers are very important. Good teachers have a
large impact on student outcomes
Student performance on Standardized Exam percentile
After 3 years with high 90th percentile
After 3 years of low
Age 8 Age 11
Source: Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) Study Results Then
From Barber, M., and M. Mourshed. (2007) based on results from Sanders and Rivers (1999). what?
Teachers are the most important factor,
after the students themselves, in
determining student achievement!
Teachers need to have better knowledge,
skills, and qualifications, to enhance their
Comprehensive reform began in mid 1960s
Ministry of Education provided the following recommendations on
improving teacher quality:
All teacher education to be based
on Matriculation Examination Teacher is adviser not lecturer.
Minimum 3 years and Bachelor’s Quality and quantity of teacher
degree training in schools to be
Pedagogical training for
classroom and subject teachers. Teacher’s suitability for teaching
profession to be examined.
Wages to be tied to degree.
Status not associated with grade Compulsory 5 days of in-service
or subject taught or student age. training every year.
The Teacher Law: UU 14/2005
• The Teacher Law provides an opportunity for teachers to
improve their knowledge and skills through a
• By 2015, Indonesia’s schools system will only allow
certified teachers which is a bold step in the right
• To be certified, teachers must have a 4-year college
degree and teach a minimum of 24 periods a week.
• Doubling of teacher salary upon certification; (possibly)
tripling of salary with special area allowance.
What are the key challenges faced when
And what is the international evidence on
tackling these challenges?
Do higher minimum qualifications ensure
teacher quality? Indonesia
• All teachers in Finland require
a Master’s degree to qualify for
a permanent position.
• In Korea, candidates have to
graduate from initial teacher
education programs, followed
by the Teachers Employment
There is an association
…the quality of the teacher training matters. Then
Are financial incentives enough to attract good candidates to the teaching
• Most highly regarded of all
Finland • Competitive pay
Status • Competitive placement
• Commitment to core mission • Trust
• Trained to feel individually
• Researcher and practitioner
Accountability good Pre-selection
• Minimum – Masters’
• In the classroom Autonomy
• In working conditions Then
What can be done to ensure that only the most suited and
capable become teachers?
Top 1/3 of secondary Experience inside the
school graduation class Ministry
Monthly Stipend from
Commitment to teach for Annual assessment to
3 years determine career path
What processes assure teacher performance over time?
Singapore • Contribution to academic and
character dev. of student.
• Collaboration with parents and
Appraisal • Contribution to colleagues’ dev.
• Performance Bonus
• Access to free, quality
• Poor performers get
• Retirement package
• Movement along career
• Greater compensation Then
for greater responsibility. what?
How are issues of teacher over supply managed?
No new private teachers
Promote some private teachers to
Quota for private teachers in
teacher training schools
Dismiss unqualified private
Retire older, disabled, sick
Adjust private teachers income to
match state sponsored ones
How are issues of teacher under-supply managed?
Multi-grade Teaching in Colombia
Teacher as facilitator of Whole child, not just
Cooperative, individual &
Informal and incidental
learning Shared resources
Teacher training, community
and government support
• Rural schools obtain better results than urban schools!
• Positive impact on creativity and self-image of students.
• Improved completion rates
• More efficient use of existing resources
• Added opportunities for training and knowledge development for teachers.
Source: Escuela Nueva (New School) Model Why? How?
More autonomy and accountability at school level yields
highest student achievement…
498 Source: OECD
PISA Score in reading
490 School autonomy in
486 Schools with more Autonomy
Schools with less Autonomy
Systems with more
accountability Systems with less
System’s accountability arrangements what?