National Policies for Better Teacher Quality - Mae Chu Chang
National Policies for BetterTeacher QualityInternational experience on Developingand Implementing Comprehensive NationalPolicies for Better Teacher Quality Mae Chu Chang Head Human Development Sector Indonesia The World Bank September, 2011
2 How are teacher quality, student achievement andnational economic growth related?
5 So, what do the latest test results show? 700 600Mean PISA 2009 Score 500 400 300 200 100 0 Reading Scale Mathematics Scale Science ScaleSource: OECD, PISA 2009 Database
6 Is there a link between studentachievement and teacher quality? Then Why? How? what?
7The Importance of Teachers for Student Achievement Teachers 30% Student characteristics 49% Schools 7% Home 7% Peers 7%Based on research by Professor John Hattie from the University of Auckland whoused meta analysis to estimate the overall effect on student achievement to the Then Why? How?above factors what?
8Teachers are very important. Good teachers have alarge impact on student outcomes 100th Student performance on Standardized Exam percentile After 3 years with high 90th percentile quality teachers 53 percentile point difference 50th percentile 37th percentile After 3 years of low quality teachers 0th percentile Age 8 Age 11Source: Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) Study Results Then Why? How?From Barber, M., and M. Mourshed. (2007) based on results from Sanders and Rivers (1999). what?
9Teachers are the most important factor,after the students themselves, indetermining student achievement!Teachers need to have better knowledge,skills, and qualifications, to enhance theirprofessional quality. Then Why? How? what?
10National Policies for Better Teacher Quality Then Why? How? what?
11Example: FinlandComprehensive reform began in mid 1960sMinistry of Education provided the following recommendations onimproving teacher quality:All teacher education to be basedon Matriculation Examination Teacher is adviser not lecturer.Minimum 3 years and Bachelor’s Quality and quantity of teacherdegree training in schools to be increased.Pedagogical training forclassroom and subject teachers. Teacher’s suitability for teaching profession to be examined.Wages to be tied to degree.Status not associated with grade Compulsory 5 days of in-serviceor subject taught or student age. training every year.
12Example: INDONESIAThe Teacher Law: UU 14/2005 • The Teacher Law provides an opportunity for teachers to improve their knowledge and skills through a certification process. • By 2015, Indonesia’s schools system will only allow certified teachers which is a bold step in the right direction. • To be certified, teachers must have a 4-year college degree and teach a minimum of 24 periods a week. • Doubling of teacher salary upon certification; (possibly) tripling of salary with special area allowance. Then Why? How? what?
13What are the key challenges faced whenimplementing reforms?And what is the international evidence ontackling these challenges? Then Why? How? what?
14 Do higher minimum qualifications ensure teacher quality? Indonesia• All teachers in Finland require a Master’s degree to qualify for a permanent position.• In Korea, candidates have to graduate from initial teacher education programs, followed by the Teachers Employment Examination.There is an associationbetween teacherqualification andstudent achievement.However……the quality of the teacher training matters. Then Why? How? what?
15Are financial incentives enough to attract good candidates to the teachingprofession? • Most highly regarded of all professions Finland • Competitive pay Status • Competitive placement• Commitment to core mission • Trust• Trained to feel individually responsible• Researcher and practitioner Attracting Accountability good Pre-selection candidates • Minimum – Masters’ degree • Capacity • In the classroom Autonomy • In working conditions Then Why? How? what?
16 What can be done to ensure that only the most suited and capable become teachers?Singapore Top 1/3 of secondary Experience inside the school graduation class Ministry Strong Academic Ability Continuous training, Monthly Stipend from evaluation and Government opportunities Serving diverse student bodiesCommitment to teach for Annual assessment to 3 years determine career path Then Why? How? what?
17 What processes assure teacher performance over time? Singapore • Contribution to academic and character dev. of student. • Collaboration with parents and community Appraisal • Contribution to colleagues’ dev.• Performance Bonus• Access to free, quality professional dev.• Poor performers get assistance. Incentives• Additional Reimbursements• Retirement package Progression • Movement along career path. • Greater compensation Then Why? How? for greater responsibility. what?
18How are issues of teacher over supply managed? China No new private teachers Promote some private teachers to public status Quota for private teachers in teacher training schools Dismiss unqualified private teachers Retire older, disabled, sick private teachers. Adjust private teachers income to match state sponsored ones Then Why? How? what?
19How are issues of teacher under-supply managed? Multi-grade Teaching in Colombia Teacher as facilitator of Whole child, not just learning academic Cooperative, individual & Peer teaching group learning. Informal and incidental learning Shared resources Teacher training, community and government support Results: • Rural schools obtain better results than urban schools! • Positive impact on creativity and self-image of students. • Improved completion rates • More efficient use of existing resources • Added opportunities for training and knowledge development for teachers. ThenSource: Escuela Nueva (New School) Model Why? How? what?
20 More autonomy and accountability at school level yields highest student achievement… 498 Source: OECD 498 496 495 PISA Score in reading 493 494 492 489 490 School autonomy in resource allocation 488 486 Schools with more Autonomy 484 Schools with less Autonomy Systems with more accountability Systems with less accountability Then Why? How?System’s accountability arrangements what?