Jam is a product made by boiling fruit pulp with sufficient sugar to a
reasonably thick consistency, firm enough to hold the fruit tissues in
Apple, pear, sapota (chiku),apricot, loquat, peach, papaya, karonda, carrot,
plum, straw- berry, raspberry, mango, tomato, grapes and muskmelon are
used for preparation of jams.
It can be prepared from one kind of fruit or from two or more kinds .
Jam contains 0.5-0.6 per cent acid and sugar should not be more than 40
percent and TSS 68%.
Nutritional value of jam
One tablespoon of jam contains
o 6.09 g of moisture
o 569 calories,
o 0.07 g of protein
o 0.01 g of total lipid fat
o 0.05 g of ash
o 13.77 g of carbohydrate
o 0.2 g of dietary fiber
o 9.7 g of total sugars.
It also provides-
0.02 mg of copper
1.8 mg of vitamin C
0.1 mg of iron
0.015 mg of vitamin B2.
Health benefits of jam
It does not have fat and cholesterol which
helps to gain a healthy weight.
The pectin helps to lower the chances of
cancer and promotes the health of skin, hair,
bones and finger nails.
It also lowers the chances of getting stroke,
heart attack and cardiovascular ailments.
It also lowers the developments of cancers in
stomach, mouth and colon rectum.
It reduces the chances of spina bifida, neural
tube defects and anencephaly in pregnant
Sticky or gummy
Problems in jam production
Premature setting Surface graining
Nutritional value of jelly
Royal jelly contains-
A rich variety of nutrients including minerals
like calcium, copper, iron phosphorous, silicon,
sulfur, and potassium
As well as a wealth of B-family
vitamins, biotin, inositol, folate, nucleic acids,
And 17 different amino acids, including the 8
essential amino acids that the human body
cannot produce, and must, therefore, get from
A jelly is a semi-solid product prepared by boiling a clear, strained
solution of pectin containing fruit extract, free from pulp, after the
addition of sugar and acid.
A perfect jelly should be transparent, well-set, but not too stiff,
and should have the original flavor of the fruit. It should be of
attractive color and keep its shape when removed from the mould.
It should be firm enough to retain a sharp edge but tender enough
to quiver when pressed.
It should not be gummy, sticky or syrupy or have crystallized sugar.
The product should be free from dullness, with little or no
syneresis (weeping), and neither tough nor rubbery and should
have TSS 65% , 0.5 - 0.75% acid and 45% of fruit juice.
Health benefits of royal jelly
Regulates Blood Pressure
Treats Infertility Issues
Can Reduce the Effects
Technological flow sheet for processing of
Cutting into thin
Pectin test (for
Addition of citric
Judging of end
scum or foam
Filing hot into
PROBLEMS IN JELLY MAKING
Excess of acid.
Syneresis or weeping of
Addition of too much
Lack of acid or pectin.
Cooking below the end-
Cooking beyond the end-
point. Prolonged cooking
Failure to set
Use of non-clarified juice
Non-removal of scum.
Cloudy or foggy jellies
This is a citrus fruit product prepared by cooking fruit pulp
or extract with sufficient amount of sugar and using shreds
of peel as suspended material.
Marmalades are classified into :
1. Jelly marmalade
2. Jam marmalade
The method of preparation for jam marmalade is practically
the same as that for jelly marmalade.
In this case the pectin extract of fruit is not clarified and the
whole pulp is used. Sugar is added according to the weight
of fruit, generally in the proportion of 1:1. The pulp-sugar
mixture is cooked till the TSS content reaches 65 per cent.
Nutritional value of marmalade
Total Fat0 g 0%
Cholesterol0 mg 0%
Sodium179 mg 7%
Potassium118 mg 3%
Total Carbohydrate212 g 71%
Dietary fiber2.2 g 9%
Protein1 g 2%
Vitamin A 0%
Vitamin D 0%
Vitamin B-12 0%
Vitamin C 26%
Vitamin B-6 5%
Technological flow sheet for processing
Peeling outer yellow
Outing yellow portion into
boiling Straining the extract
Testing for pectin
Addition of sugar
Cooking to 103 to 105
Addition of prepared shreds Boiling till jellying point
Testing for end point
Cooling (82-88 degree
Filling in sterilizes bottles sealing
Storage at ambient
Total soluble solids
(m/m) - Min. 65.0 %
Fruit content except
peel (m/m) - Min.
Peel in suspension -
Min. 5.0 %
Browning during storage is very
common which can be prevented by
addition of 0.09 g of KMS per kg of
marmalade and not using tin
containers. KMS dissolved in a small
quantity of water is added to the
marmalade while it is cooling. KMS also
eliminates the possibility of spoilage
due to moulds.
PROBLEMS IN MARMALADE
Antique marmalade cutter, used
to cut citrus fruit peel into thin
Marmalade spread on