4.a&p i tissues2010


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Power Point I for Dr. Krasilovsky's Bio 110

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4.a&p i tissues2010

  1. 1. TISSUES & MEMBRANES Marieb: Chaps. 4 - 5
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Tissue - group of cells with related or common structure and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Types of Tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial (covering) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective (support) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle (movement) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous (control) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I. Epithelial Tissue ( cover, line, transport ) <ul><li>A. Cell Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Squamous - Flat or scalelike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Cuboidal - Cube or hexagonical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Columnar - Rectangular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Transitional - several layers with appearance of cells varying from layer to layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Simple - single layer, little wear and tear, transport functions (semi-permeable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Stratified - multilayer, wear & tear with replacement of surface layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Pseudostratified - one lay but all cells do not reach the top </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fig. 4.2
  5. 5. B. Classification <ul><li>SIMPLE </li></ul><ul><li>1. Simple Squamous Epithelial - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) single layer, thin cells closely packed together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) little intercellular/extracellular space or matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) non-vascular - no blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) basement membrane - epithelial layer attached to underlying connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) diffusion of gases (lungs, capillaries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f) filtration - kidney capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>g) mesothelium - squamous that lines cavities & organs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fig. 4.3
  7. 7. 2. Simple Cuboidal <ul><li>a) boxy-like appearance </li></ul><ul><li>b) function - secretion or absorption </li></ul><ul><li>c) kidney tubules or glandular ducts or tubes </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Simple Columnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right angle view with basal nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function - protection, absorption, secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line digestive tract with microvilli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goblet cells - mucous secretion (slide 9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia (microtubular structure) for movement along surface of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in Respiratory tract, Oviducts </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>4. Pseudostratified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) variations in levels of nuclei of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) all touching basement membrane, but all do not reach the top of the tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) ducts of glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) can be ciliated with mucus goblet cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) Respiratory tract & Female reproductive system </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>STRATIFIED </li></ul><ul><li>4. Stratified Squamous Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) multilayered - basal cells dividing appear as cuboidal or columnar cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet surface and wear and tear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth - Esophagous - Vagina </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>4. Stratified Squamous Epith - continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Keratinized Stratified Squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outermost cells die and contain keratin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keratin - waterproofing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier and protection from bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SKIN </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>5. Stratified - Transitional Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) similar to Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) outer cells relaxed/nonstretched = NOT FLAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) outer cells stretched = flat/squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) urinary bladder and urethra and ureters </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. 6. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium <ul><ul><li>a) rare - usually 2 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) lines ducts of larger glands - sweat glands and mammary glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Stratified Columnar Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) rare - basal cells compressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) line parts of male urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> line parts of glandular ducts </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. C. Glandular Classification <ul><li>1. Gland - group of cells that release a chemical into a duct or the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Exocrine - gland with a duct / tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary - water and chemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat - water and salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas - enzymes and buffers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Endocrine - ductless glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones released into the blood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary / Thyroid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>2. Exocrine - release/secretion </li></ul><ul><li>a) Holocrine - chemical in cytoplasm - cell dies & its contents are discharged - cell replaced - SEBACEOUS </li></ul><ul><li>b) Merocrine - secretion occurs with no other cellular contents - exocytosis - PANCREAS & SALIVARY </li></ul><ul><li>c) Apocrine - apical portion with chemical is pinched off - MAMMARY GLANDS </li></ul>Fig. 4.6
  16. 17. <ul><li>3. EXOCRINE STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Unicellular - goblet cells (Fig. 4.4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Multicellular glands and various ducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different shapes to gland and/or duct </li></ul></ul></ul>Fig.4.5
  17. 18. II. Connective Tissue <ul><li>A. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>1.loose or dense </li></ul><ul><li>2.diverse class </li></ul><ul><li>3.Fig. 4.7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extracellular </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. 4. Classes of connective tissue
  19. 20. B. Areolar Tissue 1. Loose CT - supports & binds organs, role in inflammation & infections, body fluids
  20. 21. 2. Cells <ul><ul><li>a) Fibroblasts - immature cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large, branching processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of new tissue and repairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Fibrocyctes -mature cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Macrophages - phagocytosis for defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Plasma cells - origin in wbc production of antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) Mast cells - near blood vessels to initiate local inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heparin - anticoaggulant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Histamine - increase vessel permeability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f) Pigment cells and Fat Cells (store nutrients) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>3. Fibers - proteins from fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Collagen (white fibers) - tough, bundle arrangement, some degree flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Elastic fibers (yellow) - also protein = elastin, flexible and branching (skin, lungs, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Reticular fibers - shorter, finer collagen fibers, more give than traditional collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Matrix - Fluid nature - nutrients and wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaluronic acid - viscous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaluronidase - liquefy ground substance </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>C. Adipose Tissue - Fat </li></ul><ul><li>1. Fibroblast - modified to store fats </li></ul><ul><li>2. Large vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>3. Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store energy raw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>D. Dense / Collagenous CT </li></ul><ul><li>1. Collagen fibers predominate matrix (regular) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fibroblasts line up </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tendons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle to bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Ligaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone to Bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Dense irregular Fig. 4.9e) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrous covering of organs </li></ul></ul>Fig. 4.8d
  24. 25. <ul><li>E. Elastic CT 1. Elastic fibers produced by fibroblasts 2. Stretch & return to original shape 3. Walls blood vessels, vocal cords, respiratory tract between cartilage rings </li></ul><ul><li>F. Reticular CT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Reticular fibers from fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Internal framework for organs - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spleen / Liver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. III. Cartilage <ul><li>1. Functions - tough but flexible, supportive structure, large amounts of tissue fluid </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chondrocyctes - cartilage cells from mesenchyme tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce collagen & elastic fibers in a different matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Matrix - collagen & elastic fibers and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chondroitin sulfate (gel like matrix) (Fig.4.7) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Lacunae - space in matrix around cell </li></ul><ul><li>5. Perichondrium - outer surface of cartilage tissue associated with fibrous CT </li></ul>
  26. 27. A. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>1. Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) surface of bone - joint articulating cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) ribs attached to sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) nose cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) fetal skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Chondrocytes - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce collage fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that are NOT visible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>4. Perichondium </li></ul>
  27. 28. B. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>1. Support and maintain shape </li></ul><ul><li>2. Larynx / Outer ear / </li></ul><ul><li>Eustachian tube </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chondrocytes with </li></ul><ul><li>visible elastic </li></ul><ul><li>(& collagen) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacunae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix - fibers and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chondroitin sulfate </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. C. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>1. Strength / Support / rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Vertebral discs and Pubic </li></ul><ul><li> symphysis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chondrocytes with </li></ul><ul><li>visible collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacunae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix - fibers and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chondroitin sulfate </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. IV. Bone (connective tissue) Chap. 6 <ul><li>A. Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Mineral storage - calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Blood cell formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood also CT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>B. Anatomy of Long Bone (Fig. 6.3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Epiphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Articulating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Periosteum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With inner layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Diaphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Bone Marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red/Yellow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Osteoclasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul></ul></ul>1. 7. 4. 3. 2. 5. 6 7. 3.
  31. 32. Fig. 6.3
  32. 33. 8. Haversian System of compact bone <ul><li>Fig. 6.6 </li></ul>
  33. 34. C. Intramembranous Bone formation embryonic cranial skeleton = fibrous membranes (Fig. 6.7)
  34. 35. Fig. 6.9 - Endochondrial Ossification - other bones of skeleton formed this way and pages 183-184.
  35. 36. Bone Growth (Figs. 6.10 & 6.11)
  36. 37. V. Muscle Tissue - Next Unit - motion due to filament contraction - classification - location / nerve innervation / appearance -skeletal -voluntary / striated -cardiac - involuntary / striated -smooth/visceral - involuntary / nonstriated
  37. 38. VI. Nervous Tissue - Neuron = Nerve Cell - Generate & Conduct Electrical signals - Cell Processes
  38. 39. VII. Membranes (epithelial & underlying CT) <ul><li>Fig. 4.11 </li></ul>
  39. 40. VII. Membranes 1. Mucous Membranes <ul><ul><li>a) line body area open to the outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive, respiratory, urogenital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) moist due to mucus secretion (urine) and cilia to move materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) secretion of mucus and absorption of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) underlying CT binds plus flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(lamina propria) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. VII. Membranes 2. Serous Membranes a) lines areas not open to outside & their organs <ul><ul><ul><li>b) mesothelium & loose CT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) visceral portion = around organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parietal portion = around cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) pleural = lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>peritoneum = abdominopelvic cavity/organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Synovial Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) lines joint cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) no epithelial component </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Synovial Joint ( loose CT) Fig8.3 -.4
  42. 43. VIII. Skin / Cutaneous Membrane <ul><li>A. Epidermis - stratified keratinized sq. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Stratum basale - dividing columnar shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Stratum spinosum - multilayers of newly formed cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Stratum granulosum - flatten cells/pigment formation, 1st step in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratin formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Stratum lucidum - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead cells, flat, keratin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation (palm/sole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Stratum corneum- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 dozen layers dead, keratinized squamous cells that are shed </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. B. Dermis 1. Loose CT (dense, collagen, elastic) Blood vessels, Nerves (sensory) Hair follicles and Glands = Epidermal in origin <ul><li>2. Dermal Ridges / Papilla </li></ul><ul><li>3. Subcutaneous layer - with Adipose / Areolar CT </li></ul><ul><li>C. Accessory Organs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hair - epidermal origin plus arrector pili muscle </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sebaceous Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps hair/skim pliable, water-proof </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Sweat Glands (merocrine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open to surface via duct </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Fig. 5.5 Fig. 5.6