Percentage Based Allocation of an Academic Library Materials Budget

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Percentage Based Allocation of an Academic Library Materials Budget

  1. 1. PERCENTAGE BASED ALLOCATION OF AN ACADEMIC LIBARARY MATERIALS BUDGET NELINET Annual Collection Services Conference April 15, 2009 Debbi A. Smith [email_address] Collection Development and Management Librarian Adelphi University, Garden City, NY
  2. 2. Adelphi University <ul><li>Private Institution </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal arts and sciences undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>Professional schools in business, education, nursing, psychological studies and social work </li></ul><ul><li>Four centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Garden City campus plus 3 regional centers </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Adelphi University <ul><li>Carnegie Doctoral Research Institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bal/SGC Undergraduate Instructional Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doc/Prof Graduate Instructional Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Masters/Three Doctoral programs </li></ul><ul><li>FTE: 6,800 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,500 undergraduates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,300 graduates </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. University Libraries <ul><li>667,000 print volumes </li></ul><ul><li>805,000 microformats </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 audiovisual items </li></ul><ul><li>1,600 print subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>30,000 unique full-text online journals </li></ul><ul><li>167 databases </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adelphi University Libraries Mission Statement <ul><li>The Adelphi University Libraries play an integral role in the instructional, research, cultural, and student life programs of the University by providing high quality library and information facilities, resources, technology, and services in consonance with the mission and vision of the University . The Libraries serve all members of the Adelphi community representing diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds as well as a wide range of academic disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing to the University’s efforts in furthering community relations, the Libraries extend many of their services to high school students and adults in neighboring communities. </li></ul><ul><li>The Libraries provide a comfortable, attractive, and safe environment that is conducive to study and to intellectual inquiry. Access is offered to a comprehensive variety of resources and collections that support Adelphi’s curriculum and information needs. We provide an outstanding level of user-centered services through continual assessment of programs, collections, and user satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The Libraries support and promote information literacy by teaching members of the Adelphi community to find and evaluate information effectively and to incorporate it ethically in pursuit of their academic, professional, and personal endeavors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mission Intent <ul><li>Develop a well balanced collection that supports the parent University goals, priorities, programs and curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Collect materials at a level that supports the terminal degree offered by each department </li></ul>
  7. 7. Background <ul><li>Before I was hired in March, 2004: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Collection Development Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No budget in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No allocations by discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject selectors had no idea what they had been spending or what they should be spending </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No collection development policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No collection assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No usage statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interlibrary loan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose Of A Budget <ul><li>Rational distribution of funds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate limited resources fairly and objectively based on equity and need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary tool of collection development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furthers current collection development goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizes future collecting objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor spending over the fiscal year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transparency and accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound fiscal management </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Factors to Consider <ul><li>Collection needs of institution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research needs of faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practical </li></ul><ul><li>Easily understood and implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Politically defensible </li></ul>
  10. 10. Relation to Other Collection Development Activities <ul><li>Collection development policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General collecting guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject specific collecting levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection Development and Management Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Fund codes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By department and format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liaison activities </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics: Collection usage and analysis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Related Considerations <ul><li>Acquisitions and selection of materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All monographs are firm orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slip plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ILS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflows for making selections and placing orders use templates with fund codes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consortia arrangements </li></ul>
  12. 12. Problems with Allocating By Historical Precedent <ul><li>Yearly increments to a subject based on past spending </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Unbalanced collections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards departments and selectors who are or have been more active </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Allocate With a Formula <ul><li>Common factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of faculty in a department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course enrollment; number/types of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of majors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal degree offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of current collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ILL activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation of and perceived need for materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing factors – output and cost of materials </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Problems with Formulas <ul><li>Hard to gather data when it gets too elaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to explain it </li></ul><ul><li>Can not allocate the entire budget </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary and subjective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulation of formula components based on local conditions and biases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighting factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether to use just for monographs, journals, or allocating increases </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Percentage Based Allocation <ul><li>Introduced by Genaway in 1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of a library’s budget allocated to each department corresponds to the percentage of the total university budget for that department for instruction and research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative of how a University as a whole funds each department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects curricula and programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirectly reflects variables in most formulas </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assumptions <ul><li>University budget to each department reflects the criteria found in most formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced collection of library materials reflecting the curricula is desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Positive correlation between an academic department’s budget and library intensiveness </li></ul>
  17. 17. Target <ul><li>Recommended for small to medium sized, non-research oriented academic libraries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection that include a variety of formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a starting point for identifying imbalances and inequities in library allocations </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Caveats <ul><li>Not practical for non-departmental allocations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference, special collections, maps, databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not take into account a discipline’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User intensity of library resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides a basis for a documented allocation process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional judgment still needed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Process <ul><li>Determine which part of the Library budget is departmental by excluding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific allocations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instructional and research budget from the Treasurer’s office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full and part-time faculty </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Analyze Library Budget <ul><li>Allocated by format lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books, continuations, subscriptions, microfilm, nonprint, electronic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move funds among format lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing relevance of format indicating function </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Past 3 year historical spending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of current departmental spending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t make extreme changes to budget in any one year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% increase or decrease at any one time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Flexibility <ul><li>Contingency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanticipated curricula needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection imbalances/gaps (assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special buying opportunities and deals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address discrepancies in publishing output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big ticket items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>March 1 release date of funds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reallocation of uncommitted funds before end of fiscal year </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Compare to Past 3 Year Average <ul><li>Average higher than the PBA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce by no more than 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average lower than the PBA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase by no more than 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create allocation for department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtract anticipated periodical and continuation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apportion monographs and nonprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put into fund code lines by department and format </li></ul></ul>
  23. 26. Snapshot b=monographs; c= continuations; p=periodicals; n=nonprint
  24. 28. Documentation The materials budget for the Adelphi University Libraries serves as a tool for collection development by translating collecting priorities into the allocation of appropriate levels of funding for each department and school. Librarians involved in the selection process can then plan and monitor their subject specific purchases for the fiscal year by tracking the spending of their specific fund allocations. The budget also has flexibility for contingencies related to economics, purchase opportunities, budget transfers, and changing curriculum and program needs. It also takes into account collection evaluations and deficiencies, publishing patterns and costs in a discipline, reliance of monographs versus serials in a discipline, user populations and intensity of use, and an overall analysis of expenditures for the previous fiscal year.
  25. 29. <ul><li>The materials budget is divided into non-departmental, general funds and departmental funds. The non-departmental segment of the budget is reserved for the purchase of: </li></ul><ul><li>Microform, reference, library science professional materials, lost material replacement, maps, specific University allocations, and non-departmental/general material and electronic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The projected costs for non-departmental materials are then subtracted from the total amount budgeted for Library materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Five percent (5%) of the departmental materials budget is next set aside as a contingency fund for special purchases and potential material fund transfers, and is included in the general fund allocations. </li></ul>
  26. 30. <ul><li>The remaining funds are then divided among the academic departments and schools according to a Percentage Based Allocation (PBA), which mirrors the percentage of the total institutional budget devoted to each department/school. While allocations are not solely based on PBA, this formulation serves to provide a base for identifying potential imbalances and inequities in historical allocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodical subscriptions, continuations, nonprint, and monograph costs are included in each allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitments to periodicals and continuations are determined, with the remaining funds then allocated for monographic and, if applicable, nonprint purchases. </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>The allocations for non- fixed subject specific materials (books and nonprint) are then placed into corresponding fund code lines to create the final budget. </li></ul><ul><li>While restricted account funds (such as grants, donations, and gifts from the Friends of the Library, Davis, Ornstein, and Schneider) may be considered part of a department’s overall support, they are primarily to enrich the collection and are not considered part of the materials budget allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>The allocations for the Manhattan, Hauppauge, and Hudson Valley center libraries are kept separate from those of Swirbul, the main Garden City campus library. This is because of the more fluid nature of the program offerings at these campuses, which does not allow a firm allocation of materials to specific departments. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>The Library fiscal year is September 1 to August 31 of the following year. Monograph allocation funds must be encumbered by subject selectors according to the following schedule in order to have all material received and paid for by the end of the fiscal year: </li></ul><ul><li>80% on or before January 1 </li></ul><ul><li>100% on or before March 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Selectors should plan to end the fiscal year with 100% of their budget expended and more than 100% committed. The over commitment is because there will be outstanding orders that will not have come in and paid for by the end of the fiscal year. </li></ul>
  29. 33. On March 2, all unencumbered funds are released to fulfill any existing needs within the scope of the budget. These needs may relate to any format or means of access that are deemed necessary to fulfill collection needs, and specific subject fund availability can not be guaranteed after this date Selectors have the ability to check fund reports for their specific subject areas via Millennium. These reports show the allocations for each fund line, the amount encumbered and expended, and the free, unencumbered balance for books and nonprint materials. Expenditures and encumbrances for all subscriptions (periodicals, continuations, electronic resources, microfilm) can be run by request to Acquisitions.
  30. 34. Monitoring <ul><li>Millennium (III) </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly summary reports </li></ul><ul><li>Collection Development and Management Committee sets priorities for rational use of unencumbered funds </li></ul>
  31. 36. Future <ul><li>Formats may change, but still need guidelines for allocating by discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Format as a surrogate for function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning of an electronic resource: database, journal collections, e-books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate databases and journal packages by discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Format migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference moving to online from print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut back in microfilm for online access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection assessment/collection gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WorldCat Collection Analysis Tool </li></ul></ul>
  32. 37. Final Thoughts <ul><li>PBB is a flexible guide </li></ul><ul><li>Budget allocation is an art and not a science </li></ul><ul><li>Professional judgment will always be required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THANK YOU! </li></ul></ul>

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