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Summer Tree ID Made Easy         Sanford S. Smith, Ph.D. (“Sandy”)               Extension Specialist      Natural Resourc...
Tree ID, why?Diagnosis                            ManagementRight ___ Right ___    Fun
Tree IDYear ‘round
What can we use?• Sometimes      • All times (almost)   – Leaves        –   Bark   – Flowers       –   Location   – Fruit ...
Leaf Terminology
Leaf Terminology                                            rachis blade                                                  ...
Leaf Types
Broad and   flat
Needles
Scale & awl-like
Leaf-type Comparison
LeafArrangement
Alternate
Opposite
Whorled
Leaf Arrangement Comparison
Leaf Structure
Compound Leaflet ArrangementsPalmately Compound                                   Bipinnately Compound                    ...
Leaf margins            DentateSerrateDouble      Lobed        Entireserrate
Leave the Leaves!
Fruit typesAchene   Double and Single Samara                Nut         Acorn (nut)Legume                    Capsule  Pome...
Tree ShapesBranches:   Pendulant         Ascending            Willow            White Oak
Parts of a twig• Buds (scales, size, arrangement)• Leaf scars (shape, size, vascular  bundle scars)• Stipule scars (presen...
Pith types
Bud Types
Identification    Time
Tree ID with aKey to the LeavesOne decision at a time
Identification keys• Dichotomous key  – most common type of key  – simplistic and complex use  – one decision at a time  –...
4-H Summer Key to PA Trees     Direct Online Link: http://downloads.cas.psu.edu/4H/       Summerkeyfortrees.pdf
Leaf Terminology                                            rachis blade                                                  ...
Leaf Arrangement Comparison
Lets practice!
Hint: opposite
Red MapleAcer rubrum
Red Maple
Hint: opposite
Sugar MapleAcer saccharum
Sugar Maple
Hint: alternate
Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra
Northern Red Oak
Hint: opposite
Horse ChestnutAesculus hippocastanum
Horse Chestnut
Eastern HemlockTsuga canadensis
Eastern Hemlock
Hint: lvs. alternate, sap not milky
Black LocustRobinia pseudoacacia
Black Locust
Hint: opposite
Flowering Dogwood   Cornus florida
Flowering Dogwood
Hint: alternate
White OakQuercus alba
White Oak
White Oak   Red Oak
Hint: alternate
American BeechFagus grandifolia
American Beech
(one bundle joined by a smallpapery sheath at base)
Eastern White Pine  Pinus strobus
Eastern White Pine
Clue: alternate, sap not milky
Bitternut HickoryCarya cordiformis
Bitternut Hickory
Hint: opposite
White Ash
Hint: alternate / hairy
Yellow BirchBetula alleghaniensis
Yellow Birch
Sweet (Black) Birch ID Slide                               Hint: alternate/hairy
Sweet (Black) Birch   Betula lenta
Sweet (Black) Birch
Eastern RedcedarJuniperus virginiana
Eastern Redcedar
Hint: lvs. alternate, rough, and hairy
American ElmUlmus americana
American Elm
Hint: 3 lvs. shown, alternate
SassafrasSassafras albidum
Sassafras
Hint: lvs. alternate
Sweetgum  Liquidambar styraciflua
Sweetgum
Hint: lvs. alternate, milky sap in leaf stalk
Norway MapleAcer platanoides
Norway Maple
Hint: leaves do not have stalks
Balsam FirAbies balsamea
Balsam Fir
Norway Spruce Picea abies
Norway Spruce
Fir versus SpruceBalsam Fir                       Norway Spruce
(Branch)(Single leaf)    Hint: lvs. alternate, not hairy, margins    have fine teeth; leaf stalks have glands.
Black CherryPrunus serotina
Black Cherry
Hint: lvs. alternate, sap not milky, leaves hairy
Black WalnutJuglans nigra
Black Walnut
American Larch Larix laricina
American Larch
Hint: lvs. alternate
Yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera
Yellow-poplar
Hint: lvs. alternate, milky sap
Smooth Sumac Rhus glabra
Smooth Sumac
•Prepared by Paul Roth, Former Research Assistant, Rance Harmon, Former ExtensionAssociate, and Sanford Smith , Forest Res...
Sanford S. Smith     (“Sandy”)sss5@psu.edu1-800-235-9473
Penn State is committed to affirmativeaction, equal opportunity, and thediversity of its workforce
Updated summer tree id practice cyber
Updated summer tree id practice cyber
Updated summer tree id practice cyber
Updated summer tree id practice cyber
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Updated summer tree id practice cyber

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Updated summer tree id practice cyber

  1. 1. Summer Tree ID Made Easy Sanford S. Smith, Ph.D. (“Sandy”) Extension Specialist Natural Resources and Youth Education School of Forest Resources Penn State Cooperative Extension
  2. 2. Tree ID, why?Diagnosis ManagementRight ___ Right ___ Fun
  3. 3. Tree IDYear ‘round
  4. 4. What can we use?• Sometimes • All times (almost) – Leaves – Bark – Flowers – Location – Fruit – Shape – Size – Shape – Smell – Taste – TWIG!!!!
  5. 5. Leaf Terminology
  6. 6. Leaf Terminology rachis blade leaflet midribleaf petiole stipule bud bud petiolule stem Simple Leaf Compound Leaf
  7. 7. Leaf Types
  8. 8. Broad and flat
  9. 9. Needles
  10. 10. Scale & awl-like
  11. 11. Leaf-type Comparison
  12. 12. LeafArrangement
  13. 13. Alternate
  14. 14. Opposite
  15. 15. Whorled
  16. 16. Leaf Arrangement Comparison
  17. 17. Leaf Structure
  18. 18. Compound Leaflet ArrangementsPalmately Compound Bipinnately Compound EvenPinnate
  19. 19. Leaf margins DentateSerrateDouble Lobed Entireserrate
  20. 20. Leave the Leaves!
  21. 21. Fruit typesAchene Double and Single Samara Nut Acorn (nut)Legume Capsule Pome Drupe Berry
  22. 22. Tree ShapesBranches: Pendulant Ascending Willow White Oak
  23. 23. Parts of a twig• Buds (scales, size, arrangement)• Leaf scars (shape, size, vascular bundle scars)• Stipule scars (presence, size)• Lenticels (visibility)• Pith (cross section shape & longitudinal appearance)
  24. 24. Pith types
  25. 25. Bud Types
  26. 26. Identification Time
  27. 27. Tree ID with aKey to the LeavesOne decision at a time
  28. 28. Identification keys• Dichotomous key – most common type of key – simplistic and complex use – one decision at a time – On-line example
  29. 29. 4-H Summer Key to PA Trees Direct Online Link: http://downloads.cas.psu.edu/4H/ Summerkeyfortrees.pdf
  30. 30. Leaf Terminology rachis blade leafletleaf petiole bud bud petiolule stem Simple Leaf Compound Leaf
  31. 31. Leaf Arrangement Comparison
  32. 32. Lets practice!
  33. 33. Hint: opposite
  34. 34. Red MapleAcer rubrum
  35. 35. Red Maple
  36. 36. Hint: opposite
  37. 37. Sugar MapleAcer saccharum
  38. 38. Sugar Maple
  39. 39. Hint: alternate
  40. 40. Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra
  41. 41. Northern Red Oak
  42. 42. Hint: opposite
  43. 43. Horse ChestnutAesculus hippocastanum
  44. 44. Horse Chestnut
  45. 45. Eastern HemlockTsuga canadensis
  46. 46. Eastern Hemlock
  47. 47. Hint: lvs. alternate, sap not milky
  48. 48. Black LocustRobinia pseudoacacia
  49. 49. Black Locust
  50. 50. Hint: opposite
  51. 51. Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida
  52. 52. Flowering Dogwood
  53. 53. Hint: alternate
  54. 54. White OakQuercus alba
  55. 55. White Oak
  56. 56. White Oak Red Oak
  57. 57. Hint: alternate
  58. 58. American BeechFagus grandifolia
  59. 59. American Beech
  60. 60. (one bundle joined by a smallpapery sheath at base)
  61. 61. Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus
  62. 62. Eastern White Pine
  63. 63. Clue: alternate, sap not milky
  64. 64. Bitternut HickoryCarya cordiformis
  65. 65. Bitternut Hickory
  66. 66. Hint: opposite
  67. 67. White Ash
  68. 68. Hint: alternate / hairy
  69. 69. Yellow BirchBetula alleghaniensis
  70. 70. Yellow Birch
  71. 71. Sweet (Black) Birch ID Slide Hint: alternate/hairy
  72. 72. Sweet (Black) Birch Betula lenta
  73. 73. Sweet (Black) Birch
  74. 74. Eastern RedcedarJuniperus virginiana
  75. 75. Eastern Redcedar
  76. 76. Hint: lvs. alternate, rough, and hairy
  77. 77. American ElmUlmus americana
  78. 78. American Elm
  79. 79. Hint: 3 lvs. shown, alternate
  80. 80. SassafrasSassafras albidum
  81. 81. Sassafras
  82. 82. Hint: lvs. alternate
  83. 83. Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua
  84. 84. Sweetgum
  85. 85. Hint: lvs. alternate, milky sap in leaf stalk
  86. 86. Norway MapleAcer platanoides
  87. 87. Norway Maple
  88. 88. Hint: leaves do not have stalks
  89. 89. Balsam FirAbies balsamea
  90. 90. Balsam Fir
  91. 91. Norway Spruce Picea abies
  92. 92. Norway Spruce
  93. 93. Fir versus SpruceBalsam Fir Norway Spruce
  94. 94. (Branch)(Single leaf) Hint: lvs. alternate, not hairy, margins have fine teeth; leaf stalks have glands.
  95. 95. Black CherryPrunus serotina
  96. 96. Black Cherry
  97. 97. Hint: lvs. alternate, sap not milky, leaves hairy
  98. 98. Black WalnutJuglans nigra
  99. 99. Black Walnut
  100. 100. American Larch Larix laricina
  101. 101. American Larch
  102. 102. Hint: lvs. alternate
  103. 103. Yellow-poplar Liriodendron tulipifera
  104. 104. Yellow-poplar
  105. 105. Hint: lvs. alternate, milky sap
  106. 106. Smooth Sumac Rhus glabra
  107. 107. Smooth Sumac
  108. 108. •Prepared by Paul Roth, Former Research Assistant, Rance Harmon, Former ExtensionAssociate, and Sanford Smith , Forest Resources Extension Specialist, The PennsylvaniaState University, School of Forest Resources & Cooperative Extension Acknowledgements•Idea development and review: Jason Hall, Sandra Insalaco, and Cecile Stelter – Service Foresters –Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry•Review: James Finley, The Pennsylvania State University School of Forest Resources & CooperativeExtension•Images provided courtesy of Virginia Tech & The University of Wisconsin.•Line art courtesy of The Pennsylvania State University College of Agricultural Sciences and thePennsylvania 4-H Program References•Common Trees of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Bureau ofForestry•The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees Eastern Region, Knolph, Alfred A. Inc.1980•Virginia Tech Dendrological Web Page, www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/main.html•University of Wisconsin, botanical images, www.wisc.edu/botit/dendrology/names.html•Textbook of Dendrology. Harlow, Harrar & White. 1978. McGraw-Hill Book Company•Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Dirr. Penn State is committed to affirmative action, equal opportunity, and the diversity of its workforce . © The Pennsylvania State University, 2009
  109. 109. Sanford S. Smith (“Sandy”)sss5@psu.edu1-800-235-9473
  110. 110. Penn State is committed to affirmativeaction, equal opportunity, and thediversity of its workforce

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