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How to use a Digital Camera

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Photo Research

  1. 1. YOUR NAME: Mike Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 LEARNING ACTIVITY 03 How to use a Digital Camera 1. Why go digital? What are some of the reasons to use digital photographs?• Going digital saves you money in the long run since you dont have to buy rolls of film and pay for their development and printing.• It saves you time because you dont have to make two trips to the store to drop off and then pick up your pictures (although you can do this with the memory card).• Digital cameras instantly show you how your pictures look so youll no longer have those disappointments a day or two later when your film is developed.• You can view images before they are printed and if you dont like what you see, edit them to perfection or save money by deleting or not printing them.• Digital photography doesnt use the toxic chemicals that often end up flowing down the drain and into our streams, rivers, and lakes.• No more waiting to finish a roll before having it processed. (Or wasting unexposed film when you cant wait.)• Many digital cameras are able to capture not only still photographs, but also sound and even video—they are as much multimedia recorders as they are cameras.• You can use a photo-editing program to improve or alter digital images. For example, you can crop them, remove red-eye, change colours or contrast, and even add and delete elements. Its like having a darkroom with the lights on and without the chemicals. Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 1
  2. 2. 2. What is a digital photograph? What are Pixels?A digital photo is made up of a series of pixels (picture elements). Most of today’sdigital photos use a “24 bit RGB” system to colour each pixel. This means that eachpixel has a 256 colour gradation of red, green and blue. For instance the colourorange is 255 Red, 102 Green and 0 Blue and light pink is 255 Red, 153 Green and204 Blue. This system can produce 16 million colours which approximates what thehuman eye can perceive. To confuse things, many modern computers will show ascreen colour of “32 bit” – this is just 24 bit RGB plus an alpha (transparency)channel. Older computers will generally show their highest setting as 24 bit(Truecolor). Either way, to properly view your 24 bit RGB digital images, you shouldhave your computer set to either 24 or 32 bit (whatever highest display setting isoffered). For more information about different modes of colour see the pageabout Digital Colour Models.The dimensions of a digital photo are expressed in terms of its pixels, for instance“800 x 600” or “1520 x 1280” where the first number is the width of the photo andthe second number the height of the photo. The term pixel is also used for the imagesensor elements on a digital camera. 3. What is the relationship between the number of pixels and quality of the image?Resolution of a Digital ImageAs noted above, the "size" of a digital image is its total number of pixels, expressed asmegapixels and this size is the resolution of the image. But why is the total number ofpixels a measure of "resolution"? The reason is that more pixels over a fixed field ofview equal higher resolution. For instance, if the field of view is 20 feet across, a 3megapixel camera will be resolving that view at 102 pixels per foot. If that same shotwas taken with an 18 MP camera it would be resolving that view at 259 pixels perfoot, 2.5 times more resolution than a 3 MP camera.Quality of a Digital ImageThe resolution of a digital image is one of several factors that determine the quality ofa digital photo. There are four main factors that work together to create digital photoquality:Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 2
  3. 3. The quality of the recording device (cameras optics & sensor, scanners sensor).The size (in pixels) of the digital image.The digital format it is stored in (lossless vs. lossy compression).The technical proficiency and the "eye" of the photographer.These factors all work together and its why we cant overly generalize. This isespecially true when it comes to printing digital photos and why there is so muchdiscussion about how many pixels per inch are required to achieve "photographicquality." An 8 MP photo taken with an inexpensive compact camera at high ISO andstored as a moderately compressed JPEG and then printed at 300 pixels per inch isgoing to look a lot worse than an 8 MP photo taken with a high quality digital SLR,stored as a TIF or low compressed JPEG and printed at 200 pixels per inch. three steps of digital photographyExplain the three basic steps involved in creating and using digital photographs andbriefly give examples.Digital cameras are just one link in a long chain leading from the original scenethrough to the final image that you display or distribute. In fact, a digital camera isnteven an absolutely necessary link in the chain. The key element in digital photographyis an image in a digital format made up pixels. Although a digital camera capturesphotos in this digital format, you can also scan slides, negatives, or prints to convertthese traditional images into the same digital format.To understand how the camera fits in with other parts of the digital photographysystem, it helps to understand the three basic steps involved in creating and usingdigital photographs-input, processing, and output. 4. Step 1. Inputting photographsInput devices get photographs or other data into a computer system. The input deviceyoure probably most familiar with is the keyboard. However, there are hundreds ofother input devices including mice, touch pads, voice recognition systems, scanners,and so on. Here are some of the input devices you can use to create digitalphotographs:Digital still cameras capture photographs in a digital format.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 3
  4. 4. Film cameras capture photographs on slides, negatives, or prints which you can thenscan to convert them to digital photographs.Video cameras capture images in a video format. You can then use a frame grabber toisolate out individual frames and save them as still images.Digital video cameras sometimes are able to capture still images just like a digital still.You can also use a video-editing card to extract still images from the digital video. 5. Step 2. Processing photographsOnce a photograph is in digital form, you can store it on your system and then edit ormanipulate it with a photo-editing program such as Photoshop. The things you can doto a digital image are almost endless. In some cases you improve an image byeliminating or reducing its flaws. In other cases, you adjust an image for otherpurposes, perhaps to make it smaller for e-mailing or posting on a Web site. Finally,you might take an image to a new place, making it something it never was. Here arejust a few of the ways you can process images: • Crop the photograph to emphasize the key part. • Reduce the number of pixels in an image to make it smaller for posting on the Web or e-mailing. • Use filters to sharpen it or even make it look like a watercolour or oil painting. • Stitch together multiple frames to create panoramas. • Merge two images to create a 3D stereo effect, or an animated image for display on the Web. • Change brightness and contrast to improve the image. • Cut and paste parts of one image into another to create a photo montage. • Convert the photograph to another format. 6. Step 3. Outputting photographsOnce an image is the way you want it, you can output it to share with others. Thereare lots of ways to display and distribute digital photographs. Here are some of themost popular ways:1. Print the image on a colour printer or send it to an on-line service to print it onsilver-based paper just like that used with film cameras.2. Insert the photograph into a word processing or desktop publishing document.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 4
  5. 5. 3. Post the photograph on a Web site or a photo network.4. E-mail the photograph to friends or family members.5. Send the photo to a service on the Web for specialty printing onto T-shirts, posters,key rings, mouse pads, even cakes and cookies.6. Store the photograph on your system for later use.7. Use a film recorder to convert the photograph into a slide that you can project witha slide projector. 7. How a digital camera works? How similar is a digital camera to a traditional camera?Digital cameras are very much like all earlier cameras. Beginning with the very firstcamera all have been basically black boxes with a lens to gather the light, a wheel youturned to focus the image, an aperture that determines how bright the light is, and ashutter that determines how long the light enters.The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how theycapture the image. Instead of film, digital cameras use a solid-state device called animage sensor. In some digital cameras the image sensor is a charge-coupled device(CCD), while in others its a CMOS sensor. Both types can give very good results. Onthe surface of these fingernail-sized silicon chips are millions of photosensitive diodes,each of which captures a single pixel in the photograph to be.When you take a picture the shutter opens briefly and each pixel on the image sensorrecords the brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating an electrical charge.The more light that hits a pixel, the higher the charge it records. Pixels capturing lightfrom highlights in the scene will have high charges. Those capturing light fromshadows will have low charges.After the shutter closes to end the exposure, the charge from each pixel is measuredand converted into a digital number. This series of numbers is then used toreconstruct the image by setting the colour and brightness of matching pixels on thescreen or printed page. lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 5
  6. 6. 8. What is hand-colouring? What is the history behind hand colouring? Why was it used?Hand-colouring has been used to add colour since the invention of photography.Used primarily to add colour to black and white formal portraits, hand-colouring forthis purpose went into a serious decline in the 1950s. This co-incited, notsurprisingly, with the emergence of colour photography in the 1950s.Still, the art form survived to re-emerge in the 1960s. It soon became part of themainstream advertising and fashion photography of the time when it was rediscoveredby a new generation of photographers, primarily in the United States.The medium makes a serious statement against the use of "cold" computermanipulation. Those in the computer industry who makes a living doing this willprobably differ from this standpoint, and I respect that. Theres a market out there forcomputer manipulated stuff. Hell, I even manipulate the pics on these web pages sothat they look the same on screen as in real life!What hand-colouring offers is not so much the versatility of Photoshop of Paint ShopPro in terms of the possible effects these programs can produce, but rather the abilityto fine-tune colour and effects to a degree that Im not sure is possible in the digitalmedia.As such, it is infinitely more satisfying to me to see a picture shape before my eyes. Itis probably far more relaxing and less frustrating than working on screen, having toprint an image later and only then being able to see whether your work of art is thesame that on the screen.The TechniqueThere are very few art forms that include so many disciplines as hand-tinting. Problemis, you unfortunately have to be pretty damn good at all of them to have satisfactoryresults. They are: • Creating an arresting photographic image • Stunning printing • Subtle toning • Selective oil applicationCreating an arresting image Think through your lens. When you take a picture,think about the fact that you will add colour to it later. Decide whether theresanything in there worth colouring later before you take the shot. Hand-colouringdoesnt fit any picture - you have to have the right surfaces in the shot to take colour.For instance, if the shot is dark, in other words having very few light sections, yourcolour simply wont show.Stunning printing some books advocate dark, dramatic prints. I dont like them forthe very reason described above. Lighter areas colour better, so dont overdo it on thecontrast bit. I tend to go for a grade 2 filter as a standard for my shots. Make sureyour hands are perfectly dry when handling unexposed paper, as the toning processlater enhances any chemical smudges on the white edges.Subtle toning Toning with an off-the-shelf toning kit works perfectly fine providedyou use the right paper. RC (resin-coated) papers doesnt colour very easily. UseCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 6
  7. 7. fibre-based (FB) paper as they tone better and offer more grip for your oils. Also dontoverdo the toning, as the brown hue can be overpowering. Be prepared toexperiment. Do more than one print of one frame, using one as a back-up, toning itless and also colouring it differently as a comparison.Selective oil application this section is entirely up to you and your taste. Thebeauty of using colouring oils is that you can wipe the whole lot off and start again ifyoure not happy. But always "under-colour" - that is stop before you spoil the printwith too much colour. But thats my preference. Play around. Its safe. But only aslong as you restrict you’re playing to painting! of digital cameras 9. Point and shoot camerasA point-and-shoot camera, also called a compact camera, is a still cameradesigned primarily for simple operation. Most use focus free lenses or autofocusfor focusing, automatic systems for setting the exposure options, and have flash unitsbuilt in. 10. Prosumer camerasThe term "prosumer" is a cross between professional and consumer. When a camerais dubbed a prosumer model, it usually refers to a point-and-shoot that has advancedfeatures such as manual exposure control and RAW format image capture. Suchcameras are usually targeted at enthusiasts. 11. Professional CamerasProfessional DSLR cameras are not for the casual photographer; they are designedfor those who shoot photos for news stories, or of sports or wildlife for a living.Theyre not just for professionals, but also the hard rain-or-shine shutterbugs thatrefuse to leave the house without a camera. Although these advanced cameras aremore expensive than most digital cameras, they are a great investment in the longrun.Here are some benefits to owning a professional DSLR camera: • More creative control: These cameras include a broad array of manual settings, allowing photographers to frame pictures exactly as they want to. Professional DSLR users love to have the option for full manual or auto focus and automated exposure settings. Although many point-and-shoot cameras have similar manual settings, these features are limited compared to those on a professional DSLR. • Faster shutter speed: All digital cameras have shutter lag, which is the time between pressing the button and the camera capturing the photograph. TheseCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 7
  8. 8. image-capturing devices have a significantly shorter shutter lag than point-and- shoot cameras do. • Interchangeable lenses: Interchangeable lenses provide photographers with more versatility, and most professional DSLR manufacturers have a wide range of lens options available for their cameras. • Viewfinder for better framing: Looking through a viewfinder rather than an LCD screen provides better framing. Cameras 12. These sorts of specialty cameras have recently come on the market. Describesome of their advantages and special features.The 3D-Cam FPV uses two cameras to generate field-sequential 3D video which iscompatible with most commercial 3D equipment. This video signal can be transmittedusing standard NTSC video transmitters and can be recorded using a standard VCR orDVD recorder. Using 3D capable video glasses (like the EVG920 we are offering toour customers) or LCD shutter glasses and a CRT (or 120Hz LCD) allows viewers toexperience the scene in life-like 3D. The depth perception provided by this 3Dtechnology is a real asset when piloting aircraft remotely.The 3D-Cam FPV comes with sophisticated software which allows the FPV flier to setcertain parameters like Exposure and 3D convergence even in flight. Imagine that youare flying late in the evening when the sun is really low on orbit. Flying toward the sunis a real challenge because with most of the cameras the ground becomes very dark.With the 3D-Cam FPV you just turn toward the ground, the AGC will react and lit theground up; you flip a switch to lock in the Exposure and from there on your groundare clearly lit.3D viewing is not much help when you are very high above the ground, but when youare coming in for landing - or you are flying close to trees, bushes, objects - it can bea real bonus. The depth of the 3D viewing (convergence) can also be adjusted in flight- as well as you can switch between 2D and 3D modes in flight. All is required anempty channel on your receiver.The 2 cameras are at a 65mm distance which corresponds to the standard distance ofthe human eye. OPTIO WG-1 BLACK 14MPH2O/COLD/SHOCK/CRUSH P Waterproof (33),Shockproof (5), Coldproof (-10 degrees C), Crushproof (100 KGF) 5x zoom and 2.7LCD display 720p HD video and HDMI connection 1/2.3 CCD Image Sensor Digitalshake reduction Digital Microscope mode SD/SDHC/SDXC memory card slot IncludesUSB cable I-USB7, AV cable I-AVC7, rechargeable Li-Ion battery D-LI92, batterycharger kit K-BC92U, strap O-ST118, macro stand O-MS1 and Software CD-ROMCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 8
  9. 9. Includes USB and AV cables, Li-Ion battery D-LI92, battery charger kit, strap andmacro stand. Study Set Comes with Divers Camera and LCD Screen MonitorSpecifications: Image Device: 1/4 Inch CCD Horizontal Definition: 320 TV LinesAngular Field of View: 60 deg f=6mm Minimum Illumination: 0 Lux F/2.0Synchronization System: Internal Backlight Compensation: Auto White Balance: AutoS/N Ratio: >48dB Max Depth: Aprox. 20 meters Camera light source: Built in whiteLED light Bulbs camera viewing angle:83 degree(horizontal) / 60 degree (vertical)Waterproof Cable Length: 20 Meters Operation Temperature: -30~+50 deg C PowerSource: DC 12V Connection: RCA Dimension: 95x150x40mm (LxWxD) Cameraviewing depth: 400cm(approximate; in clear water) LCD Monitor Specifications:Screen: 7 Inch TFT LCD (16:9) LCD Screen Built into Aluminium Case Plastic FlipGuard over LCD Screen Included 20 Meter Wire Connected to Camera DC IN forConnecting to Outlet Mains for Direct Power DC OUT for Powering Camera LCD VideoIN LCD Video OUT Remote Control of LCD Screen Resolution: 480(W)xRGBx234(H)Colour System: PAL/ NTSC Power Supply: DV 12V Monitor Dimension:176x126x25.5mm (LxWxD) Approved: CE / FCC Accessories: Manual Camera WeightPower Adapter 20 Meter Wire Spool Heavy Duty Aluminium Carry Case Remote. Storage 13. Describe how digital cameras store their images.How does my digital camera store the pictures I take?Your digital camera stores the pictures you take on the memory card. So remember,the light comes through the lens, through the computer in the camera, and off to thememory card. The camera creates a folder in the memory card. So, when you takethe memory card out of the camera, put it into your computer into the card reader,the first thing youll see is the DCIM folder, and youll click on that. Then, youll clickon the next folder which will be where the actual pictures are. You click on that, andthen all the pictures will open up for you and youll get to see them.How does my digital camera compress my photos?In your digital camera, when you take a picture, the file can be quite large andcumbersome. So, the digital cameras compress the file. What that means is thatmathematically they eliminate some data, which it rebuilds again in the computer.Thats image compression. The most popular way to do compression is with a JPEGfile. Its a mathematical algorithm that preserves a great deal of the quality of yourpicture and makes a very popular file format for normal photographers to use.What are the differences between photo formats?In your digital camera you have the choice of three file formats that youre going touse. JPEG which is what I recommend for most people for most photographers. RARwhich is what serious photographer and the computer friendly people. And finally TIFCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 9
  10. 10. which use to be a big popular format but kind of fallen by the wayside today. Lets talkabout why you would use one or the other. The advantage of a JPEG file is the imagecomes right out of the camera onto the memory card. You can put it in any computeranywhere and look at it. Its really cool, because JPEGs are universal between MACand Windows. I can send a JPEG to China, Japan I dont care and everybody can lookat it as a picture. If I shot a RAR picture, the RAR picture is specific to my camera. Soif I have a Nikon D2, or a Canon 3D or whatever camera the RAR pictures I make arespecific to that camera and I must use a piece of to convert that RAR data into apicture. So if I shoot with RAR, I cant send you my file unless I work at it in thecomputer first. Thats the definition of RAR. Why is RAR better? Because in thecomputer I have the opportunity to correct the image, to make some changes to theimage without any lose in picture quality. One of the difficult things today is to makethe picture look on my screen like it does on your screen, when I send it to you, and Iknow for a fact that TIF is very difficult that way so thats why TIF is kind of going bythe wayside. RAR and JPEG are the top file formats today.How many pictures can a digital cameras memory card hold?It depends on a couple of things. Number one; how many mega pixels is the camera?Number two; how big is the memory card? And number three; what file format do youuse? And if you use the best jpeg, which Ill call JPEG Fine, the image size on thememory card is roughly half the mega pixels of your camera. So if Im in JPEG Fine,which is always where I recommend that you shoot, with an 8 mega pixel camera,that means the pictures are going to be approximately 4 megabytes on the card. If Ishoot with a raw file format, the pictures are roughly two times the mega pixels of thecamera. So if I have an 8 mega pixel camera, raw files are sixteen megabytes. If Ishoot with a TIFF, the files are roughly three times the mega pixels, so a TIFF filewould be 24 megabytes on the card. So lets say we have a 1 giga byte card, with our8 mega pixel camera, so 1 giga byte means 1,000 megabytes, so with a Fine JPEG,those pictures are 4 megabytes a piece. On our 1 giga byte card we stored 25. If weuse a raw file those pictures are 16 megabytes a piece. Were going to get about 125pictures on a 1 giga byte card. If were shooting TIFFs, theyre 24 megabytes a piece;were going to get roughly 400 pictures on a 1 giga byte card. Thats how you figureout how many pictures you get on your memory card. 14. Name some of the popular makes of Flash cards on the market. What aretheir features?Memory cards are a popular storage medium for many of todays consumerelectronics devices, including digital cameras, cell phones, handheld devices and othersmall electronic devices. Flash memory is non-volatile, which is the memory card willnot lose its data when removed from the device, and the cards can also be erased orreformatted and reused.For most consumers, when buying a memory card you have to consider price,capacity and compatibility. Some devices will support up to a specific size of memorycard, and a specific type of memory card as well. It’s important to read theinformation that came with your device to ensure you purchase a memory card thatwill work in your device.SponsoredIs your network ready for the cloud? Find out: read “Five Reasons ClassicEthernet Switches Wont Support the Cloud” and learn how to examine your network’sstrength and eliminate any weak points.There are a few major types of memory cards that can be used in commonCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 10
  11. 11. electronics, such as a digital camera. Each of these types of memory cards are different sizes and, as the technology progresses further, we see that over time the cards have become smaller in physical size but grow larger in logical size. Common Types of Memory Cards PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) The PCMCIA standard has been expanded several times and are suitable for many types of devices. There are three types of PCMCIA cards. All three have the same rectangular size (85.6 by 54 millimetres), but different widths:• Type I cards can be up to 3.3 mm thick, and are used primarily for adding additional ROM or RAM to a computer.• Type II cards can be up to 5.5 mm thick. These cards are often used for modem and fax modem cards.• Type III cards can be up to 10.5 mm thick, which is sufficiently large for portable disk drives. CompactFlash (CF) Invented by SanDisk Corporation in 1994, CompactFlash cards can support 3.3V and 5V operation and can switch between the two, in contrast to other small-form factor flash memory cards that can operate only at one voltage. The card was designed based on the PCMCIA PC Card standard and can fit into a PCMCIA slot with an adapter. There are two types of CompactFlash cards to accommodate different capacities:• Type I cards are 42.8mm x 36.4mm x 3.3 mm thick• Type II cards are 42.8mm x 36.4mm x 5.5 mm thick. Secure Digital Card (SD card) SD cards are used in many small portable devices such as digital video camcorders, digital cameras, handheld computers, audio players and mobile phones. In use since 1999, SD Memory Cards are now available in capacities between 16 Megabytes and 1 Gigabyte, and still growing. An SD card typically measures 32 mm x 24 mm x 2.1 mm and weighs approximately 2grams. MiniSD Card After the success of the SD Card (Secure Digital Card), the miniSD Memory Card was developed to meet the demands of the mobile phone market. The MiniSD Card provides the same benefits as the SD Card, but is smaller than the original SD Card. MiniSD Cards are typically found in many newer mobile phones with features such as built-in digital cameras, downloading and games, basically the mobile phones where the miniSD can meet the requirements for increased data storage. MiniSD cards are 21.5 mm x 20 mm x 1.4 mm and generally provide 16MB to 256MB of storage. MicroSD Mainly used in mobile phones and other small handheld devices the MicroSD format is currently available in capacities up to 4GB, and it roughly 1/4th the size of the SD card at 15mm W 11mm W 0.7mm. The MicroSD card is also the smallest memory card available. Card adapters can be purchased that enable backwards compatibility — this would allow MicroSD cards to work in SD and MiniSD slots, and also for MicroSD cards to work in SD card slots. Multimedia Card (MMC) The Multimedia Card (MMC) standard was introduced by SanDisk and Siemens in 1997. The card itself is 32 mm x 24 mm x 1.4mm and is often used in place of the SD card. Transfer speeds of a MMC are around 2.5MB/s and they can often be used in SD Card readers. Sony Memory Sticks Sony Memory Sticks are light, compact and designed for a wide variety of devices including digital cameras, recorders, and more. With the use of an adapter most Sony Memory Sticks can be used with almost all Memory Stick PRO compatible products. Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 11
  12. 12. • Memory Stick Micro (M2): 15 mm x 12.5 mm x 1.2 mm• Memory Stick PRO: 50 mm x 21.5 mm x 2.8 mm. The Memory Stick PRO format has an 8-bit parallel interface with theoretical transfer rates up to 480Mb/s. It is commonly used in high megapixel digital cameras and digital camcorders.• Memory Stick PRO DUO: 31 mm x 20 mm x 1.6 mm. The Memory Stick PRO Duo media is about one-third the volume and half the weight of standard-size media, but offers all the advanced functions of Memory Stick PRO media. Smart Media Introduced by Toshiba in 1995 the Smart Media cards are now considered obsolete despite its popular usage for five years. Smart Media cards are 45 mm x 37 mm x 0.76 mm and could be found in their peak times in 16MB, 32MB, and 128MB versions. Even as an obsolete card, it is still sought after by users of older devices which cannot use memory cards larger than 128MB. XD-Picture Card Abbreviated as XD (Extreme Digital), the xD-Picture Card is a type of removable flash memory designed for use in digital cameras. The XD is ultra-compact with its size of 20mm x 25mm x 1.7mm. The xD-Picture Card was developed by Fuji film and Olympus and is used in many models of digital cameras made by Olympus and Fujifilm. Lifespan and Care Tips Memory cards are quite sturdy and you can expect cards to be capable of working through more than one million data write/read/erase cycles. The card itself has its weakest point at its socket connectors, which are used when you remove and reinsert the memory card into a device. You can expect a memory card to be capable of withstanding around 10,000 insertions. These numbers, of course, will differ slightly between manufacturers. Like with any consumer electronic or device, proper care is required by the users to meet the lifespan of the device. You should avoid applying too much pressure on your memory cards, and never drop or bend the card either. When the correct memory card is being used in a device, it will fit into the slot only in one direction and it will easily slide and click into place. You should never have to apply any amount of pressure to make the card fit. Memory cards should also be kept away from electrostatic sources and should never be introduced to direct sunlight or extreme ranges of temperatures. Lastly, damaging the card or the data contained on it can happen if you try to eject the card from the device or card reader, or if you try and turn the device off while you are transferring the data to or from the memory card. So definitely avoid doing that to protect your data and card it. s.asp Memory Cards - Info About Different Types The different types of flash memory cards for use in digital cameras are: Secure Digital (SD), CompactFlash (CF), Memory Stick (MS), Multimedia Card (MMC) xD- Picture Card (XD) and Smart Media (SM).The type of memory card you use is dictated by which digital camera you buy. These cards are physically different and are -not- interchangeable. NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE --- NOTE eBay has become notorious for "fake memory card" sales, thousands of people have been scammed by sellers who are selling inferior or lower capacity cards that have been relabeled and repackaged to look like the real thing. Buyers beware - I Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 12
  13. 13. recommend that you purchase your cards only from reputable online vendors or brickand mortar stores. If you must buy on eBay then check out this page for ways to visually identify some (not all) of the most popularfake cards.High-Capacity CF & SD CardsTodays choices in flash memory storage devices for digital cameras and other devicesare mind-boggling. Its no wonder the consumer is totally confused. Just figuringout which options your camera should have is tough enough. Then you discover thatthere are all kinds of memory storage options -- Smart Media (SM), CompactFlash(CF), Memory Stick (MS), Multimedia Card (MMC), Secure Digital (SD), eXtremeDigital (XD), Microdrive ... and none of them are compatible with the others. Onlyrecently have Secure Digital, Memory Stick and XD cards gotten above the 1GBcapacity mark --CompactFlash (CF) devices offer capacities of up to 12 Gigabytes,theyre the main focus of this report. We are also expanding our SD card coverage -SD cards are now the most popular flash media type and getting bigger (up to 32GB)and faster (up to 150x speed and beyond) all the time! images, what to plug in 15. Explain the process of downloading? What are some of ways of transferringimages to the computer?Copying Pictures from your digital camera to your computerSTOP: Before you go any further, you need to know the basics of how yourcomputer stores and organizes files. This topic is not a “camera” topic; it’s areally important part of understanding your computer. There are several excellentexplanations in your computer’s Windows HELP files, and the Windows forDummies book series explains files very well.To your computer, that beautiful picture you took is a file made up of 0s and 1s.Before you can do anything with that picture, you want to get that file onto the harddrive.The process can be called “uploading” or “downloading” but it’s really just a processof copying the computer file(s) from your camera to your computer.Copying pictures from camera to computer using Windows XP 1. DO NOT USE THE SOFTWARE PACKAGED WITH YOUR CAMERA. 2. The easiest program to copy picture files from one place to another came with your computer. It’s called “My Computer” 3. Turn off your camera and remove the memory card.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 13
  14. 14. 4. Insert the memory card in a card reader, either one that’s built into the computer or a separate one. 5. To open My Computer, click Start, and then click My Computer 6. The memory card shows up as a removable disk in “My Computer” 7. Left click on that removable disk to find a folder called DCIM (Digital Camera Images) 8. The files in that folder are your pictures, and their names end in “jpg” 9. Copy those files by selecting them and copying them. The keyboard shortcut (control-A) marks all the photos in a folder and the keyboard shortcut (control- C) copies them to the computer’s clipboard. 10.Navigate to the folder within “My Documents” named “My Pictures” and paste (control-V) your photos into place. 11.Learn how to make new subfolders within the master folder “My Pictures” so that it’s easier to find a photo you want. I make up folders with names like “2007March” and divide my photos by the month taken. 12.After you copy files or folders to the hard drive, it is useful to view the hard drive to confirm that the files are copied. 13.Do not erase photos from your memory card until you are positive you’ve saved them on the hard drive!Using the camera as a source, instead of a card reader (but we really, really suggestusing a card reader) • You can copy photo files directly from your camera to the computer. Use the USB cable that came with the camera. • Very important: make sure that your batteries have a full charge before you start this procedure. • If the power fails during the transfer, data will be corrupted. • Be very careful when inserting the USB cable connector into the socket of the camera. This is one of the most fragile components of the camera and we have seen cameras damaged by carelessness. • After you copy files or folders to the hard drive, it is useful to view the hard drive to confirm that the files are copied. • For the greatest safety of your irreplaceable images, make a second copy on CD, DVD or detachable hard drive. lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 14
  15. 15. Image Sensors 16. In your own words, what is resolution? Describe the importance of imagequality.Resolution is the number of pixels used to display an image. The higher the resolutionis the more pixels it will have making it a clearer and better picture. 17. What is a megapixel? How does it relate to the quality of the photo?A megapixel is equal to one million pixels. The higher the megapixel would result in abetter image resolution.Digital camera file formats 18. Summarise in your own words some of the basic formats your digital cameraoffers and why would you choose them.Some of the basic formats that my digital camera offers include: • Setting the still image size • Image size and quality • Deleting images • Viewing images on the screen of the camera • Viewing images on a TV screen • Exposure, Focus, Flash, Color, Burst, Zoom, Shutter speed and aperture • Video recording • Date, Time, Self-Timer • Twilight, Portrait and Landscape modes • Connecting the camera to a printerI would choose all different formats for different photo shots and once I work out mycamera I will be able to elaborate more.Preview screens & viewfinders 19. What is the difference between a preview screen and a viewfinder? What arethe advantages and disadvantages of each?Traditional cameras use viewfinders which allow you to set up your shot and, in thecase of Single Lens Reflex (SLR) cameras, focus your subject.Viewfinders can also be found on digital cameras, but in addition, almost every digitalcamera is equipped with a LCD preview screen.The preview screen can also be used to set up shots, so you may be wondering whyboth are needed. The simple reason is that the preview screen consumes batterypower, so if you want to extend your battery life use the viewfinder instead of thepreview screen for composing shots.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 15
  16. 16. Another reason for using the viewfinder is that LCD screens can be difficult to see inbright sunlight. There are many other uses for preview screens, however, and theyare essential for most digital photographers.Preview ScreensIf you are running out of space on your memory card and wish to take a few shotsmore, previewing saved images allows you to pick out pictures which can be deleted.Some cameras have a thumbnail function which allows you to view many shots atonce. This makes it easy to zero in on one particular photograph.For those who print pictures directly from the camera, the preview screen allows youto select which picture should be printed. Some cameras even have basic editingfunctions which allow you to crop images and adjust colour and brightness beforeprinting them. These functions can be accessed with the LCD preview screen.ViewfinderIf your digital camera has a traditional style viewfinder, it should be used for most ofyour picture taking. As we mentioned above, using the viewfinder instead of the LCDpreview screen will save on battery power. It will also allow you to hold the camerasteadier and move the camera smoothly for action shots. Photographers who wearglasses can get a camera with a dioptre adjustment -- this adjusts the lens of theviewfinder so that you dont have to wear glasses when shooting pictures.There are some situations, however, when using the preview screen instead of theviewfinder is recommended.The viewfinder is slightly offset from the lens. In most situations this is not a problem,but for close-up shots there can be a noticeable difference between what the lens seesand what the viewfinder sees. The preview screen allows you to precisely composeclose-up shots because it shows exactly what the lens sees.Another time it is better to use the preview screen is when shooting objects close tothe ground. This saves you from having to get into an awkward position in order toset up the shot.Through the Lens ViewfinderSome of the more expensive digital cameras have a viewfinder which is connected tothe lens with a prism. This allows you to see exactly what the lens sees. A variation onthis type of viewfinder is the electronic viewfinder (EVF). This is a miniature LCDdisplay which collects light from the lens area. As you are setting up a shot you canalso see all of the cameras menus. This lets you change camera settings as you areviewing a scene for immediate feedback. Used in conjunction with a dioptreadjustment, this saves the photographer using reading glasses in order to adjust thecamera."LIVE VIEW" means you can see the scene as it happens through the liquid crystalscreen of the digital camera.In some point and shoot cameras there is no optical viewfinder to see through, soyour only view is the LCD screen. In this case live view is necessary.In cameras with an optical viewfinder, such as a DSLR - digital single lens reflexcamera, live view is not absolutely necessary.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 16
  17. 17. As for the Advantages:~ For macro shots - close up actual or larger size photos- live view shows exactlywhat will be in the photo.~ When the camera is mounted on a tripod, you can watch the led screen withoutputting an eye up to the camera and more easily use a remote shutter release.~ By watching the led screen, it is not necessary to put the camera up to your eye,and children usually do not know you are taking their picture. This can give morespontaneous results.~ When focusing without actually shooting, you can be sure of the focus by watchinglive view. If there is a failure to focus, it will show up.~ With live view you can see the scene the way the camera sensor sees it.As for the Disadvantages;if live view shows on the led screen, battery life will be shorter as the led screen willdraw more power when lit.If you are presbyopia or have a full correction for myopia with glasses or contactlenses, you may not be able to see the led screen close up.The led screen may not be visible in full sunlight.Some but not all cameras have problems with the picture sensor overheating whileusing live view.Finally, many aspiring photographers consider using live view less skilful or "lessprofessional" than using the optical viewfinder. This could be considered a matter ofpreference. Flash 20. Explain the different flash modes on the digital camera. Automatic ModeI suspect no one will need any introduction to this mode (as it seems most digitalcamera owners use it). Auto mode tells your camera to use its best judgement toselect shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance, focus and flash to take the bestshot that it can. With some cameras auto mode lets you override flash or change it tored eye reduction. This mode will give you nice results in many shooting conditions,however you need to keep in mind that you’re not telling your camera any extrainformation about the type of shot you’re taking so it will be ‘guessing’ as to what youwant. As a result some of the following modes might be more appropriate to select asthey give your camera a few more hints (without you needing to do anything more).Read more: Portrait ModeWhen you switch to portrait mode your camera will automatically select a largeaperture (small number) which helps to keep your background out of focus (i.e. it setsa narrow depth of field – ensuring your subject is the only thing in focus and isCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 17
  18. 18. therefore the centre of attention in the shot). Portrait mode works best when you’rephotographing a single subject so get in close enough to your subject (either byzooming in or walking closer) so that your photographing the head and shoulders ofthem). Also if you’re shooting into the sun you might want to trigger your flash to adda little light onto their faceRead more: Macro ModeMacro mode lets you move you’re closer into your subject to take a close up picture.It’s great for shooting flowers, insects or other small objects. Different digital cameraswill have macro modes with different capabilities including different focussingdistances (usually between 2-10cm for point and shoot cameras). When you usemacro mode you’ll notice that focussing is more difficult as at short distances thedepth of field is very narrow (just millimetres at times). Keep your camera and theobject you’re photographing parallel if possible or you’ll find a lot of it will be out offocus. You’ll probably also find that you won’t want to use your camera’s built in flashwhen photographing close up objects or they’ll be burnt out. Lastly – a tripod isinvaluable in macro shots as the depth of field is so small that even moving towardsor away from your subject slightly can make your subject out of focus.Read more: Landscape ModeThis mode is almost the exact opposite of portrait mode in that it sets the camera upwith a small aperture (large number) to make sure as much of the scene you’rephotographing will be in focus as possible (i.e. it give you a large depth of field). It’stherefore ideal for capturing shots of wide scenes, particularly those with points ofinterest at different distances from the camera. At times your camera might alsoselect a slower shutter speed in this mode (to compensate for the small aperture) soyou might want to consider a tripod or other method of ensuring your camera is still.Read more: Sports ModeCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 18
  19. 19. Photographing moving objects is what sports mode (also called ‘action mode’ in somecameras) is designed for. It is ideal for photographing any moving objects includingpeople playing sports, pets, cars, wildlife etc. Sports mode attempts to freeze theaction by increasing the shutter speed. When photographing fast moving subjects youcan also increase your chances of capturing them with panning of your camera alongwith the subject and/or by attempting to pre focus your camera on a spot where thesubject will be when you want to photograph it (this takes practice).Read more: Night ModeThis is a really fun mode to play around with and can create some wonderfullycolourful and interesting shots. Night mode (a technique also called ‘slow shuttersync’) is for shooting in low light situations and sets your camera to use a longershutter speed to help capture details of the background but it also fires off a flash toilluminate the foreground (and subject). If you use this mode for a ‘serious’ or well-balanced shot you should use a tripod or your background will be blurred – howeverit’s also fun to take shots with this handheld to purposely blur your backgrounds –especially when there is a situation with lights behind your subject as it can give a funand experimental look (great for parties and dance floors with coloured lights).Read more: Movie ModeThis mode extends your digital camera from just capturing still images to capturingmoving ones. Most new digital cameras these days come with a movie mode thatrecords both video but also sound. The quality is generally not up to video camerastandards but it’s a handy mode to have when you come across that perfect subjectthat just can’t be captured with a still image. Keep in mind that moving images takeup significantly more space on your memory storage than still images.Other less common modes that I’ve seen on digital cameras over the past yearinclude: • Panoramic/Stitch Mode – for taking shots of a panoramic scene to be joined together later as one image. • Snow Mode – to help with tricky bright lighting at the snow • Fireworks Mode - for shooting firework displaysCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 19
  20. 20. • Kids and Pets Mode – fast moving objects can be tricky – this mode seems to speed up shutter speed and help reduce shutter lag with some pre focussing • Underwater Mode – underwater photography has its own unique set of exposure requirements • Beach Mode – another bright scene mode • Indoor Mode – helps with setting shutter speed and white balance • Foliage Mode - boosts saturation to give nice bold colours Semi-Automatic Modes Aperture Priority Mode (A or AV)This mode is really a semi-automatic (or semi-manual) mode where you choose theaperture and where your camera chooses the other settings (shutter speed, whitebalance, ISO etc.) so as to ensure you have a well-balanced exposure. Aperturepriority mode is useful when you’re looking to control the depth of field in a shot(usually a stationary object where you don’t need to control shutter speed). Choosinga larger number aperture means the aperture (or the opening in your camera whenshooting) is smaller and lets less light in. This means you’ll have a larger depth of field(more of the scene will be in focus) but that your camera will choose a slower shutterspeed. Small numbers means the opposite (i.e. your aperture is large, depth of fieldwill be small and your camera will probably choose a faster shutter speed). Shutter Priority Mode (S or TV)Shutter priority is very similar to aperture priority mode but is the mode where youselect a shutter speed and the camera then chooses all of the other settings. Youwould use this mode where you want to control over shutter speed (obviously). Forexample when photographing moving subjects (like sports) you might want to choosea fast shutter speed to freeze the motion. On the flip-side of this you might want tocapture the movement as a blur of a subject like a waterfall and choose a slow shutterspeed. You might also choose a slow shutter speed in lower light situations. Program Mode (P)Some digital cameras have this priority mode in addition to auto mode (in a fewcameras Program mode IS full Auto mode… confusing isn’t it!). In those cameras thathave both, Program mode is similar to Auto but gives you a little more control oversome other features including flash, white balance, ISO etc. Check your digitalcamera’s manual for how the Program mode differs from Automatic in your particularmodel. Fully Manual Mode Manual ModeCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 20
  21. 21. In this mode you have full control over your camera and need to think about all settings including shutter speed, aperture, ISO, white balance, flash etc. It gives you the flexibility to set your shots up as you wish. Of course you also need to have some idea of what you’re doing in manual mode so most digital camera owners that I have anything to do with tend to stick to one of the priority modes. Read more: Batteries 21. Explain the different types of batteries available for digital cameras. The Different Types of Batteries for Your Digital Camera Most digital cameras accept standard AA batteries, but you have options in what kind of AA batteries you use. Disposable batteries, rechargeable batteries, and even battery packs can get your camera snapping photos. You just need to decide what kind of battery would work best for you: • Alkaline batteries: These traditional batteries usually have a pretty short life in a digital camera. • Lithium batteries: Tend to last longer than other battery types. They also handle cold weather better. • Rechargeable batteries: Choose nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries if you can because they have more power, are safer for the environment, and have several technical advantages over other types. You can also use lithium-ion (Li-Ion) rechargeable batteries, which usually last for a couple hundred shots. This figure shows both types of rechargeable batteries.Of course, rechargeable batteries need a battery charger. You can use a battery chargerthat plugs into a standard wall socket or one that’s solar-powered. • Battery pack: Some cameras can be fitted with an add-on battery pack (as shown in this figure) that fits under the camera body and holds two more batteries (increasing the length of your batteries’ life). your-digital-.html 22. What do these icons mean? Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 21
  22. 22. Battery is full. Battery is low and needs to be charged soon.Software 23. Describe some of the software that comes with the digital camera.Many digital cameras come with digital photography software that allows for photomanipulation, slide show creation, and e-mail capability. and Photo Editing Special Purpose Software: Best ToolsImage editors and workflow suites will do some of the functions of the software listedbelow, but if you want to take those – whether it’s an effects filter or a better way toget rid of digital noise – to new heights, that’s the time you need to call in thespecialists. Most of the developers listed below make more than one title. I’ve listedthe latest or most interesting developments for each.Nik Software Color Efex Pro 4.0 Complete EditionColor Efex Pro is a powerful visual effects generator and Version 4 has a number ofenhancements to boost its functionality even more. A new stackable feature lets youcombine filter effects and then adjust opacity to control their strength. There are anumber of new filter effects, and the effects now have pre-sets to give you a startingpoint.Underneath the software is optimized for multi-core processors and high performancegraphics chips. Nik‘s signature feature, U-Point technology is of course part of thepackage. This is like a heads-up display that overlays the effects controls onscreendirectly over the areas you want to modify. The Complete Edition ($199.95)contains 55 filters and the Select Edition ($99.95) contains 26 filters.Corel Painter 12Corel Painter 12 is the natural media specialist. It is designed to reproduce in thedigital realm the methodology of traditional visual arts – painting, drawing, etc. ItsReal Bristle brushes come very close to producing the stroke appearance of… well,real bristle brushes. New to version 12 are Real Watercolor and Real Wet Oil brushes. lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 22
  23. 23. Some other software to choose from would be Adobe Photoshop, Adobe PhotoshopElements, and Paint shop Pro.Meta Data 24. Information is recorded in a photo. Explain advantages of this and describehow you would insert this into a Photoshop file. What are tags? How can tags helpthe user?Photo metadata, simply put, is a set of data that describes various aspects of yourphoto (i.e. where it was taken, settings used, etc.).Photos without metadata are like the thousands of items at an antique market, whoseorigin and history you can only guess at. Using metadata is like adding a card next toeach item in the antique market with details such as its origin, maker, purpose, how itwas made, etc.There are two types of metadata: technical and informational.Technical metadataThe technical data (EXIF) tells you all about the settings used when you took the shot.This includes things like:  date and time  shutter speed  aperture  ISO speed  focal lengthOn most cameras, this information will automatically be added to each photo whenyou take them, so you generally don’t need to do anything to include this.Informational metadataThe informational data (IPTC, XMP and Keywords) includes things like:  name and type of subject  name of the photographer  where the photo was taken  copyright info  keywords to describe the photo  Just about anything else you can think of!This type of information isn’t automatically generated by the camera (sorry!), so you’llhave to manually enter it yourself, but making use of this information will make yourphotographic life much easier!Advantages of using metadataMetadata is written to the image file, so it stays with the image wherever it goes. Thismeans whether your email it or post it on the web, the metadata you include will beavailable for all to read (only you can decide whether that is a good thing!).There are two main advantages of using metadata:Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 23
  24. 24. 1. It helps identify you as the photographer and owner of the photo 2. It helps you find the photo again later (through keywords, and any other info you attach to the photo)An example of metadata in action Photo by Matthew FletcherAs an example, let’s take a look at the metadata embedded in the photo above of awhite-faced heron:Technical data (EXIF):  ISO Speed: 400  Focal Length: 400mm  Exposure: 1/500  F-Number: f/8Informational data:  Copyright notice (“Copyright (c) 2008 Matthew Fletcher”)  Rights usage notice (“For consideration only. No reproduction without prior permission”)  City/State (Lauderdale, Tasmania)  Country (Australia)  Keywords (white faced heron, Egretta novaehollandiae, Lauderdale Canal)By including all this metadata, I can safely post this image online or send it to afriend, bureau or magazine (because the copyright notice is included). I can alsosearch my computer for this image by using keywords I attached to the photo (i.e.“White-faced Heron” or “Australia” or “Tasmania” or “Lauderdale” or “LauderdaleCanal” or any combination of these).With so many ways to find this image, I’ll surely find it quickly and easily whenever Ineed it in the future.As an alternative to metadata, I could have simply renamed the file to “White-facedHeron” but then you wouldn’t be able to determine where the picture was taken, northe other features. And if this picture had multiple subjects, what would you call itwithout having a terribly long file name?Using metadata is the only way to attach all information about the photo.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 24
  25. 25. How to add metadata to your photosDepending on which program you use, there will be different ways of adding keywordsto your image. It may be called keywords, or tags, or simply “metadata.” Programslike Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Light room have advanced key wording andmetadata options. But you can also add keywords in programs like Apple’s iPhoto andmany others.It’s worth the extra time investment…It does take extra time to add keywords, but the small investment of time up-front iswell worth it in the future. Try it next time you import your photos or look at existingphotos, and see how metadata can work for you. Oh, and if you do go antiquing, thinkhow much easier life would be if each item included metadata! Photoshop, Click File then scroll down to ‘File info’It brings up a box to add metadata. Here you can add information like: • Document title • Author • Author title • Description • Give it a rating • Description Writer • Keywords • Copyright status and so on.I lot more information can be added just click on the top tabs then the right ones.In information systems, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to apiece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file).This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again bybrowsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by theitems creator or by its viewer, depending on the system. Flash – Kodak has now folded and no longer exists. 25. How does this impact the digital camera market?The demise of KodakEastman Kodak, a company so synonymous with the art and history of photographythat it once held a 90% share of the US film market, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcyCertificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 25
  26. 26. protection on January 19, 2012 after 123 years of trading. Despite more than 100,000creditors and debts in excess of $6.75 billion, Kodak remains in operation thanks to a$950 million, 18-month credit facility from Citigroup. However without a radicalstrategic and operational overhaul most industry analysts can’t see it surviving formuch longer.So how did such a historical company and a brand so legendary that one of its slogans“a Kodak moment” has entered the English language decline so badly? The answer israther simple: it failed to evolve with the times. Despite being an early pioneer ofdigital photography, where as recently as 2005 it was the biggest seller in the US ofdigital cameras, Kodak failed to adjust properly to the change in the market awayfrom film to digital and as a result its sales shrunk almost in half from 2005 to 2010and hasn’t posted a profit since 2004.Kodak invested heavily in digital photography but failed to benefit from its investmentas both the size of the market shrunk in the wake of launch of cell phones with thecapability to take digital photographs, and it was superseded by a large influx ofcompetitors from Asia, whom could dramatically undercut its prices. Kodak respondedby reducing the quality of its cameras and selling them at a very low profit margin,but this only made matters worse and it became so heavily inundated with complaintsthat by 2006 it withdrew from the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) andannounced that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaintssubmitted by them. The net effect of all this saw Kodak’s sales fall dramatically frombeing no 4 in the US digital camera market in 2007 to being to no 7 in 2010 with just7% of overall sales.The effects of such a decline were severe to the business and ranged from beingdelisted from the Dow Jones Industrial Average index in 2004 after 74 consecutiveyears to having to downsize over 50,000 of its workforce. In 2010 its shares tumbledalmost 90% to penny stock status which saw it delisted from the S&P 500 inDecember 2010. During 2011, Kodak was forced to utilise $160 million from a pre-existing $400 million credit line in order to continue trading and looked to raise cashby exploring the sale of more than 1,100 patents, or 10% of the companys patentportfolio, which could have the potential of generating $3 billion. Despite thesemeasures shares fell more than 80 precent and Thomson Reuters project they endboth 2011 and 2012 in the red.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 26
  27. 27. PhotographyWhat Happened ToKodak’s Moment?Lessons LearnedCompanies, especially those in tech-related industries, can certainly walk away withhow not to become obsolete, as Kodak has done.The biggest lesson to be learned from Kodak’s demise is no matter how big of acompany you are, you can never be comfortable in your niche. Companies need to beand stay innovative to stay relevant an in business. Just take a look at Apple whokeeps innovating its most popular products into better iterations of themselves. Appleis always working on new projects and looking to release game-changing devise…thatit will then perfect with various editions.In essence, even though Kodak was first at releasing the digital camera, they didn’tfollow through with their technology and was left behind. When they didn’t takeadvantage of what they had, they stopped trying. Unlike them, Apple continues tolead the market because they’re not resting on their laurels and are continuing tothink as innovators and leaders. would imagine companies such as Apple, Google, Fujifilm, Sony, Nikon and Cannonwill dominate the market as well as camera phones playing a big part as these daysyou can instantly upload your videos and photos to the World Wide Web.HDR 26. What is HDR and how can you use it in your photography or your images?Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 27
  28. 28. You might have heard the enigmatic acronym “HDR” in reference to photography. Itstands for “High Dynamic Range” and it creates photos with gorgeous, impossibledetail and clarity. Keep reading to learn more, and see how you can use it.Why Would I Even Need HDR?Cameras are limited to the amount of image detail they can record when the sensor isexposed to light. Whether you’re using the auto settings or are taking pics usingskilfully tuned manual settings, your goal is trying to take advantage of the availablelight to maximize the detail in the result image. The problem is, when you’re shootingheavy shadows and bright lights, you are forced into losing detail in one range or theother.A skilled photographer can tune her elements of exposure to achieve great detail inshadows or highlights, or choose the middle of the road, “proper” exposure solution,and lose some detail in both. Lots of detail in the shadows can give you thin, washedout highlights, while good detail in those same highlight areas will result in allshadows immediately jumping to a solid, dark black. Ordinarily, you’d want the“goldilocks” exposure that is somewhere in the middle.Using this sort of “normal” exposure, where a photographer has to make these sortsof tough decisions, is sometimes called “Standard” or “Low” Dynamic Range imaging.This is what ordinary cameras shoot, including what nearly 100% of How-To Geekreaders are likely to be using.What is High Dynamic Range Imaging?In order to avoid any confusion, it’s worth noting that there are many differentmethods of creating images that are all referred to as HDR, or High Dynamic RangeImaging. Many of these methods are very different, so it can be helpful to briefly lookat our terminology, and explain away these confusing terms that all seem to overlapeach other. Keep the following in mind when thinking of HDR: • Ordinary methods of creating images have less range than the human eye can see. These are called “Standard” or “Low Dynamic Range.” • There are methods and hacks to work around these image limits, and these methods are sometimes called HDR imaging methods. These specific methods are usually older and predate digital combination of images. • There is also High Dynamic Range image formats and colour spaces that have greater ranges of values than standard range formats, capable of capturing rich detail in shadows and highlights at once. These are also correctly called HDR, and are not the same thing as the previously mentioned methods. Normally these are captured natively, with HDR equipment. • What most modern digital photographers refer to as HDR Imaging is what we shall be focusing on today—a method of combining image data from multiple digital exposures to create one photograph with detail normally not possible.What Goes Into an HDR Image?Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 28
  29. 29. Stepping around the problems of typical standard range photography, we can think ofHDR Imaging as techniques that combine the image information from multipleexposures into one image with detail beyond the limitations of single exposures.Resourceful photographers know to use image bracketing when photographing ascene, or stopping up or stopping down the exposure in order to increase the chancesof finding that proper “goldilocks” exposure. Even though your light meter or autosetting might say that the proper exposure has been selected, taking the samecomposition multiple times with multiple aperture or shutter speed settings willgreatly boost your chances of getting that “best” image out of your shot.HDR Imaging also uses bracketing, but in a different way. Instead of shooting multipleexposures to create the best image, HDR wants to capture the maximum possibledetail throughout the whole range of light. Photographers normally faced with thechoice of losing detail in highlights and shadows can choose to bracket multipleexposures, shooting first for detail in the shadows, then for detail in the highlights,and a “goldilocks” exposure somewhere in the middle. By bracketing this way,professionals create the building blocks for their perfect image.Tonal Mapping, and Creating Rich Detail in ImagesThe basic idea of creating a combination image with multiple exposures is not new tophotography. As long as cameras have had the limitation of standard ranges, cleverphotographers have been hacking ways to create the best possible image. Brilliantphotographer Ansel Adams used dodging and burning techniques to selectively exposehis prints and create amazing rich detail in images, like the one illustrated above.When digital photography was finally viable enough to address this problem, the firstHDR file types were created. However, the HDR file types used by most photographerstoday do not use this method (i.e. capturing multiple exposures into single file,beyond the range of ordinary imaging). Most so-called “HDR” images are actuallymultiple exposures combined into an HDR image, and then Tone mapped into a singlestandard range image.Much of the true High Dynamic Range levels of detail are out of range of monitors,CMYK printers, and cameras—these ordinary mediums simply can’t create images thatcan compare to the amount of image data the human eye can capture. Tone mappingis a technique to translate colour and values from a HDR medium (for instance, aPhotoshop creation of multiple SDR exposures) and map them back into a standardmedium (like an ordinary image file). Because it is a translation, tone mapped imagesare a sort of simulation of the rich range of values in HDR file formats, despite the factthat they can create amazing detail in lights and darks simultaneously. Despite this,tone mapped images fall under the blanket of HDR techniques, and get the confusingblanket label of HDR.It is this technique that most photographers call HDR Imaging, or even HDRphotography. The reason it is more significant is because modern photo editing toolsand digital cameras make it easier than ever for home and hobby photographers tocreate these images.Creating Images with HDR Levels of DetailMany modern image editing apps have tone mapping routines for combining multipleimages and creating the best possible image out of their combination, in addition tohacks and clever ways to combine images to create rich photographs with excellentdetail. These methods, some of which HTG will cover in future photography articles,are possible with Photoshop, and even with free software like GIMP or Paint.NET. Youcan create multiple exposures, high-detail photography by:Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 29
  30. 30. • Combining multiple exposures with software like Photo matrix or Photoshop’s HDR Pro, and tone mapping the image. • Combining multiple exposures using combinations of blending methods in multiple layers in powerful image editors like GIMP. • Manually merging high detail areas of images with layer masks, erasers, and dodging and burning in programs like Photoshop or Paint.NET. the above questions. Save your file as photo_research.doc. In Moodle,upload to the Assignment page. Any questions? Go to the Technology 3 > FAQForum.Certificate lll Graphic Pre-press (ICP30210) TECHNOLOGY 3 Version: 17/02/12 30