History of paper


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History of paper

  1. 1. History of PaperOf all the writing materials mankind has employed down through the ages, paper has becomethe most widely used around the world. Paper has a long history stretching back to ancientEgypt in the third millennium BC.Although our paper may not be recognisable to the Pharaohs, paper has retained its essentialcharacteristics down through the ages and todays diverse offerings remain as natural, essentialand precious as ever.The word ‘paper is derived from papyrus, a plant that was once abundant in Egypt and whichwas used to produce a thick, paper-like material by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.Papyrus, however, is only one of the predecessors of paper that are collectively known by thegeneric term ‘tapa and which were mostly made from the inner bark of the paper mulberry, figand daphne trees.Paper as we know it traces its roots back to China at the beginning of the first millennium AD.Traditional Chinese records give the credit for its development to one Tsai Lun (about 105AD).He was subsequently deified as the god of papermakers!The craft of papermaking spread throughout the world and remained a relatively small-scale,artisan activity until paper production became industrialised during the 19th century. Originallyintended purely for writing and printing purposes, a dazzling array of paper products areavailable to todays consumer.http://www.paperonline.org/history-of-paperPaper was first developed by Tsai Lun from recycled materials - from rags, fishing nets, hempand China grass. It wasnt until a little more than a hundred years ago that paper began to bemade from trees, and then it was because quantity, not quality, required alternative fibresources.We live in a very different world today. Today we have water shortages - especially in the West.We suffer from air pollution, energy crises, and depletion of natural resources.Perhaps the profligate use of natural resources made sense at the dawn of the 20th century,when developing the nation was a national goal. Perhaps it was reasonable in the mid-1800s tosee trees as an unlimited fibre source, when the population was much smaller, there werefewer businesses, and paper was relatively limited in use. But those conditions clearly do notapply now.Fortunately, we have an alternative. Recycled paper saves enormous amounts of water andenergy over virgin papermaking processes. It produces far less pollution. It saves trees. It cutsdown on our solid waste. Its a far cleaner, less toxic manufacturing process. And it allows us tostop trashing resources and start treating our trash as a valuable resource. There are also
  2. 2. increasing numbers of papers being made from annual crops or agricultural residues, bypassingthe need to cut forests for paper altogether.We are again at a point of crisis. This time it is environmental. And again, it is paper that canlead us out of it. Papermaking technology has changed the development of society many timesin the past. It can - and should - do it again now.http://conservatree.org/learn/Papermaking/History.shtml What Is Paper?True paper is characterized as thin sheets made from fibre that has been macerated until eachindividual filament is a separate unit. Medieval paper was made of diluted cotton, linen fibre.(Hunter 1943, 117)The fibres are then intermixed with water and by the use of a sieve-like screen, the fibres arelifted from the water leaving a sheet of matted fibre on the screen. The thin layer of intertwinedfibre is paper.(Hunter 1943, 5)Many people include think of papyrus and rice paper as paper. They are not. Papyrus is notmade from macerated fibre so, it is not true paper. Papyrus is made from a grass like aquaticplant in the sedge family called Cyprus papyrus. It has woody, bluntly triangular stems that arecut or sliced end to end with metal knife. Then these thin "boards" are pasted together muchlike laminated wood.(http://education.yahoo.com/search/be?lb=t&p=url%3Ap/papyrus)Rice paper is not paper. It is made from strips of the cut spirally from the pith of the rice papertree, a small Asiatic tree or shrub, Tetrapanax papyriferum, which is widely cultivated in Chinaand Japan. The pith is cut into a thin layer of ivory-like texture by means of a sharp knife.(American Paper and Pulp Association, 1965, 17). Parchment and vellum are also not paper.They are made from the skins of animals.(Hunter 1943, 6) Adobe Acrobat Documenthttp://users.stlcc.edu/nfuller/paper/ SIZES
  3. 3. How did international paper sizes evolve?There have been many standard sizes of paper at different times and in different countries, buttoday there are two widespread systems in use: the international standard (A4 and its siblings)and the North American sizes.The international standard: ISO 216A size chart illustrating the ISO A series.
  4. 4. The international paper size standard, ISO 216, is based on the German DIN 476 standard forpaper sizes. Using the metric system, the base format is a sheet of paper measuring 1 m² inarea (A0 paper size). Successive paper sizes in the series A1, A2, A3, etc., are defined byhalving the preceding paper size parallel to its shorter side. The most frequently used paper sizeis A4 (210 × 297 mm). An advantage is that every A4 sheet made from 80 grams (per squaremeter, that is A0) paper weighs 5 grams, allowing to know the weight - and associated postagerate - by just counting the number of sheets used if the weight of the envelope is known.This standard has been adopted by all countries in the world except the United States andCanada. In Mexico, Colombia, Chile and the Philippines, despite the ISO standard having beenofficially adopted, the U.S. "letter" format is still in common use.ISO paper sizes are all based on a single aspect ratio of the square root of two, or approximately1:1.4142. The advantages of basing a paper size upon this ratio were already noted in 1786 bythe German scientist Georg Lichtenberg (in a letter to Johann Beckmann): if a sheet with aspectratio √2 is horizontally divided into two equal halves, then the halves will again have aspectratio √2. In the beginning of the twentieth century, Dr Walter Porstmann turned Lichtenbergsidea into a proper system of different paper sizes. Porstmanns system was introduced as a DINstandard (DIN 476) in Germany in 1922, replacing a vast variety of other paper formats. Eventoday the paper sizes are called "DIN A4" in everyday use in Germany.The DIN 476 standard spread quickly to other countries, and before the outbreak of World WarII it had been adopted by the following countries: Belgium (1924) Netherlands (1925) Norway (1926) Finland (1927) Switzerland (1929) Sweden (1930) Soviet Union (1934) Hungary (1938) Italy (1939)During the war it was adopted by Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943) and Brazil (1943); anddirectly afterwards the standard continued to spread to other countries: Spain (1947) South Africa (1966) Austria (1948) France (1967) Romania (1949) Peru (1967) Japan (1951) Turkey (1967) Denmark (1953) Chile (1968) Czechoslovakia (1953) Greece (1970) Iran (1948) Rhodesia (1970)
  5. 5. Israel (1954) Singapore (1970) Portugal (1954) Bangladesh (1972) Yugoslavia (1956) Thailand (1973) India (1957) Barbados (1973) Poland (1957) Australia (1974) United Kingdom (1959) Ecuador (1974) Ireland (1959) Colombia (1975) Venezuela (1962) Kuwait (1975) New Zealand (1963) Iceland (1964) Mexico (1965)By 1975 so many countries were using the German system that it was established as an ISOstandard, as well as the official United Nations document format. By 1977 A4 was the standardletter format in 88 of 148 countries, and today only the U.S. and Canada have not adopted thesystem.The largest standard size, A0, has an area of 1 m². The length of the long side of the sheet inmetres is the 4th root of 2—approximately 1.189 metres. The short side is the reciprocal of thisnumber, approximately 0.841 metres. A1 is formed by cutting a piece of A0 into two equal arearectangles. Because of the choice of lengths, the aspect ratio is the same for A1 as for A0 (as itis for A2, A3, etc.). This particular measurement system was chosen to allow folding of onestandard size into another, which cannot be accomplished with traditional paper sizes.Brochures are made by using material at the next size up i.e. material at A3 is folded to makeA4 brochures. Similarly, material at A4 is folded to make A5 brochures.It also allows scaling without loss of image from one size to another. Thus an A4 page can beenlarged to A3 and retain the exact proportions of the original document. Office photocopiers incountries that use ISO 216 paper often have one tray filled with A4 and another filled with A3. Asimple method is usually provided (e.g. one button press) to enlarge A4 to A3 or reduce A3 toA4. This also allows two sheets of A4 (or any other size) to be scaled down and fit exactly 1sheet without any cut off or margins. A size chart illustrating the ISO B series.
  6. 6. There is also a much less common B series. The area of B series sheets is the geometric meanof successive A series sheets. So, B1 is between A0 and A1 in size, with an area of 0.71 m². Asa result, B0 has one side 1-metre long, and other sizes in the B series have one side that is ahalf, quarter or eighth of a metre. While less common in office use, it is used for a variety ofspecial situations. Many posters use B-series paper or a close approximation, such as 50cm×70 cm; B5 is a relatively common choice for books. The B series is also used for envelopesand passports.The C series is used only for envelopes and is defined in ISO 269. The area of C series sheets isthe geometric mean of the areas of the A and B series sheets of the same number; for instance,the area of a C4 sheet is the geometric mean of the areas of an A4 sheet and a B4 sheet. Thismeans that C4 is slightly larger than A4, and B4 slightly larger than C4. The practical usage ofthis is that a letter written on A4 paper fits inside a C4 envelope, and a C4 envelope fits inside aB4 envelope.The scalability also means that less paper (and hence money) is wasted by printing companies.ISO paper sizes (plus rounded inch values)Format A series B series C seriesSize mm × mm in × in mm × mm in × in mm × mm in × in0 841 × 1189 33.1 × 46.8 1000 × 1414 39.4 × 55.7 917 × 1297 36.1 × 51.11 594 × 841 23.4 × 33.1 707 × 1000 27.8 × 39.4 648 × 917 25.5 × 36.12 420 × 594 16.5 × 23.4 500 × 707 19.7 × 27.8 458 × 648 18.0 × 25.53 297 × 420 11.7 × 16.5 353 × 500 13.9 × 19.7 324 × 458 12.8 × 18.04 210 × 297 8.3 × 11.7 250 × 353 9.8 × 13.9 229 × 324 9.0 × 12.85 148 × 210 5.8 × 8.3 176 × 250 6.9 × 9.8 162 × 229 6.4 × 9.06 105 × 148 4.1 × 5.8 125 × 176 4.9 × 6.9 114 × 162 4.5 × 6.47 74 × 105 2.9 × 4.1 88 × 125 3.5 × 4.9 81 × 114 3.2 × 4.58 52 × 74 2.0 × 2.9 62 × 88 2.4 × 3.5 57 × 81 2.2 × 3.29 37 × 52 1.5 × 2.0 44 × 62 1.7 × 2.4 40 × 57 1.6 × 2.210 26 × 37 1.0 × 1.5 31 × 44 1.2 × 1.7 28 × 40 1.1 × 1.6The tolerances specified in the standard are ±1.5 mm (0.06 in) for dimensions up to 150 mm (5.9 in), ±2 mm (0.08 in) for lengths in the range 150 to 600 mm (5.9 to 23.6 in) and ±3 mm (0.12 in) for any dimension above 600 mm (23.6 in).German extensionsThe German standard DIN 476 was published in 1922 and is the original specification of the Aand B sizes. It differs in two details from its international successor:
  7. 7. DIN 476 provides an extension to formats larger than A0, denoted by a prefix factor. Inparticular, it lists the two formats 2A0, which is twice the area of A0, and 4A0, which is fourtimes A0:DIN 476 over formatsName mm × mm in × in4A0 1682 × 2378 66.2 × 93.62A0 1189 × 1682 46.8 × 66.2DIN 476 also specifies slightly tighter tolerances: ±1 mm (0.04 in) for dimensions up to 150 mm (5.9 in), ±1.5 mm (0.06 in) for lengths in the range 150 mm to 600 mm (5.9 to 23.6 in) and ±2 mm (0.08 in) for any dimension above 600 mm (23.6 in).Swedish extensionsThe Swedish standard SIS 014711 generalized the ISO system of A, B, and C formats by addingD, E, F, and G formats to it. Its D format sits between a B format and the next larger A format(just like C sits between A and the next larger B). The remaining formats fit in between all theseformats, such that the sequence of formats A4, E4, C4, G4, B4, F4, D4, H4, and A3 is ageometric progression, in which the dimensions grow by a factor 21/8 from one size to the next.However, the SIS 014711 standard does not define any size between a D format and the nextlarger A format (called H in the previous example). Of these additional formats, G5 (169x239mm) and E5 (155x220 mm) are popular in Sweden for printing dissertations [1], but the otherformats have not turned out to be particularly useful in practice and they have not caught oninternationally.Japanese B-series variantThe JIS defines two main series of paper sizes. The JIS A-series is identical to the ISO A-series,but with slightly different tolerances. The area of B-series paper is 1.5 times that of thecorresponding A-paper, so the length ratio is approximately 1.22 times the length of thecorresponding A-series paper. The aspect ratio of the paper is the same as for A-series paper.Both A- and B-series paper is widely available in Japan and most photocopiers are loaded withat least A4 and B4 paper.There are also a number of traditional paper sizes, which are now used mostly only by printers.The most common of these old series are the Shiroku-ban and the Kiku paper sizes.
  8. 8. JIS paper sizes (plus rounded inch values)Format B series Shiroku ban KikuSize mm × mm in × in mm × mm in × in mm × mm in × in0 1030 × 1456 40.6 × 57.31 728 × 1030 28.7 × 40.62 515 × 728 20.3 × 28.73 364 × 515 14.3 × 20.34 257 × 364 10.1 × 14.3 264 × 379 10.4 × 14.9 227 × 306 8.9 × 12.05 182 × 257 7.2 × 10.1 189 × 262 7.4 × 10.3 151 × 227 5.9 × 8.96 128 × 182 5.0 × 7.2 189 × 262 7.4 × 10.37 91 × 128 3.6 × 5.0 127 × 188 5.0 × 7.48 64 × 91 2.5 × 3.69 45 × 64 1.8 × 2.510 32 × 45 1.3 × 1.811 22 × 32 0.9 × 1.312 16 × 22 0.6 × 0.9North American paper sizesLoose sizesCurrent standard sizes of U.S. paper are a subset of the traditional sizes referred to below."Letter", "legal", "ledger", and "tabloid" are by far the most commonly used of these foreveryday activities. The origin of the exact dimensions of "letter" size paper (8½ in × 11 in,215.9 mm × 279.4 mm) are lost in tradition and not well documented. The American Forestand Paper Association argues that the dimension originates from the days of manual papermaking, and that the 11 inch length of the page is about a quarter of "the average maximumstretch of an experienced vat man’s arms."[1] However, this does not explain the width oraspect ratio.North American paper sizesSize in × in mm × mmLetter 8½ × 11 216 × 279
  9. 9. Legal 8½ × 14 216 × 356Ledger[2] 17 × 11 432 × 279Tabloid 11 × 17 279 × 432There is an additional paper size, to which the name "government-letter" was given by the IEEEPrinter Working Group: the 8 in × 10½ in (203.2 mm × 266.7 mm) paper that is used in theUnited States for childrens writing. It was prescribed by Herbert Hoover when he was Secretaryof Commerce to be used for U.S. government forms, apparently to enable discounts from thepurchase of paper for schools. In later years, as photocopy machines proliferated, citizenswanted to make photocopies of the forms, but the machines did not generally have this sizepaper in their bins. Ronald Reagan therefore had the U.S. government switch to regular lettersize (8½ in × 11 in). The 8 in × 10½ in size is still commonly used in spiral-bound notebooksand the like.An alternative explanation in the past for the difference between "government size" (asgovernment-letter size was referred to at the time) and letter size paper was that the slightlysmaller sheet used less paper, and therefore saved the government money in both paper andfiling space. However, when Reagan prescribed the change to letter size, it was commonlystated that U.S. paper manufacturers had standardized their production lines for letter size, andwere meeting government orders by trimming ½" each from two sides of letter-size stock; thusthe government was allegedly paying more for its smaller paper size before Reagan abolishedit. The different paper size also reportedly restricted the governments ability to take advantageof modular office furniture designs, common in the 1980s, whose cabinets were designed forletter size paper.U.S. paper sizes are currently standard in the United States and the Philippines. The latter usesU.S. "letter", but the Philippine "legal" size is 8½ in × 13 in (215.9 mm × 330.2 mm). ISO sizesare available, but not widely used, in both the U.S. and the Philippines.In Canada, U.S. paper sizes are a de facto standard. The government, however, uses acombination of ISO paper sizes, and CAN 2-9.60M "Paper Sizes for Correspondence" specifiesP1 through P6 paper sizes, which are the U.S. paper sizes rounded to the nearest 5 mm.[3]Mexico has adopted the ISO standard, but U.S. "letter" format is still the system in usethroughout the country. It is virtually impossible to encounter ISO standard papers in day-to-dayuses, with "Carta 216 mm × 279 mm" (letter), "Oficio 216 mm × 340 mm" (legal) and "Doblecarta" (ledger/tabloid) being nearly universal. U.S. sizes are also widespread and in commonuse in Colombia [2].See switching costs, network effects and standardization for possible reasons for differingregional adoption rates of the ISO standard sizes.
  10. 10. ANSI Paper SizesA size chart illustrating the ANSI sizes.In 1995, the American National Standards Institute adopted ANSI/ASME Y14.1 which defined aregular series of paper sizes based upon the de facto standard 8½ in × 11 in "letter" size whichit assigned "ANSI A". This series also includes "ledger"/"tabloid" as "ANSI B". This series issomewhat similar to the ISO standard in that cutting a sheet in half would produce two sheetsof the next smaller size. Unlike the ISO standard, however, the arbitrary aspect ratio forces thisseries to have two alternating aspect ratios. The ANSI series is shown below.With care, documents can be prepared so that the text and images fit on either ANSI or theirequivalent ISO sheets at 1:1 reproduction scale. Similar ISO AName in × in mm × mm Ratio Alias sizeANSI A 8½ × 11 216 × 279 1.2941 Letter A4 17 × 11 432 × 279 Ledger[2]ANSI B 1.5455 A3 11 × 17 279 × 432 TabloidANSI C 17 × 22 432 × 559 1.2941 A2ANSI D 22 × 34 559 × 864 1.5455 A1ANSI E 34 × 44 864 × 1118 1.2941 A0Other, larger sizes continuing the alphabetic series illustrated above exist, but it should be notedthat they are not part of the series per se, because they do not exhibit the same aspect ratios.For example, Engineering F size (28 in × 40 in, 711.2 mm × 1016.0 mm) also exists, but israrely encountered, as are G, H, … N size drawings. G size is 22½ in (571.5 mm) high, butvariable width up to 90 in (2286 mm) in increments of 8½ in, i.e., roll format. H and larger lettersizes are also roll formats. Such sheets were at one time used for full-scale layouts of aircraftparts, wiring harnesses and the like, but today are generally not needed, due to widespread useof computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).
  11. 11. Architectural SizesIn addition to the ANSI system as listed above, there is a corresponding series of paper sizesused for architectural purposes. This series also shares the property that bisecting each sizeproduces two of the size below. It may be preferred by North American architects because theaspect ratios (4:3 and 3:2) are ratios of small integers, unlike their ANSI (or ISO) counterparts.Furthermore, the aspect ratio 4:3 matches the traditional aspect ratio for computer displays.The architectural series, usually abbreviated "Arch", is shown below:Name in × in mm × mm RatioArch A 9 × 12 229 × 305 4:3Arch B 12 × 18 305 × 457 3:2Arch C 18 × 24 457 × 610 4:3Arch D 24 × 36 610 × 914 3:2Arch E 36 × 48 914 × 1219 4:3Arch E1 30 × 42 762 × 1067 7:5Other SizesName in × in mm × mm RatioStatement, Half Letter 5½ × 8½ 140 × 216 1.54Quarto 8 × 10 203 × 254 1.25Executive, Monarch 7¼ × 10½ 184 × 267 ~1.4483Government-Letter 8 × 10½ 203 × 267 1.3125Letter 8½ × 11 216 × 279 ~1.2941Foolscap, Folio[2] 8.27 × 13 210 × 330 1.625Government-Legal 8½ × 13 216 × 330 ~1.5294Legal 8½ × 14 216 × 356 ~1.6067Ledger, Tabloid 11 × 17 279 × 432 1.54Super-B 13 × 19 330 × 483 ~1.4615Post 15½ × 19½ 394 × 489 ~1.2581Crown 15 × 20 381 × 508 1.3Large Post 16½ × 21 419 × 533 1.27Demy 17½ × 22½ 445 × 572 ~1.2857
  12. 12. Medium 18 × 23 457 × 584 1.27Broadsheet 18 × 24 457 × 610 1.3Royal 20 × 25 508 × 635 1.25Elephant 23 × 28 584 × 711 ~1.2174Double Demy 22½ × 35 572 × 889 1.5Quad Demy 35 × 45 889 × 1143 ~1.2857Index and business cardsName in × in mm × mm RatioIndex card 3×5 76 × 127 1.6Index card 4×6 102 × 152 1.5Index card 5×8 127 × 203 1.6International business card 2⅛ × 3.37 53.98 × 85.6 1.586US business card 2 × 3½ 51 × 89 1.75Japanese business card ~2.165 × ~3.583 55 × 91 ~1.65Photograph sizesName in × in mm × mm Ratio2R 2½ × 3½ 64 × 89 1.4- 3×5 76 × 127 1.6LD, DSC 3½ × 4⅔ 89 × 119 1.3 (4:3)3R, L 3½ × 5 89 × 127 ~1.4286LW 3½ × 5¼ 89 × 133 1.5 (3:2)KGD 4 × 5⅓ 102 × 136 1.3 (4:3)4R, KG 4×6 102 × 152 1.52LD, DSCW 5 × 6⅔ 127 × 169 1.3 (4:3)5R, 2L 5×7 127 × 178 1.42LW 5 × 7½ 127 × 190 1.5 (3:2)8R 8 × 10 203 × 254 1.25
  13. 13. 12R 8 × 12 203 × 305 1.514R 11 × 14 279 × 356 1.27Tablet SizesThe sizes listed above are for paper sold loosely in reams. There are many sizes of tablets ofpaper, that is, sheets of paper kept from flying around by being bound at one edge, usually by astrip of plastic or hardened PVA adhesive. Often there is a pad of cardboard (also known aschipboard or grey board) at the bottom of the stack. Such a tablet serves as a portable writingsurface, and the sheets often have lines printed on them, usually in blue, to make writing in aline easier. An older means of binding is to have the sheets stapled to the cardboard along thetop of the tablet; there is a line of perforated holes across every page just below the top edgefrom which any page may be torn off. Lastly, a pad of sheets each weakly stuck with adhesiveto the sheet below, trademarked as "Post-It" or "Stick-Em" and available in various sizes, serveas a sort of tablet."Letter pads" are of course 8½ by 11 inches, while the term "legal pad" is often used by laymento refer to pads of various sizes including those of 8½ by 14 inches. There are "steno pads"(used by stenographers) of 6 by 9 inches.Of course, in countries where the ISO sizes are standard, most notebooks and tablets are sizedto ISO specifications (for example, most newsagents in Australia stock A4 and A3 tablets).Traditional inch-based paper sizesTraditionally, a number of different sizes were defined for large sheets of paper, and paper sizeswere defined by the sheet name and the number of times it had been folded. Thus a full sheetof "royal" paper was 25 × 20 inches, and "royal octavo" was this size folded three times, so as tomake eight sheets, and was thus 10 by 6¼ inches.Imperial sizes were used in the United Kingdom and its territories. Some of the base sizes wereas follows:Name in × in mm × mm RatioEmperor 48 × 72 1219 × 1829 1.5Antiquarian 31 × 53 787 × 1346 1.7097Grand eagle 28¾ × 42 730 × 1067 1.4609Double elephant 26¾ × 40 678 × 1016 1.4984Atlas* 26 × 34 660 × 864 1.3077Colombier 23½ × 34½ 597 × 876 1.4681Double demy 22½ × 35½ 572 × 902 1.5(7)
  14. 14. Imperial* 22 × 30 559 × 762 1.3636Double large post 21 × 33 533 × 838 1.5713Elephant* 23 × 28 584 × 711 1.2174Princess 21½ × 28 546 × 711 1.3023Cartridge 21 × 26 533 × 660 1.2381Royal* 20 × 25 508 × 635 1.25Sheet, half post 19½ × 23½ 495 × 597 1.2051Double post 19 × 30½ 483 × 762 1.6052Super royal 19 × 27 483 × 686 1.4203Medium* 17½ × 23 470 × 584 1.2425Demy* 17½ × 22½ 445 × 572 1.2857Large post 16½ × 21 419 × 533 1.(27)Copy draught 16 × 20 406 × 508 1.25Large post 15½ × 20 394 × 508 1.2903Post* 15½ × 19¼ 394 × 489 1.2419Crown* 15 × 20 381 × 508 1.(3)Pinched post 14¾ × 18½ 375 × 470 1.2533Foolscap* 13½ × 17 343 × 432 1.2593Small foolscap 13¼ × 16½ 337 × 419 1.2453Brief 13½ × 16 343 × 406 1.1852Pott 12½ × 15 318 × 381 1.2* The sizes marked with an asterisk are still in use in the United States.Traditional sizes for writing paper in the United Kingdom [3], in × inNameQuarto 10 × 8Imperial 9 × 7Kings 8 × 6½Dukes 7 × 5½The common divisions and their abbreviations include:
  15. 15. Name Abbr. Folds Leaves PagesFolio fo, f 1 2 4Quarto 4to 2 4 8Sexto, sixmo 6to, 6mo 3 6 12Octavo 8vo 3 8 16Duodecimo, twelvemo 12mo 4 12 24Sextodecimo, sixteenmo 16mo 4 16 32Foolscap folio is often referred to simply as folio or foolscap. Similarly, quarto is morecorrectly copy draught quarto.Many of these sizes were only used for making books (see bookbinding), and would never havebeen offered for ordinary stationery purposes.Transitional paper sizesPA seriesA transitional size called PA4 (210 mm × 280 mm, 8¼ in × 11 in) was PA4-based seriesproposed for inclusion into the ISO 216 standard in 1975. It has theheight of Canadian P4 paper (215 mm × 280 mm, about Name mm × mm Ratio8½ in × 11 in) and the width of international A4 paper PA0 840 × 1120 3:4(210 mm × 297 mm). The table to the right shows how this format canbe generalized into an entire format series. PA1 560 × 840 2:3The PA formats did not end up in ISO 216, because the committee felt PA2 420 × 560 3:4that the set of standardized paper formats should be kept to theminimum necessary. However, PA4 remains of practical use today. In PA3 280 × 420 2:3landscape orientation, it has the same 4:3 aspect ratio as the displays PA4 210 × 280 3:4of traditional TV sets, most computers and data projectors. PA4 istherefore a good choice as the format of computer presentation slides. PA5 140 × 210 2:3At the same time, PA4 is the largest format that fits on both A4 andU.S./Canadian "Letter" paper without resizing. PA6 105 × 140 3:4 PA7 70 × 105 2:3PA4 is used today by many international magazines, because it can beprinted easily on equipment designed for either A4 or U.S. "Letter". PA8 52 × 70 ≈3:4Antiquarian PA9 35 × 52 ≈2:3Although the movement is towards the international standard metric PA10 26 × 35 ≈3:4paper sizes, on the way there from the traditional ones there has beenat least one new size just a little larger than that used internationally.British architects and industrial designers once used a size called "Antiquarian" as listed above,but given in the New Metric Handbook (Tutt & Adler 1981) as 813 mm × 1372 mm. This is alittle larger than the A0 size. So for a short time, a size called A0a (1000 mm × 1370 mm) wasused in Britain.
  16. 16. F4F4 (210 mm × 330 mm) is common in Southeast Asia and Australia, and is sometimes called"foolscap". It has the same width as A4, but is longer.Other metric sizesName mm × mm in × inDL 110 × 220 4.3 × 8.7F4 210 × 330 8.3 × 13.0RA0 860 × 1220 33.9 × 48.0RA1 610 × 860 24.0 × 33.9RA2 430 × 610 16.9 × 24.0RA3 305 × 430 12.0 × 16.9RA4 215 × 305 8.5 × 12.0SRA0 900 × 1280 35.4 × 50.4SRA1 640 × 900 25.2 × 35.4SRA2 450 × 640 17.7 × 25.2SRA3 320 × 450 12.6 × 17.7SRA4 225 × 320 8.9 × 12.6A3+ 329 × 483 12.9 × 19.0Photo quality printing is the ultra-high resolution reproduction of digital artwork onto printablematerials such as paper, vinyl, film, polyester, etc.Technical processThe combination of graphic design utilizing high resolution images printed at ultra-high linescreen values defines the photo quality printing process.When designing for photo quality printing, graphic designers and printers start with highresolution images of 2400 dpi or higher. Traditional full colour non-photo quality printing is donefrom images of 1200 dpi or less. Photo quality printing requires images to contain the mostamount of colour information possible. The high resolution images used in photo qualityprinting is saved in a CMYK file format to best utilize either the commercial printing process orinkjet printing photo quality output capabilities. CMYK dots of Cyan (blue), Magenta (red),
  17. 17. Yellow, and Black are placed next to each other in specific patterns that trick the eye into seeingmillions of colours. Photo quality inkjet printing transfers 4 or more toner colours to thesubstrate in a single cycle through the printer. In photo quality commercial printing each colourof ink is applied separately.The high resolution photos are printed (or output) at a line screen value of 1200 lines per inch.Traditional full colour printing is done at a line screen ranging from 300 to 600 lpi. The resultingphoto quality output is apparent to the naked eye and by using a micrometre. The outputincludes more dots of ink or toner within each square inch output - and - truer colour values andhues due to the greater amount of colour information stored in the high resolution image orartwork file.Equipment usedCommercial photo quality printing uses a web or sheet fed press that may consist of multipleunits. The file to be printed is imaged directly onto a drum on the press or onto photographicprinting plates. The drum or plates transfer ink to the paper. Photo quality printing on a desktopprinter usually uses some type of inkjet or laser printer. The inkjet printer has ink cartridges thatplace the ink directly on the paper. These are self-contained units connected to a computerthrough cables.http://www.moxicopy.com/paper-size-guide.phpHere is a great timeline to show the History of paper TEMPERATUREHow does moisture and humidity affect paper?PROBABLY the most serious single source of trouble to the lithographers, printers andconverters is found in the curling or buckling of paper. I am glad to say that any troubles printersmay have been experiencing well probably be lessened appreciably as the warm weather comesand artificial room heating removed. The importance of moisture and humidity control inrelation to the elimination of these difficulties is increasingly recognized throughout the tradeand will be more universally applied within the next few years.Relative Humidity could involve a very technical study. It is hard to visualise and understand justwhat it means without becoming somewhat technical and hence uninteresting to many. I will tryto explain very simply what is meant by Relative Humidity and how it effects paper and causestrouble which the paper maker can in no way remedy.The terms "dryness" and "wetness," applied to air are purely relative and indicate the proportionof water vapour actually present in comparison with what the air could contain at the sametemperature. At the Dew Point the air is saturated and the water is deposited as dew, mist, oreven rain. It holds all the water it can. As the temperature rises the dew disappears and is heldin suspension until the temperature is lowered when it is again deposited. This condition isobserved in the early morning in summer. In the sweating of the tumbler of cold water we haveanother example of the existence of water vapour in the atmosphere. The ice water chills thetemperature around the glass and the moisture is deposited. In the winter time you can seeyour breath when you breathe as the breath is warmer than the air and it condenses. From this
  18. 18. we see the words "dry" or "moist" as applied to atmosphere have a purely relative significancedepending upon the temperature. They involve a comparison between the amount of watervapour actually present and that which the air could hold if saturated at the same temperature.The ratio of these two quantities is called the "Relative Humidity." When we say a RelativeHumidity of 65% we mean that the amount of water vapour actually present is 65% of what theair might have contained at the given temperature of say 70 F if it had been saturated.The Psychrometer is an instrument used for measuring Relative Humidity. It consists of twothermometers, one covered with muslin and kept moist with water. The rate of evaporationfrom the moist muslin depends upon the quantity of moisture in the air. The more rapid theevaporation of water the greater the cooling and hence the greater difference in the readings ofthe two thermometers.It would be very easy for any printer or paper man to take a series of readings around his printshop and record the variation in temperature and relative humidity. It would be very interestingand enlightening to many to see the variation in the amount of water in the different rooms andrealize how the paper is being dampened and dried through the converting processes. Thefollowing tables are the measured humidity in various parts of the paper mill: Location Temperature Relative Humidity Drainers 70 F. 85% Basement 72 F. 82% Office 80 F. 36% Outdoors (dry day) 84 F. 37% Cellar 71 F. 64% Outdoors (rainy day) 73 F. 73%This tabulation affords an excellent illustration of the increase in humidity on lowering thetemperature of the air, also of the variation with the weather.At various relative humidity paper holds different percentages of water and will absorb or giveup water until it comes to equilibrium with the existing temperature of the room. Temperature 70 F. % Relative Humidity % Moisture in Paper 100 21.5 90 13.5 80 8.9
  19. 19. 70 8.4 60 6.5 50 5.6 40 3.4 30 2.3 20 1.8Paper on coming off the driers of a paper machine contains from 3-5% moisture. Paper fromthe loft contains from 2-3% moisture, depending on loft conditions. These moisture ranges arethe ones that are suitable for the ordinary ranges of humidity ordinarily encountered. Whensuch paper is packed for shipping the moisture present in the sheet is evenly distributed andthere is no curling as the paper in the finishing process has been seasoned under the normalatmospheric conditions for this period of the year and consequently there is no tendency forcurling or waving as the paper is in equilibrium with the moisture conditions present.Indoor ConditionsIn general the tendency of a paper storehouse is to be several degrees lower in temperaturethan a print shop, where the warming stoves for stones, Bunsen’s for copper plates and heatingsystems assist in raising the temperature during the working period. The heating developedduring the day is highest at closing time. It must be remembered that when a room is warmedthe quantity of moisture is not diminished but the humidity of the air is lessened because thesaturated capacity of the air is so enormously increased. With the falling temperature at closingtime the moisture which had previously not been noticed is apparent in the form of a damp.Weather ConditionsApart from the system of heating and ventilation the amount of moisture varies during thecourse of the day and year being at its maximum of absolute moisture in the summer at thehours of 8 A. M. and 8 P. M. while the minimum occurs at 3 A. M. and 3 P. M. This is due toascending currents of air which carry the moisture upwards. The relative moisture is on theaverage greater in higher than in lower latitudes; it is at its minimum in the hottest andmaximum in the coolest parts of the day. It also varies with different regions, being less in thecentre of the continent than near the coast.Winter ConditionsDuring the winter humidity conditions in the press rooms and print shops are particularly badfor while the average outdoor humidity may be fairly high (50-60%) the small amount ofmoisture contained in the air at the low temperatures encountered during the winter monthscauses a serious reduction in relative humidity on being heated inside the building. As anexample to illustrate this point, the air at 40 F. and 50% relative humidity, which are normalwinter conditions contains but 18 grains of moisture in a pound of dry air. On heating such air to75 F without changing the actual amount of moisture present the relative humidity has beenreduced from 50% to 15% because the capacity of the air for holding moisture has been soenormously increased by raising the temperature.
  20. 20. For this reason, during the winter months the floor should be sprinkled with water at frequentintervals or buckets of water should be allowed to evaporate on radiators, etc., unless othermore adequate arrangements for humidification are provided.Summer ConditionsIn the summer conditions frequently are just the converse. At the temperatures prevailing in thesummer even with normal humidity, there is a considerable quantity of moisture available inthe air. When this air is brought inside and cooled to any extent, especially if it enters a coolcellar, the temperature is rapidly reduced, the quantity of moisture remaining constant, thehumidity must increase. Providing the temperature drop is great enough, especially near wallsor any cold objects the air will contain more water than it can hold at that temperature and thevapour will be deposited in the form of a fog or damp, which will see tle out on the paperdisturbing the equalized moisture conditions and resulting in curls and buckles.An example based on figures perhaps will help make this idea clearer. A comfortable, normallyhot day in the summer would have a temperature of 900 F. and a humidity of 60%. It is onlynecessary to drop the temperature of air at this condition to 74 F. to cause over 100% humidityand consequent condensation of water vapour.From this example the slight change in temperature required to completely transform thehumidity conditions is evident. If, therefore, in the absence of adequate methods of controllinghumidity, differently behaving paper is run on a day suited for its condition, better results will beobtained. Even though the temperature drop was not great enough to cause super-saturation ofthe air, it is enough to increase greatly the relative humidity which will affect the paper. It mustbe borne in mind that the moisture content of a sheet of paper is dependent not only on therelative humidity of its environment but also on the temperature. It is, therefore, not goodpractice to use cellars for storerooms or to subject the paper to great temperature and humiditychange without inviting curling and buckling difficulties.What has this talk on humidity to do with paper curling and buckling? Just this--Paperpossesses the property of absorbing and giving off moisture until the moisture in the paper andthe moisture in the atmosphere are in equilibrium. The behaviour of paper under givenatmospheric conditions is, therefore, dependent on the relative amounts of water present in theatmosphere and in the paper. That makes it impossible for the paper maker to manufacturepaper that will satisfy all condition in the trade. No two rooms have the same operatingconditions and no two localities the same outdoor conditions. Therefore, paper cannot be madethat will not curl under certain conditions.Curling of PaperThe so-called curling of papers is generally found to be in one direction-toward the wire side asa, result of certain conditions encountered in forming the sheet of paper on the paper machinewire.Distribution of FibresIn forming a sheet on the traveling wire the stock suspension surges out on the wire at aconsiderable velocity, dependent on the head of water behind the slices and the speed of themachine. The natural flow of the stock would tend to induce the fibres to arrange themselvesmostly lengthwise. A lateral shake, therefore, is given to the traveling wire to felt the fibrestogether. The stock nearest the bottom attaches itself to the wire before the effect of the lateralshake can distribute the proper proportion of the fibres in a horizontal direction. The middle andupper layers contain a larger proportion of horizontally lying fibres which tends to make thesheet of more uniform structure in each succeeding layer from the bottom. This more equal
  21. 21. distribution of lengthwise and crosswise fibres near the top of the sheet of itself resists any curlin the direction toward the top of the sheet.Effect of Short SideIn addition the stock next to the wire settles against the smooth surface of the wire, therebymaking the wire side of the sheet comparatively level. On the top of the sheet, however, thestock settles in clots, forming microscopic hills and valleys on the top surface or felt side of thesheet. In spite of the smoothing effects of the press rolls and calendar rolls in smoothing themicroscopic lumps into the sheet of paper the felt side of the sheet has more surface andconsequently is longer than the wire side. This fact of itself is responsible for a tendency of thesheet to curl toward the wire or shorter side the instant the surface becomes moistened. Otherthings being equal a sheet made from shorter stock will curl more easily under variablehumidity conditions than one made from longer stock.Effect of ShrinkageIt has been pointed out above that the greater proportion of the fibres tends to arrangethemselves lengthwise in the web resulting in a distinct grain in the paper. It is a well-knownfact that the fibres expand far more diametrically than they do lengthwise on being moistenedthereby giving rise to a wave in the direction of the machine or grain.Furthermore when the water is removed from the web during drying, there is a tendency for thetraveling and gradually drying web to contract in width, this contraction lengthwise beingrestrained by reason of the tension created by the traveling and drying apparatus, but beingunrestrained in the cross direction.As a result of these two factors a sheet will always expand more in the cross grain directionthan in the length on being exposed to changing moisture conditions thereby causing anycurling to take place in the direction of the grain or machine direction.Effect of SizingThe effect of the sizing on the natural curl of the paper is of considerable importance. Sizingtests invariably indicate that the wire side is slacker sized than the felt side due to the action ofthe suction boxes in removing the rosin size precipitate from the fibres. This is particularly truein case the stock is free. As a consequence, the sheet will absorb more glue or gum on the wireside which on being subjected to moisture or drying is more flexible than the stock and will tendto cause a curl in the direction of the bottom or wire side of the sheet.Effect of BeatingThe slowness or condition of beating that the stock has been subjected to also has an importantinfluence on the curling. A paper stock that has been hydrated or slowed shrinks considerablyon being dried which makes the sheet more susceptible to stretching on being moistened.Another property of a hard, slow stock is its lack of absorbency which does not permit of waterpassing through the sheet but rather contains it on the outside surfaces thus rendering it alsomore susceptible to curling.Storing and Piling of PaperIf the paper is allowed to stand about the print shops and press rooms in high piles in either adrier or more humid atmosphere, the exposed surfaces of the paper gradually assume themoisture condition corresponding to the prevailing humidity conditions. Inasmuch as the pilesare tightly packed it is only the top surface and edges of the sheets that have an opportunity toadjust their moisture content to these conditions and consequently with a condition of variation
  22. 22. in moisture content between the edges and inside of the sheet, the waving and buckling isinevitable.Another consequence of piling is a result of the height of piles. The weight being concentratedat the centre of gravity of the pile, which is the centre, causes an uneven pressure on the centreand edges of the pile which also results in further wavy edges.An example of the effect of uneven distribution of moisture through a sheet of paper isavailable in a comparison between piles of stored ledger paper and a cockled bond. The ledgerpaper having a high finish will be packed very tightly and closely and consequently will be wavyand buckled. The cockled bond, however, because of the cockle will not pack closely in a pile ofthe same height, more air is allowed into the pile and as a result very little buckling is observed.In order to eliminate these effects outlined above it is suggested that the piles of paper bemade lower and the paper crossed with alternate layers in different directions. In fact anyprocedure to thoroughly aerate the paper cannot fail to help eliminate the waving and distortionof the edges. The text contained herein was written by Helen U. Kiely, and delivered by Joseph H. Burgenbefore the Joint Session, Connecticut Valley Mill Superintendents and Printing House Craftsmen,March 5th, 1927.Copyrighted, 1927 American Writing Paper Company Incorporated Holyoke, Masshttp://cool.conservation-us.org/byauth/kiely/moisture.htmlWhere should paper be stored?Paper Storage and ConditioningLike any other high-performance, high-quality product, a little conditioning goes a long way withXerox paper. It can make the difference between "okay" and outstanding when it comes toresults! Find out what steps you can take to get the most out of Xerox paper.For optimum conditioning, follow these paper storage guidelines: 1. Leave paper in its wrapper until you are ready to load it in the machine. 2. Do not store paper directly on the floor. Keep it on pallets or shelves or in cabinets. 3. Store paper at a temperature of 68°F/20°C to 76°F/24.4°C and a relative humidity of 35 to 55 percent.Paper Storage
  23. 23. Take Good Care of Xerox Paper and Watch it Perform Like a Champ!Were proud of Xerox paper! Its top quality and, when properly cared for, it will perform like thechampion it is. While the "how top’s" of paper storage may seem obvious, you may be surprisedat the simple things weve outlined here that you can do to ensure best results.Paper StackingYour paper order will normally be shipped to you in sturdy fibreboard cartons. The number ofreams in each carton depends on the size of the paper. If you have ordered a large quantity, thecartons will be stacked on wooden pallets. Stack individual reams or cartons carefully on top ofone another. This will help you avoid crushing the edges or causing any other damage.Pile cartons no more than five high. Pallets can be stacked three high.Paper HandlingTreating paper cartons with care in paper storage is extremely important! Dropping, throwing,striking with a forklift or otherwise mishandling paper cartons can result in damaged paper. Youmay not even notice the damage until you have paper jams or other feeding problems.Climate Control Store your paper on shelves or pallets or in cabinets rather than right on the floor to avoid moisture absorption. Choose an area thats protected from extreme temperatures and humidity. Temperature and humidity are critical factors in how Xerox paper performs in your copier or printer.Most environments with air conditioning systems provide the proper mix of temperature andhumidity. If you are in an environment that is not air conditioned, follow these guidelines: 1. Minimum temperature of 50°F/10°C with 15 percent relative humidity 2. Maximum temperature of 81°F/27.2°C with 85 percent relative humidityDo Not Open Until...To achieve best results, we recommend you leave reams sealed in their original ream wrapper,in the shipping carton during paper storage. Do not open the wrapper until you are ready to loadthe paper into your copier or printer.Why? The ream wrapper has an inner lining that guards against moisture absorption. Once youopen the wrapper, the protective barrier is gone and moisture can seep in and cause excessivecurl and other problems.Once You Do Open...
  24. 24. After you open the ream, reseal the wrapper with tape if you will not be using all the paper immediately, for example, if youll be leaving it unused overnight. Better still, store unused loose paper in a reseal able plastic bag. Do not store paper in your machines paper trays.Take sheets from the centre of the ream if a package is inadvertently left open. Store coatedpaper in reseal able bags or covered storage boxes after opening the original wrapper.Paper ConditioningMake Sure Conditions Are Right for Best ResultsLike any other high-performance, high-quality product, a little conditioning goes a long way withXerox paper. It can make the difference between "okay" and outstanding when it comes toresults! Find out what steps you can take to get the most out of Xerox paper.Moisture Xerography is very sensitive to moisture in paper. Moisture can ruin your job in a hurry! High humidity causes damp edges and wavy paper. Low humidity dries paper edges and makes it contract and become tight.Poor performance is the result! Thats why it is so important to condition your paper.As a rule, condition uncoated paper a minimum of 24 hours and coated paper a minimum of 48hours. Transparencies and label stock also require conditioning--24 hours and 72 hours,respectively. Separating cartons accelerates the conditioning process. The chart below will helpyou determine precisely how many hours prior to printing you should move the paper, based onboth the storage and print room temperaturesHow Long Does Conditioning Take?
  25. 25. As a rule, condition uncoated paper a minimum of 24 hours and coated paper a minimum of 48 hours. Transparencies and label stock also require conditioning--24 hours and 72 hours, respectively. Separating cartons accelerates the conditioning process. The chart below will help you determine precisely how many hours prior to printing you should move the paper, based on both the storage and print room temperatures.Temperature Difference (Degrees F/C) 10/5.5 15/8.5 20/11 25/13 30/17 40/22 50/28Cartons Hours to Condition1 4 8 11 14 17 24 345 5 9 12 15 18 25 3510 8 14 18 22 27 38 5120 11 16 23 28 35 48 6740 14 19 26 32 38 54 75http://www.xerox.com/printer-supplies/paper-stock/paper-storage/enus.htmlWho manufactures paper in Australia?Amcor Limited is an Australian-based multinational packaging company. Its headquarters are inHawthorn, Victoria (a suburb of Melbourne); and it is listed on the Australian SecuritiesExchange.It operates manufacturing plants in 42 countries, and has approximately 30,000 employeesand annual sales of US$7,280 million and has a market value of US$5,020 million. Along withthe privately held VISY group, it dominates the Australian cardboard packaging market, and it isthe worlds largest manufacturer of plastic bottles. Amcor limited holds the 927th position inthe Forbes 2000.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AmcorAs the world’s largest packaging company, Amcor offers exclusive and innovative solutions thatare at the forefront of the packaging industry.http://www.amcor.com/PaperlinX is a fine paper wholesaler based in Melbourne, Australia. PaperlinX has regionaloffices in Amsterdam, Los Angeles and Singapore. The company is a distributor of specialtypaper used in brochures, magazines, annual reports and other business papers. They supplyhigh-quality fine paper used as office paper and packaging.The company was formed in April 2000 after demerging from Amcor.
  26. 26. Paper, board and other materials are bought in bulk from paper mills around the world and soldin smaller quantities and custom sizes to meet customers requirements. The stock is stored intheir warehouses and delivered to customers on a just-in-time basis. Customersinclude printers, designers, publishers and advertisers.PaperlinX closed its paper manufacturing division, Taps Paper, in Tasmania, in mid-2010.PaperlinX employs 6500 people in 26 countries and is in the top 200 public companies listedon the Australian Stock Exchange, trading under the ticker symbol PPX.PaperlinX revealed on 23rd December 2011 that it had received an indicative offer from anunnamed private equity group, pitched at 9 cents for each ordinary share and $21.85 for thecompanys preference stock.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PaperlinxList of paper mills  Norske Skog Albury, Albury, Australia  Visy Paper, Visy Smithfield mill, VP3&6, Smithfield, New South Wales, Australia - recycled fibre mill  Visy Paper, Visy Coolaroo mill, VP4&5, Coolaroo, Victoria, Australia - recycled fibre mill  Visy Paper, Visy Gibson Island mill, VP8, Gibson Island, Queensland, Australia - recycled fibre mill  Visy Paper, Visy Reservoir mill, VP2, Reservoir, Victoria, Australia - recycled fibre mill  Visy Pulp & Paper, Visy Tumut mill, VPP9&10, Tumut, New South Wales, Australia - unbleached kraft liner board mill  Australian Paper, Shoalhaven Mill, S3, Bomaderry, New South Wales, Australia - special papers  Australian Paper, Maryvale Mill, Morwell, Victoria, Australia - M1, M2, M4, packaging paper, cardboard; M3, M5 - fine paper, copy paper PAPER QUALITYWhat factors influence ordering paper in regards to the value of the printedpiece?It is plain and simple. There are two types of Print material: effective and ineffective. Most of it,unfortunately falls into the "ineffective" category. This misfortune is not due to bad design orlack of content. What these pieces fail to do is engage their audience to take action the kind ofaction that results in successful sales.If you are not convinced, check your mail more carefully next time. Sift through and separatethe "junk" from what really catches your attention and leads to something you are trulyinterested in. Now analyse the junk mail. What is it about it that is not working? Is it theimpersonal appearance of the envelope? Is it that nothing pulls you in to open it? And once youdo open it (if you do!), is there nothing worthwhile within, no enticing message, no interestingcall to action?
  27. 27. And this applies to postcards or any other format, where glossy and colourful might be the mainfocus...focus for them, but not for you! You quickly spot it and toss it in the trash. You have to ifyou are going to stay sane...So what can you do on your next Print piece to avoid these common and expensive pitfalls?Here are some ideas that have worked time and time again:1. Your piece needs both to inform and to prompt your audience to take action. For example,sending out a "weve moved" card and including a coupon for 10% off the next purchase orproject. Or, sending a holiday card for Thanksgiving and providing space for listing people towhom to give thanks. In both cases, you get your audience to participate and, in doing so, makea contribution to them.2. You need a headline that grabs and copy that flows. To come up with a strong headline, focuson the purpose of the piece, on the main message you are trying to convey. Is it to thank thereceiver? Is it to announce a change at your company? Is it to invite them to participate in someevent?Develop copy that stems from the headline and stays on course. Be concise and to the point,unless you truly have a great deal to say and can keep it interesting for the reader. Remember:it is all about them, not you.3. Design needs to appeal. Be sure to keep taste in mind! Spend time on font, colour, and thefew, but well-selected elements (for example, taking the time to have a good photograph taken,which makes a huge difference). Do not overdo it, though, as with the text, unless it contributesto the message. Visuals should never overpower the copy, and vice-versa.4. Beware the clutter. Too many messages, too much uninteresting text, too many flashygraphics and that card will be tossed. Keep it simple and do not forget that you are competingagainst many, many other mail pieces.http://www.wahm.com/articles/Print-Pieces-That-Work-Using-Print-Effectively-to-Get-Strong-Results.html