ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY TOPROTECT OUR BORDERSTaking advantage of emerging technologies is a key factor in BODY SCAN IMAGINGCustoms ongoing ability to protect Australias borders. Body scan imaging is used by Customs to detect prohibited itemsAs concealment techniques become more and more sophisticated, concealed on a persons body, or in their clothing, and provides aand new threat sources such as international terrorism emerge, technological alternative to the removal of clothing.Customs is continually investigating new technologies to counterthreats to our border security. The x-ray produced does not show any internal body organs and expo;;es the person being examined to extremely low amounts ofNATIONAL WATERFRONT CLOSED- backscatter x-ray energy.CIRCUIT TELEVISION CUSTOMS DETECTOR DOG PROGRAMCustoms national Waterfront Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) systemenables effective and efficient monitoring of port activity around our Customs has employed specially trained dogs in its program of illicitvast coastline, 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year. drug detection since 1969, and is continually refining its ~reeding program and training techniques to advance this highly effectiveThe network of cameras, in 58 separate port locations across the detection tool .country, is linked to a national monitoring centre, enabling Customsto detect any unlawful activity that represents a threat to our border. Customs has recently introduced versatile multi-purpose response dogs. These dogs are able to search both items (such as sea andX-RAY TECHNOLOGIES air cargo, baggage, mail, vessels and buildings), and people, and providing a more flexible and responsive drug detection capability.Customs uses x-ray technology as a non-intrusive screening tool in awide range of environments; for passenger luggage, postal articles, GAMMA RAY CAVITY DETECTORSvessels, buildings, cargo, and entire sea cargo containers. Hidden cavities in objects are a common method of prohibited goodDepending on the size and density of items to be screened, concealment.Customs can employ any combination of its container, cabinet,pallet, handheld or mobile van and trailer-mounted systems to Buster cavity detectors are hand-held gamma ray devices, used byachieve screening rates unattainable by physical examination. Customs to detect changes in object dens1ty that might indicate concealed cavities .CONTAINER EXAMINATION FACILITIES The Buster units complement Customs extensive range of x-rayCustoms introduction of state-of-the-art container examination technology and are used in searches of vehicles, small vessels andfacilities to major ports around Australia has dramatically increased containers.sea container inspection rates at the border. RADIO COMMUNICATIONSThe new x-ray system is designed to scan a truck carrying fullyladen shipping containers, and can scan up to ten 40ft containers an Customs extensive radio communications network provides a vitalhour. Previously, the only method of inspecting a containers link supporting Customs officers on Customs vessels, Coastwatchcontents was by physically opening and unpacking the contents- a aircraft, regional and district offices and vehicles across Australiasprocess that can take well over eight hours. vast coastline.
Customs uses a range of HF, VHF, UHF and citizen band radios, Customs is also evaluating a number of instruments capable ofportable repeater stations and satellite equipment to facilitate border detecting chemical warfare agents and various chemical hazards.surveillance and protection operations. These include ion mobility spe~trometer s and gas chromatograph- mass spectrometers.ION MOBILITY ,. SPECTROMETRY CUSTOMS TECHNOLOGIES OF THEion mobility spectrometry OMS) technology can detect drugs, FUTUREchemical agents and explosives at very low concentrations. SmartGateThe IMS instruments presently being used by Customs, ionscantrace particle detectors, are portable desktop units that have proven SmartGate is a world-first fa ce recognition technology being trialledinvaluable in the detection of concealed narcotics in a wide variety of by Customs to perform the face-to-passport check normally environments, from commercial shipping, to airports, post and undertaken by a Customs officer. recreational vessels. The first SmartGate Kiosk was installed at the Customs control pointThe ionscan units collect particles by either vacuuming with a filter, at Sydney International Airport for Qantas aircrew inor wiping surfaces with a specially treated cloth . The unit is able to November 2002.detect trace amounts of narcotics in the low "nanogram" range . Ananogram is one billionth of a gram . The system was initially trialled by Qantas international aircrew and at July 2004, more than 5,000 Qantas crew had enrolled to use theA more advanced IMS instrument, named ltemiser, capable of system .detecting narcotics and explosives simultaneously, is beingcommissioned in Customs. In the 2004/ 05 budget, Custom s received $3.1million in funding to expand the trial to a second international airport, Melbourne, andHand-held versions of IMS in struments, capable of being used addition al users.directly on board vessels and aircraft, are being evaluated for futureuse by Customs. If introduced more widely, SmartGate will allow Customs to provide more efficient passenger processing while maintaining a high-level of security and allowing Customs officers to focus on higher-risk activities. High -f req uency r adar Customs is currently worki ng in partnership with the Department of Defence to trial a new over-the-horizon high frequency sur face wave radar, ca pable of detecting surface vessels and low-flying aircraft beyond the visible horizon . Implementation of this technology will greatly enhance Customs Coastwatch s ability to monitor movements across our borders.COUNTER -TERRORISM TECHNOLOGYCustoms is working in cooperation with other Australian andinternational law-enforcement agencies to combat the increasingthreat of international terrori sm.An important aspect of this work is the exploration of a range oftechnologies to detect explosive and chemical weapons.For example, Customs has deployed a fleet of mobile radiationdetectors and source identification in struments across Australia todetect unusual levels of radi ation in cargo and find out whatsubstance is responsible for the radiation. For information on any Customs matters, contact the CustomsA fl eet of dual-mode ion mobility spectrometers capable of detecting Information and Support Centre on 1300 363 263 or emailexplosives and narcotics simultaneously is being commissioned in firstname.lastname@example.org or browse the websiteCustom s. www.customs.gov.au August 2004