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The E-Participation Ladder – Advancing from Unawareness to Impact Participation

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Participation ladders have been described previously, but E-Participation and Open Government have changed the perspective on how people interact and what rungs on an imaginative ladder need to be climbed in order to set forth sustainable participation with a genuine impact on how public services are delivered. The proposed E-Participation Ladder focuses not only on political participation, but more generally on the question of how policies, programs and projects must be designed in order to get people involved.

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The E-Participation Ladder – Advancing from Unawareness to Impact Participation

  1. 1. www.kdz.or.at E-Participation Ladder Advancing from Unawareness to Impact Participation Bernhard Krabina, CeDEM 16 20 May 2016 · Seite 1
  2. 2. www.kdz.or.at Mirko Tobias Schäfer 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 2
  3. 3. www.kdz.or.at Implicit Participation  Schäfer (2011) described "implicit participation" as motivated by the design of an information system itself.  In implicit participation, people are unaware that they are actually participating, but they take action by following certain media practices: by simply using the systems they participate implicitly.  By clicking on certain elements on a website (e. g. a video), people interact with the system. They view/read an item, share it or tag it, thus interacting with the system without necessarily being aware of participating. 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 3
  4. 4. www.kdz.or.at Analogy: The Knowledge Ladder (North, 2002) Symbols Data Information Knowledge (know what / why) Action (know-how) Competence Competitive ness + syntax + bundled uniquely + right choice + application + motivation + relation to context, experience, expectation + meaning Source: North/Kumta, Knowledge Management, 2014
  5. 5. www.kdz.or.at Related Work  Arnstein: "Ladder of Citizen Participation”, 1969  Connor: "New Ladder of Citizen Participation“, 1988  Pretty: “Typology of Participation”, 1995  Fung "Democracy Cube“, 2006  Ferro and Molinari/Forrester Research “The “new” Ladder of Participation“, 2010 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 5
  6. 6. www.kdz.or.at Arnstein: "Ladder of Citizen Participation”, 1969 Connor: "New Ladder of Citizen Participation“, 1988 Pretty: “Typology of Participation”, 1995 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 6  Important, but pre-Internet era
  7. 7. www.kdz.or.at Fung "Democracy Cube“, 2006 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 7  Very holistic  Not easily manageable
  8. 8. www.kdz.or.at Ferro and Molinari Forrester Research (2010) “New Participation Ladder” 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 8  User types  Different engagement possibilities
  9. 9. www.kdz.or.at E-Participation Ladder? Goals  Main question: How to set forth sustainable participation with a genuine impact on how public services are delivered?  Generic enough for all kinds of participation projects  Remain easy enough to use  Include the concept of implicit participation  Explain what is missing/needed to move up/down the steps 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 9
  10. 10. www.kdz.or.at 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 10 E-Participation Ladder
  11. 11. www.kdz.or.at Unawareness  How can I deliver the information to the different target audiences?  What are the target audiences to be involved?  Where do they usually get their information? 11 unawareness + information
  12. 12. www.kdz.or.at 12 Indifference unawareness indifference + information + caring + opinion/content  How can we find those among the informed who do care?  How can we make people care about the topic?  What additional information is needed for them to form their opinions and who can deliver it to them?  What content could they provide that is relevant to and important for our discussion or problem solving?
  13. 13. www.kdz.or.at 13 Passive Participation unawareness indifference passive participation + information + action + caring + opinion/content  How can people be motivated to take action?  What possibilities do they have to take action?  Is our service attractive and easy enough for them to use?
  14. 14. www.kdz.or.at 14 Implicit Participation unawareness indifference passive participation implicit participation + information + awareness/ connection + action + caring + opinion/content  How can we make people aware that participating is worth the effort?  How can we connect the possibilities they have with a participatory goal?  How can we design our systems to make use of implicit participation?
  15. 15. www.kdz.or.at 15 Active Participation unawareness indifference passive participation implicit participation active participation + information + dedicated interface + awareness/ connection + action + caring + opinion/content  How can we get people to use our dedicated interface?  What alternatives do they have?  How can we make our system easy to use for active participation?
  16. 16. www.kdz.or.at 16 Intended Participation unawareness indifference passive participation implicit participation active participation intended participation + information + goal/agenda + dedicated interface + awareness/ connection + action + caring + opinion/content  How do we best communicate the goals of participation?  What timeframe will people be willing to spend in the process?  What timeframe do we need to get enough participation?  What phases do we need, what will happen when?
  17. 17. www.kdz.or.at 17 Effective Participation unawareness indifference passive participation implicit participation active participation intended participation effective participation + information +implementation + goal/agenda + dedicated interface + awareness/ connection + action + caring + opinion/content  How can we make sure that the output is taken, used, put into action?  How can we communicate at the beginning what possible outcomes of the participation are?  How can we communicate what has been done and what has changed after the participation phase?
  18. 18. www.kdz.or.at 18 Impact Participation unawareness indifference passive participation implicit participation active participation intended participation effective participation impact participation + information +implementation + goal/agenda + dedicated interface + awareness/ connection + action + caring + opinion/content  How to set forth sustainable participation with a genuine impact on how public services are delivered?
  19. 19. www.kdz.or.at Open Government Implementation Model: Feedback Mechanism 20. Mai 2016 · Seite 19  https://www.digitaleagenda.wien/idea/328658/8603
  20. 20. www.kdz.or.at Contact 4. Oktober 2012 · Seite 20 http://www.kdz.eu/en/open-government-implementation-model Bernhard Krabina  krabina@kdz.or.at  www.kdz.or.at  @krabina

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