Sustainablity Pack Expo

490 views

Published on

issues in making automated wrapping both greener and more sustainable

Published in: Business, Sports
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
490
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • I have spent a fair mount of time studying this topic but sustainability is a constantly evolving subject. This is a dynamic topic and things change almost as rapidly as the price of oil.

    How many of you are engineers? How many have taken a history course since high school? Being a history major in my undergraduate years, I want to start with a little history lesson.
  • in the 1700’s, men would get into their dories and paddle out from shore off New England to catch a whale. One whale meant heat and clean burning light for the winter for you and your friends. What was called spermacetti whale oil was the Saudi light crude of its day – easy processing, no odor, bright light.

    By 1948, the whales had stopped swimming so close to shore and the men took to ships to catch whales. The market for whale oil was now well established.

    By 1868, the whales were getting harder to catch but the returns on catching them were all the greater. Ships could be away from home for a year or more looking for a whale. Ships from the East Coast of the US could be found in the South Pacific looking for a whale. The price of whale oil was causing a severe dislocation in the market. Like what oil prices have been doing recently. So what changed between 1868 and 1888?

    This price increase provided inspiration to the folks in Pennsylvania to figure out what to do with the dirty oil that kept bubbling out of the ground there. They cleaned it up, drilled some shallow wells to catch it and an industry was born. Kerosene and the onset of electricity changed the picture. The market collapsed in whale oil within 20 years.

    So how did businesses which were whale oil consumers adapt in the 1860”, 70’s and 1880’s to changing sources of energy? They created the next generation of the the Industrial Revolution.


    How do we draw parallels between then and now?

    Where do we go from here when things are not stable?
    One strong parallel is that in those years, people had to pick technologies that were adaptable because they had to learn to use petroleum as a substitute for whale oil. It was a period of innovation that was caused by the new energy sources that became available
    1860 light bulb
    1866 dynamite
    1868 airbrake
    1869 vacuum cleaner
    1873 Modern direct current electric motor
    1876: Gasoline carburettor, Loudspeaker
    1877 induction motor
    1878 cathode ray tube
    1879 cash register
    1880 roll film
    1882 blowtorch, electric fan
    1883 2 phase induction motor (AC)
    1884 electric trolley car
    1885 automobile, motor cycle, AC transformer
    1886 gasoline engine
  • in the 1700’s, men would get into their dories and paddle out from shore off New England to catch a whale. One whale meant heat and clean burning light for the winter for you and your friends. What was called spermacetti whale oil was the Saudi light crude of its day – easy processing, no odor, bright light.

    By 1948, the whales had stopped swimming so close to shore and the men took to ships to catch whales. The market for whale oil was now well established.

    By 1868, the whales were getting harder to catch but the returns on catching them were all the greater. Ships could be away from home for a year or more looking for a whale. Ships from the East Coast of the US could be found in the South Pacific looking for a whale. The price of whale oil was causing a severe dislocation in the market. Like what oil prices have been doing recently. So what changed between 1868 and 1888?

    This price increase provided inspiration to the folks in Pennsylvania to figure out what to do with the dirty oil that kept bubbling out of the ground there. They cleaned it up, drilled some shallow wells to catch it and an industry was born. Kerosene and the onset of electricity changed the picture. The market collapsed in whale oil within 20 years.

    So how did businesses which were whale oil consumers adapt in the 1860”, 70’s and 1880’s to changing sources of energy? They created the next generation of the the Industrial Revolution.


    How do we draw parallels between then and now?

    Where do we go from here when things are not stable?
    One strong parallel is that in those years, people had to pick technologies that were adaptable because they had to learn to use petroleum as a substitute for whale oil. It was a period of innovation that was caused by the new energy sources that became available
    1860 light bulb
    1866 dynamite
    1868 airbrake
    1869 vacuum cleaner
    1873 Modern direct current electric motor
    1876: Gasoline carburettor, Loudspeaker
    1877 induction motor
    1878 cathode ray tube
    1879 cash register
    1880 roll film
    1882 blowtorch, electric fan
    1883 2 phase induction motor (AC)
    1884 electric trolley car
    1885 automobile, motor cycle, AC transformer
    1886 gasoline engine
  • in the 1700’s, men would get into their dories and paddle out from shore off New England to catch a whale. One whale meant heat and clean burning light for the winter for you and your friends. What was called spermacetti whale oil was the Saudi light crude of its day – easy processing, no odor, bright light.

    By 1948, the whales had stopped swimming so close to shore and the men took to ships to catch whales. The market for whale oil was now well established.

    By 1868, the whales were getting harder to catch but the returns on catching them were all the greater. Ships could be away from home for a year or more looking for a whale. Ships from the East Coast of the US could be found in the South Pacific looking for a whale. The price of whale oil was causing a severe dislocation in the market. Like what oil prices have been doing recently. So what changed between 1868 and 1888?

    This price increase provided inspiration to the folks in Pennsylvania to figure out what to do with the dirty oil that kept bubbling out of the ground there. They cleaned it up, drilled some shallow wells to catch it and an industry was born. Kerosene and the onset of electricity changed the picture. The market collapsed in whale oil within 20 years.

    So how did businesses which were whale oil consumers adapt in the 1860”, 70’s and 1880’s to changing sources of energy? They created the next generation of the the Industrial Revolution.


    How do we draw parallels between then and now?

    Where do we go from here when things are not stable?
    One strong parallel is that in those years, people had to pick technologies that were adaptable because they had to learn to use petroleum as a substitute for whale oil. It was a period of innovation that was caused by the new energy sources that became available
    1860 light bulb
    1866 dynamite
    1868 airbrake
    1869 vacuum cleaner
    1873 Modern direct current electric motor
    1876: Gasoline carburettor, Loudspeaker
    1877 induction motor
    1878 cathode ray tube
    1879 cash register
    1880 roll film
    1882 blowtorch, electric fan
    1883 2 phase induction motor (AC)
    1884 electric trolley car
    1885 automobile, motor cycle, AC transformer
    1886 gasoline engine
  • in the 1700’s, men would get into their dories and paddle out from shore off New England to catch a whale. One whale meant heat and clean burning light for the winter for you and your friends. What was called spermacetti whale oil was the Saudi light crude of its day – easy processing, no odor, bright light.

    By 1948, the whales had stopped swimming so close to shore and the men took to ships to catch whales. The market for whale oil was now well established.

    By 1868, the whales were getting harder to catch but the returns on catching them were all the greater. Ships could be away from home for a year or more looking for a whale. Ships from the East Coast of the US could be found in the South Pacific looking for a whale. The price of whale oil was causing a severe dislocation in the market. Like what oil prices have been doing recently. So what changed between 1868 and 1888?

    This price increase provided inspiration to the folks in Pennsylvania to figure out what to do with the dirty oil that kept bubbling out of the ground there. They cleaned it up, drilled some shallow wells to catch it and an industry was born. Kerosene and the onset of electricity changed the picture. The market collapsed in whale oil within 20 years.

    So how did businesses which were whale oil consumers adapt in the 1860”, 70’s and 1880’s to changing sources of energy? They created the next generation of the the Industrial Revolution.


    How do we draw parallels between then and now?

    Where do we go from here when things are not stable?
    One strong parallel is that in those years, people had to pick technologies that were adaptable because they had to learn to use petroleum as a substitute for whale oil. It was a period of innovation that was caused by the new energy sources that became available
    1860 light bulb
    1866 dynamite
    1868 airbrake
    1869 vacuum cleaner
    1873 Modern direct current electric motor
    1876: Gasoline carburettor, Loudspeaker
    1877 induction motor
    1878 cathode ray tube
    1879 cash register
    1880 roll film
    1882 blowtorch, electric fan
    1883 2 phase induction motor (AC)
    1884 electric trolley car
    1885 automobile, motor cycle, AC transformer
    1886 gasoline engine
  • in the 1700’s, men would get into their dories and paddle out from shore off New England to catch a whale. One whale meant heat and clean burning light for the winter for you and your friends. What was called spermacetti whale oil was the Saudi light crude of its day – easy processing, no odor, bright light.

    By 1948, the whales had stopped swimming so close to shore and the men took to ships to catch whales. The market for whale oil was now well established.

    By 1868, the whales were getting harder to catch but the returns on catching them were all the greater. Ships could be away from home for a year or more looking for a whale. Ships from the East Coast of the US could be found in the South Pacific looking for a whale. The price of whale oil was causing a severe dislocation in the market. Like what oil prices have been doing recently. So what changed between 1868 and 1888?

    This price increase provided inspiration to the folks in Pennsylvania to figure out what to do with the dirty oil that kept bubbling out of the ground there. They cleaned it up, drilled some shallow wells to catch it and an industry was born. Kerosene and the onset of electricity changed the picture. The market collapsed in whale oil within 20 years.

    So how did businesses which were whale oil consumers adapt in the 1860”, 70’s and 1880’s to changing sources of energy? They created the next generation of the the Industrial Revolution.


    How do we draw parallels between then and now?

    Where do we go from here when things are not stable?
    One strong parallel is that in those years, people had to pick technologies that were adaptable because they had to learn to use petroleum as a substitute for whale oil. It was a period of innovation that was caused by the new energy sources that became available
    1860 light bulb
    1866 dynamite
    1868 airbrake
    1869 vacuum cleaner
    1873 Modern direct current electric motor
    1876: Gasoline carburettor, Loudspeaker
    1877 induction motor
    1878 cathode ray tube
    1879 cash register
    1880 roll film
    1882 blowtorch, electric fan
    1883 2 phase induction motor (AC)
    1884 electric trolley car
    1885 automobile, motor cycle, AC transformer
    1886 gasoline engine
  • ((One of the fascinating statistics I picked up as I was researching this subject is how our food supply has changed. In 1940 it took one calorie of fossil-fuel energy to produce 2.3 calories of food energy . Today it takes 10 calories of fossil fuel energy to product a single calorie of modern supermarket food. This does not even address the transportation costs of food simply the production of food. As this becomes known our method of growing and producing food and the types of food we consume will change.))

    When I was young, Bob Dylan sang” the times they are a changin’”. But his attitude seems different now. Then we were trying to create change. Today change is being forced upon us. Fundamental assumption seem different. Our petroleum based economy and our financial system are called into jeopardy. Things are both fluid and dynamic.

    We need to be careful about how we are locked in tight.
  • For manufacturers, socially responsible is so vast that many don’t know how to respond. Beyond packaging, it is a process issue; it is a energy, water and haz mat issue. Ultimately it is also a perception and communication issue, one of market positioning. How do you want your consumer to see you? Later we will talk about how some manufacturers are dealing with this.

    Wholesalers and retailers are looking to be socially responsible but not with increased imbedded costs that put them at a disadvantage. For most of them, the first definition is reducing what they put in a landfill. This translates to reduction in intermediate packaging for which they are responsible. When they are wrung everything from this, they will move on to looking at other costs.

    Consumers are looking to be more socially responsible and for socially responsible manufacturers, but they don’t have a clear definition of what “socially responsible” means. According to Craig Ostbo of Koopman Ostbo Consumer Research, consumers are looking to their suppliers to guide them in being more responsible consumers. We will come back to this a little later.

    In the UK there is a movement to cause the carbon footprint of each product to be on the package. One simple number. Consumers like one simple number.

    What does carbon footprint mean? How do we as manufacturers apply it? Are we responsible for things before they com into our plant? What should I know about our vendors activities? If we provide only one step in the process, how do we account for the other steps?
  • Let’s talk about what is going on in some real terms.

    according to IBM, this is what consumers are doing. This appeared in an ad I saw in August. While recent events may have reduced it slightly, it is a pretty clear indication of a trend.
    The times, they are a changing.
  • there are lots of factors in sustainability and I could be here all day. But I am here to talk about Wrapping and these are the issues that come into play the most.

    What process substitutions are possible in the packaging process?
    Have you evaluated the energy consumption of your wrapping process?
    Can you reduce the gauge of the film by changing its composition or substitution of one process for another?
    Can you reduce the paperboard use through different use of wrapping material?
    Can you reduce intermediate packaging through bundle wrap?
    Are you recycling the waste that occurs in your processes?

    Can you provide your consumers with recycling information on the package so they know you care and they know what to do?

    Do your consumers care? More than you think!! They just don’t know how to move forward. Some cosmetic companies have caught on and are using biodegrable/ compostable paper (my favorite is one with seeds in it so things spout from the waste) and film, so they can
  • there are lots of factors in sustainability and I could be here all day. But I am here to talk about Wrapping and these are the issues that come into play the most.

    What process substitutions are possible in the packaging process?
    Have you evaluated the energy consumption of your wrapping process?
    Can you reduce the gauge of the film by changing its composition or substitution of one process for another?
    Can you reduce the paperboard use through different use of wrapping material?
    Can you reduce intermediate packaging through bundle wrap?
    Are you recycling the waste that occurs in your processes?

    Can you provide your consumers with recycling information on the package so they know you care and they know what to do?

    Do your consumers care? More than you think!! They just don’t know how to move forward. Some cosmetic companies have caught on and are using biodegrable/ compostable paper (my favorite is one with seeds in it so things spout from the waste) and film, so they can
  • there are lots of factors in sustainability and I could be here all day. But I am here to talk about Wrapping and these are the issues that come into play the most.

    What process substitutions are possible in the packaging process?
    Have you evaluated the energy consumption of your wrapping process?
    Can you reduce the gauge of the film by changing its composition or substitution of one process for another?
    Can you reduce the paperboard use through different use of wrapping material?
    Can you reduce intermediate packaging through bundle wrap?
    Are you recycling the waste that occurs in your processes?

    Can you provide your consumers with recycling information on the package so they know you care and they know what to do?

    Do your consumers care? More than you think!! They just don’t know how to move forward. Some cosmetic companies have caught on and are using biodegrable/ compostable paper (my favorite is one with seeds in it so things spout from the waste) and film, so they can
  • there are lots of factors in sustainability and I could be here all day. But I am here to talk about Wrapping and these are the issues that come into play the most.

    What process substitutions are possible in the packaging process?
    Have you evaluated the energy consumption of your wrapping process?
    Can you reduce the gauge of the film by changing its composition or substitution of one process for another?
    Can you reduce the paperboard use through different use of wrapping material?
    Can you reduce intermediate packaging through bundle wrap?
    Are you recycling the waste that occurs in your processes?

    Can you provide your consumers with recycling information on the package so they know you care and they know what to do?

    Do your consumers care? More than you think!! They just don’t know how to move forward. Some cosmetic companies have caught on and are using biodegrable/ compostable paper (my favorite is one with seeds in it so things spout from the waste) and film, so they can
  • there are lots of factors in sustainability and I could be here all day. But I am here to talk about Wrapping and these are the issues that come into play the most.

    What process substitutions are possible in the packaging process?
    Have you evaluated the energy consumption of your wrapping process?
    Can you reduce the gauge of the film by changing its composition or substitution of one process for another?
    Can you reduce the paperboard use through different use of wrapping material?
    Can you reduce intermediate packaging through bundle wrap?
    Are you recycling the waste that occurs in your processes?

    Can you provide your consumers with recycling information on the package so they know you care and they know what to do?

    Do your consumers care? More than you think!! They just don’t know how to move forward. Some cosmetic companies have caught on and are using biodegrable/ compostable paper (my favorite is one with seeds in it so things spout from the waste) and film, so they can
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • But before we go there, the basics of product safety and protection have to be taken care of. In wrapping this means looking at the properties of the wrap material where it is biodegradable, compostable or going to be thrown in the trash.
    Does the wrap give your product the protection and enhancement it requires? You probably look at the first three characteristics here and I know what your givens are for these.

    Machine friendly is one of those things that varies from film to film and machine to machine. Talking to the vendors for both is critical but they have experimented with each other before.

    Price is a tricky thing when it comes to consumables. Measuring waste and energy are critical. If there is a lot of waste, then the price per usable package may be higher than the simple cost of the consumable.

    Then comes haggling with the machinery vendors about why their machine does not easily adjust to your newest film vendor who gives you the best price.

    Recyclability may come low on your list but it is creeping up and we will talk about ways to communicate this
  • Materials manufacture looks at the cost, both price and ecologically, to make the consumables used in your process. There is a lot of conversation on this topic right now. I think there are as many ways to measure this as there are people measuring it. It includes the package as well as the contents.

    Today people are beginning to look at the ultimate cost to get a product to a consumer and dispose of the remnants thereafter. Some call this the carbon footprint. Some take a basic measurement of how far did the package travel from the manufacturer to the consumer but that does not take into account how far the ingredients travelled to reach the manufacturer, nor what happened to intermediate packaging along the way, nor what the consumer does with the leftovers.

    Energy consumption speaks for itself but there are differences in processes. Some wrap process have higher operating costs and lower capital costs and vice versa. While volume is a critical component in figuring out the total cost of ownership, looking at your energy cost is a piece of this.

    Scarce resources to manufacture is a relative term. For a beer or soda company it might be clean water; for a candy company, access to cocoa or sugar. For another company it might be the high cost of transportation.

    These are the renewable factors that will have the most impact on your business.
  • Materials manufacture looks at the cost, both price and ecologically, to make the consumables used in your process. There is a lot of conversation on this topic right now. I think there are as many ways to measure this as there are people measuring it. It includes the package as well as the contents.

    Today people are beginning to look at the ultimate cost to get a product to a consumer and dispose of the remnants thereafter. Some call this the carbon footprint. Some take a basic measurement of how far did the package travel from the manufacturer to the consumer but that does not take into account how far the ingredients travelled to reach the manufacturer, nor what happened to intermediate packaging along the way, nor what the consumer does with the leftovers.

    Energy consumption speaks for itself but there are differences in processes. Some wrap process have higher operating costs and lower capital costs and vice versa. While volume is a critical component in figuring out the total cost of ownership, looking at your energy cost is a piece of this.

    Scarce resources to manufacture is a relative term. For a beer or soda company it might be clean water; for a candy company, access to cocoa or sugar. For another company it might be the high cost of transportation.

    These are the renewable factors that will have the most impact on your business.
  • Materials manufacture looks at the cost, both price and ecologically, to make the consumables used in your process. There is a lot of conversation on this topic right now. I think there are as many ways to measure this as there are people measuring it. It includes the package as well as the contents.

    Today people are beginning to look at the ultimate cost to get a product to a consumer and dispose of the remnants thereafter. Some call this the carbon footprint. Some take a basic measurement of how far did the package travel from the manufacturer to the consumer but that does not take into account how far the ingredients travelled to reach the manufacturer, nor what happened to intermediate packaging along the way, nor what the consumer does with the leftovers.

    Energy consumption speaks for itself but there are differences in processes. Some wrap process have higher operating costs and lower capital costs and vice versa. While volume is a critical component in figuring out the total cost of ownership, looking at your energy cost is a piece of this.

    Scarce resources to manufacture is a relative term. For a beer or soda company it might be clean water; for a candy company, access to cocoa or sugar. For another company it might be the high cost of transportation.

    These are the renewable factors that will have the most impact on your business.
  • Materials manufacture looks at the cost, both price and ecologically, to make the consumables used in your process. There is a lot of conversation on this topic right now. I think there are as many ways to measure this as there are people measuring it. It includes the package as well as the contents.

    Today people are beginning to look at the ultimate cost to get a product to a consumer and dispose of the remnants thereafter. Some call this the carbon footprint. Some take a basic measurement of how far did the package travel from the manufacturer to the consumer but that does not take into account how far the ingredients travelled to reach the manufacturer, nor what happened to intermediate packaging along the way, nor what the consumer does with the leftovers.

    Energy consumption speaks for itself but there are differences in processes. Some wrap process have higher operating costs and lower capital costs and vice versa. While volume is a critical component in figuring out the total cost of ownership, looking at your energy cost is a piece of this.

    Scarce resources to manufacture is a relative term. For a beer or soda company it might be clean water; for a candy company, access to cocoa or sugar. For another company it might be the high cost of transportation.

    These are the renewable factors that will have the most impact on your business.
  • IGetting your utility company to do an energy assessment is usually free and worth something.
    Lean processes are valuable to consider how material flows in and out of your facility and where bottlenecks occur. This may be stating the obvious but I recommend looking at what is involved in applying for the Baldrige awards. Baldrige is run by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST is a great way to get relatively free information. Their annual conference is in Washington April 19-22. More info is available at NIST.gov
    Asking your suppliers to provide you with factual information in a comparable format is also helpful in calculating your carbon footprint

    ISO 14040 and 14044 are the Standards for Environmental Management through Life Cycle Analysis. They provide the framework, guidlelines and standards for life Cycle analysis which should create opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their life cycle,

    It includes opportunities to learn about how
    •to inform and engage decision-makers in industry the purpose of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign,
    •the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques, and
    •marketing (e.g. implementing an eco-labelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an environmental product declaration)

    COMPASS is a software tool made by GreenBlue that provides credible, science based information resources for decision-making. Green Blue stated goal is to make commercial activity and ecologically and socially regenerative process.
    http://www.greenblue.org/

    .
  • IGetting your utility company to do an energy assessment is usually free and worth something.
    Lean processes are valuable to consider how material flows in and out of your facility and where bottlenecks occur. This may be stating the obvious but I recommend looking at what is involved in applying for the Baldrige awards. Baldrige is run by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST is a great way to get relatively free information. Their annual conference is in Washington April 19-22. More info is available at NIST.gov
    Asking your suppliers to provide you with factual information in a comparable format is also helpful in calculating your carbon footprint

    ISO 14040 and 14044 are the Standards for Environmental Management through Life Cycle Analysis. They provide the framework, guidlelines and standards for life Cycle analysis which should create opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their life cycle,

    It includes opportunities to learn about how
    •to inform and engage decision-makers in industry the purpose of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign,
    •the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques, and
    •marketing (e.g. implementing an eco-labelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an environmental product declaration)

    COMPASS is a software tool made by GreenBlue that provides credible, science based information resources for decision-making. Green Blue stated goal is to make commercial activity and ecologically and socially regenerative process.
    http://www.greenblue.org/

    .
  • IGetting your utility company to do an energy assessment is usually free and worth something.
    Lean processes are valuable to consider how material flows in and out of your facility and where bottlenecks occur. This may be stating the obvious but I recommend looking at what is involved in applying for the Baldrige awards. Baldrige is run by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST is a great way to get relatively free information. Their annual conference is in Washington April 19-22. More info is available at NIST.gov
    Asking your suppliers to provide you with factual information in a comparable format is also helpful in calculating your carbon footprint

    ISO 14040 and 14044 are the Standards for Environmental Management through Life Cycle Analysis. They provide the framework, guidlelines and standards for life Cycle analysis which should create opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their life cycle,

    It includes opportunities to learn about how
    •to inform and engage decision-makers in industry the purpose of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign,
    •the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques, and
    •marketing (e.g. implementing an eco-labelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an environmental product declaration)

    COMPASS is a software tool made by GreenBlue that provides credible, science based information resources for decision-making. Green Blue stated goal is to make commercial activity and ecologically and socially regenerative process.
    http://www.greenblue.org/

    .
  • IGetting your utility company to do an energy assessment is usually free and worth something.
    Lean processes are valuable to consider how material flows in and out of your facility and where bottlenecks occur. This may be stating the obvious but I recommend looking at what is involved in applying for the Baldrige awards. Baldrige is run by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST is a great way to get relatively free information. Their annual conference is in Washington April 19-22. More info is available at NIST.gov
    Asking your suppliers to provide you with factual information in a comparable format is also helpful in calculating your carbon footprint

    ISO 14040 and 14044 are the Standards for Environmental Management through Life Cycle Analysis. They provide the framework, guidlelines and standards for life Cycle analysis which should create opportunities to improve the environmental performance of products at various points in their life cycle,

    It includes opportunities to learn about how
    •to inform and engage decision-makers in industry the purpose of strategic planning, priority setting, product or process design or redesign,
    •the selection of relevant indicators of environmental performance, including measurement techniques, and
    •marketing (e.g. implementing an eco-labelling scheme, making an environmental claim, or producing an environmental product declaration)

    COMPASS is a software tool made by GreenBlue that provides credible, science based information resources for decision-making. Green Blue stated goal is to make commercial activity and ecologically and socially regenerative process.
    http://www.greenblue.org/

    .
  • Life Cycle analysis includes all impact categories including other sources critical to production. The goal is to pick one that is the least burdensome to the environment. One cannot ignore the impact of farming on water and fertilizer use, habit loss or deforestation.

    Goal and scope is pretty straight forward. This involves defining how much of the process you are going to evaluate.

    Life Cycle inventory involves data collection and modeling of the product system. Often dedicated software packages are used to do this.

    Impact Assessment is aimed at evaluating the contribution to impact categories such as global warming, acidification, deforestation, etc. In other words, the things that are not renewable.

    Interpretation involves some sensitivity analysis and a look at whether the ambitions from the goal and scope were met.

    The variants define the end points of measurement.

    Cradle to Grave would be from raw material to post consumer. With paper that might mean from tree to recycling. All inputs and outputs are considered for all phases of the life cycle.

    For those less ambitious or for those who can control only a portion of the life cycle, looking at it from cradle to when it leaves your gate or from entry to exit of your facility are other options. Wheel to wheel is yet another variation which looks at transportation costs specifically. There are also life cycle analyses that look at economic input and output as well as energy sources and consumption.
  • Life Cycle analysis includes all impact categories including other sources critical to production. The goal is to pick one that is the least burdensome to the environment. One cannot ignore the impact of farming on water and fertilizer use, habit loss or deforestation.

    Goal and scope is pretty straight forward. This involves defining how much of the process you are going to evaluate.

    Life Cycle inventory involves data collection and modeling of the product system. Often dedicated software packages are used to do this.

    Impact Assessment is aimed at evaluating the contribution to impact categories such as global warming, acidification, deforestation, etc. In other words, the things that are not renewable.

    Interpretation involves some sensitivity analysis and a look at whether the ambitions from the goal and scope were met.

    The variants define the end points of measurement.

    Cradle to Grave would be from raw material to post consumer. With paper that might mean from tree to recycling. All inputs and outputs are considered for all phases of the life cycle.

    For those less ambitious or for those who can control only a portion of the life cycle, looking at it from cradle to when it leaves your gate or from entry to exit of your facility are other options. Wheel to wheel is yet another variation which looks at transportation costs specifically. There are also life cycle analyses that look at economic input and output as well as energy sources and consumption.
  • Millejules per 1 Kilogram of resin/precursor American Chemistry Council

    Remember what I said about carbon foot print earlier and the different ways of measuring it. Here is a prime example.

    Not only does the terminology vary but the measurements vary and, of course, what is being measured can be different depending on the location and proximity of energy, feedstock, transport methods, etc.

    As an example, using ACC standards you might think that Polypropylene is the best polymer to use. However Plastics Europe’s number say that LLDPE is better.

    This is a prime example of the danger of information in a vacuum.
  • I thought it might be interesting to look at common wrapping material sources to see what happens in the transformative process. The feedstock is shown here for polymer production but it is also the basis of all electricity and therefore of all production that uses electricity from oil. At every step of the way things branch off and are used in different processes.

    This is also a way to look back and see where your material came from. From your polymer that you use for wrapping you cna also see where other products came from the same source.
    Life Cycle analysis includes all impact categories including other sources critical to production. One cannot ignore the impact of farming on water and fertilizer use, habit loss or deforestation.
  • Post consumer recycling which is pathetic today would have a major impact on the Carbon footprint of any process. However, in the example of paper vs. Plastic bags, paper does not break down in landfills. Paper is only environmentally improved if it is composted.

    Plastic bags produce 60% less greenhouse gases than uncomposted paper bags, use only 4% of the water to mfg, consume 60% less energy during production and generate 80% less solid waste than paper bags.

    For the sake of argument, let’s accept that petroleum based films are not usually recyclable since there is almost no market for post-consumer film recycling. Most polymers will break down in sunlight fairly quickly which is why they usually have stabilizers added in the process on the previous slide. On the other hand, lamination of paper with plastics or metal may improve the performance of the packaging material but it makes it non-recyclable. Add inks which may have a chemical base and it maybe unsafe to dispose of this in your compost pile. This means that many wrappings are not biodegradable despite their source.

    It is important to add that landfills are not places where things break down easily. Today’s jandfills are clay lined so that things in them cannot leach into the surrounding water. Things don’t break down in landfills because they are not exposed to air or water, the most common causes of degradation.

    So let’s clarify the terminology. Being bio-based means that a product has been made from a biological (living) or renewable source. Bio-Degradable means that the product maybe broken down by other living organisms. Compostable means that it can be thrown in a home compost heap.

    Being bio-based does not mean that a material is bio-degradable. Being bio-degradable does not mean that a material is bio-based. For instance, polyethylene can be made from sugar cane, which is is renewable, but it is not bio-degradable because it has the same molecular structure as petro-based polyethylene.
  • Post consumer recycling which is pathetic today would have a major impact on the Carbon footprint of any process. However, in the example of paper vs. Plastic bags, paper does not break down in landfills. Paper is only environmentally improved if it is composted.

    Plastic bags produce 60% less greenhouse gases than uncomposted paper bags, use only 4% of the water to mfg, consume 60% less energy during production and generate 80% less solid waste than paper bags.

    For the sake of argument, let’s accept that petroleum based films are not usually recyclable since there is almost no market for post-consumer film recycling. Most polymers will break down in sunlight fairly quickly which is why they usually have stabilizers added in the process on the previous slide. On the other hand, lamination of paper with plastics or metal may improve the performance of the packaging material but it makes it non-recyclable. Add inks which may have a chemical base and it maybe unsafe to dispose of this in your compost pile. This means that many wrappings are not biodegradable despite their source.

    It is important to add that landfills are not places where things break down easily. Today’s jandfills are clay lined so that things in them cannot leach into the surrounding water. Things don’t break down in landfills because they are not exposed to air or water, the most common causes of degradation.

    So let’s clarify the terminology. Being bio-based means that a product has been made from a biological (living) or renewable source. Bio-Degradable means that the product maybe broken down by other living organisms. Compostable means that it can be thrown in a home compost heap.

    Being bio-based does not mean that a material is bio-degradable. Being bio-degradable does not mean that a material is bio-based. For instance, polyethylene can be made from sugar cane, which is is renewable, but it is not bio-degradable because it has the same molecular structure as petro-based polyethylene.
  • Post consumer recycling which is pathetic today would have a major impact on the Carbon footprint of any process. However, in the example of paper vs. Plastic bags, paper does not break down in landfills. Paper is only environmentally improved if it is composted.

    Plastic bags produce 60% less greenhouse gases than uncomposted paper bags, use only 4% of the water to mfg, consume 60% less energy during production and generate 80% less solid waste than paper bags.

    For the sake of argument, let’s accept that petroleum based films are not usually recyclable since there is almost no market for post-consumer film recycling. Most polymers will break down in sunlight fairly quickly which is why they usually have stabilizers added in the process on the previous slide. On the other hand, lamination of paper with plastics or metal may improve the performance of the packaging material but it makes it non-recyclable. Add inks which may have a chemical base and it maybe unsafe to dispose of this in your compost pile. This means that many wrappings are not biodegradable despite their source.

    It is important to add that landfills are not places where things break down easily. Today’s jandfills are clay lined so that things in them cannot leach into the surrounding water. Things don’t break down in landfills because they are not exposed to air or water, the most common causes of degradation.

    So let’s clarify the terminology. Being bio-based means that a product has been made from a biological (living) or renewable source. Bio-Degradable means that the product maybe broken down by other living organisms. Compostable means that it can be thrown in a home compost heap.

    Being bio-based does not mean that a material is bio-degradable. Being bio-degradable does not mean that a material is bio-based. For instance, polyethylene can be made from sugar cane, which is is renewable, but it is not bio-degradable because it has the same molecular structure as petro-based polyethylene.
  • Biodegradable means that that under the right conditions the microbes in the environment can break down the material and use it as a food source. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines a bio-based material as organic material in which carbon is derived from a renewal resource via biological processes.

    ASTM International is an open forum for the development of high quality, market-relevant worldwide standards. US standard ASTM 6400 is a specification for compostable plastics that includes the standard displayed here. Other ASTM standards include D6853 for determination of Bio-based content, resources consumption and environmental profile of Materials and Products; D6866 Standard test methods for determining the above. D883-08 for standard terminology relating to Plastics. D6868 standard for compostable plastic coated paper products.

    Products that meet these standards will disintegrate rapidly during composting, biodegrade quickly under composting conditions, not reduce the value of the finished compost and not affect the hummus ability to support plant life. Lastly it will not contain high amounts of regulated metals. The only way to know if a material is biodegradable or compostable is if it meets ASTM Specifications D6400 or D6868. For more information, check out www.bpiworld.org
  • Biodegradable means that that under the right conditions the microbes in the environment can break down the material and use it as a food source. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines a bio-based material as organic material in which carbon is derived from a renewal resource via biological processes.

    ASTM International is an open forum for the development of high quality, market-relevant worldwide standards. US standard ASTM 6400 is a specification for compostable plastics that includes the standard displayed here. Other ASTM standards include D6853 for determination of Bio-based content, resources consumption and environmental profile of Materials and Products; D6866 Standard test methods for determining the above. D883-08 for standard terminology relating to Plastics. D6868 standard for compostable plastic coated paper products.

    Products that meet these standards will disintegrate rapidly during composting, biodegrade quickly under composting conditions, not reduce the value of the finished compost and not affect the hummus ability to support plant life. Lastly it will not contain high amounts of regulated metals. The only way to know if a material is biodegradable or compostable is if it meets ASTM Specifications D6400 or D6868. For more information, check out www.bpiworld.org
  • Some of these such as Mater-Bi and EcoFlex are better for cling, stretch or other LDPE properties. NatureFlex and PLA have some OPP properties such as stiffness, transparency and gloss. PLA will substitute for polyethylene applications. There are also opportunities to combine these films. There is also PHA which is polyhydroxyalkanoate which is used for more rigid plastic applications such as caps, detergent sachets, electronics, etc.

    All of these bio-plastics have applications and limitations, as any petro-based films do. You will need to evaluate them for yourself and determine cost/benefit trade offs. If you want to catch me afterwards, I will tell you which ones I have tried on our overwrapping machines.
  • Are there any positives to staying with petro-based films? Yes, there are. They are usually cheaper and are a by-product of energy production. They can be turned into energy production in a cogeneration facility. Think trash to cogen. Today there are synthetic plastic resins that will biodegrade and compost, just like paper or yard trimmings.

    For cogen power, there is the issue of post-consumer recycling.

    Recycling by manufacturers is a great way to be positive but it requires volume and processes.

    There are no simple answers. And if you find one, it will probably be wrong tomorrow - or the next day.

    The real question is how do we engage the consumer in this process.
  • Craig Ostbo of Koopman Ostbo did an interesting survey of middle/upper middle class women in Portland, Oregon, a city that prides itself on being “green.”

    in his survey found that consumers had little or no knowledge of what sustainable means but did understand recyclable. Most consumers believe that paperboard and glass packaging are easier to recycle. Reflexively they think plastic is bad but not to the point they are willing to give it up. It is clear that for a majority of consumers sustainability takes a back seat to price and convienence, but those numbers are shifting.

    They do believe that manufacturers have an obligation or be socially responsible and that includes making it easier for consumers to do good as well.

    So let’s look at some examples of packaging that works - at least for now. One is done with a Package Machinery machine. The other is not.
  • These golf balls were originally put in 3 pack sleeves and then into a more durable box before being shrink-wrapped. Consumer surveys found that consumers found the box useless and bulky and to easy to fit into trashcans.

    Isn’t this a cool wrap? It is 5 sleeves of golfballs wrapped as one package. The owner can do this with three to six sleeves and change package sizes in less than 10 minutes. We built the machines for this application in 2002 and 2004. We were really proud of the job our FA-ST machines did with this film and the manufacturer was thrilled at the time that it could eliminate an intermediate box. The payback on the machinery was three months dues to reduced materials costs. Using servo technology we were able to marry the print design to the proper place on the package time after time.

    But the film is another story. It is a six layer laminate film. It has a metallic layer in it. There was no plan to recycle this film.

    On balance did the new wrap save product weight, case size, transportation costs? you betcha, but there are tradeoffs.
  • Forgive the poor image quality. This is a box of Belgian chocolates sold by Marks & Spencer, the UK retailer. Marks & Spencer’s Plan A to reduce waste is fairly well know. This year they received an award from DuPont for their efforts. The chocolate box illustrated above provides a legend on the back of what can be done with the packaging once the chocolate is consumed. The box is recyclable, the film wrap is home compostable and the tray is trash. Add to this clean production and it is a home run.

    I don’t know if the Chocolate is fair trade though!!
  • Looking at total cost of ownership is a growing trend among manufacturers. TCO analysis calculates the total life-long, fully burdened costs for an investment, such as a business process change or an equipment purchase. TCO calculations help companies assess both initial and long term operating costs and benefits. Lowering TCO typically aids sustainability goals . Lowering TCO also often results in higher up-front costs for superior equipment, systems and training.


    You need to ask and listen to answers though and weigh what you learn
    That said, this should be a two way street and the machinery user needs to communicate about the types of film they want to use and how often they change film properties, package sizes etc

    Speaking as a producer of machines that come at the end of the line, it is amazing how what happens further up the line affects the wrap quality.

    A recently updated study by the Grocery Manufacturers association GMA in conjunction with the PMMI and Deloitte notes that metrics for sustainability remain undefined in this country. Without common methodologies for measuring and tracking the progress of sustainability initiatives remains challenging.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • I think these quotes speak for themselves.

    What they omit is the need to work cooperatively to achieve the change that WE all face.
  • Sustainablity Pack Expo

    1. 1. Tradeoffs in Sustainability in Wrapping Kate Putnam
    2. 2. 19th Century Economics
    3. 3. 19th Century Economics Number of Whaling Price of Whale Oil/ Year Ships Gallon 1846 200 $0.88 1866 700 $2.55 1886 75 $0.75
    4. 4. 19th Century Economics Number of Whaling Price of Whale Oil/ Year Ships Gallon 1846 200 $0.88 1866 700 $2.55 1886 75 $0.75
    5. 5. 19th Century Economics Number of Whaling Price of Whale Oil/ Year Ships Gallon 1846 200 $0.88 1866 700 $2.55 1886 75 $0.75
    6. 6. 19th Century Economics Number of Whaling Price of Whale Oil/ Year Ships Gallon 1846 200 $0.88 1866 700 $2.55 1886 75 $0.75
    7. 7. 19th Century Economics
    8. 8. Things have changed
    9. 9. Things have changed
    10. 10. So, what are all us crazy people looking for? Socially Responsible Activities Manufacturers Wholesalers and Retailers Consumers
    11. 11. $104 Billion
    12. 12. $104 Billion The amount US consumers are expected to spend on green goods and services in 2008.
    13. 13. More Sustainable Wrapping
    14. 14. More Sustainable Wrapping Reduced material consumption
    15. 15. More Sustainable Wrapping Reduced material consumption Reduced energy use
    16. 16. More Sustainable Wrapping Reduced material consumption Reduced energy use Increased recyclability
    17. 17. More Sustainable Wrapping Reduced material consumption Reduced energy use Increased recyclability Packaging/process substitution
    18. 18. More Sustainable Wrapping Reduced material consumption Reduced energy use Increased recyclability Packaging/process substitution Consumer awareness
    19. 19. Wrapping Material Factors
    20. 20. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties
    21. 21. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties Flexibility and Clarity
    22. 22. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties Flexibility and Clarity Stretchability / Stiffness
    23. 23. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties Flexibility and Clarity Stretchability / Stiffness Machine friendly
    24. 24. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties Flexibility and Clarity Stretchability / Stiffness Machine friendly Price
    25. 25. Wrapping Material Factors Gas and Moisture barrier properties Flexibility and Clarity Stretchability / Stiffness Machine friendly Price Recyclability
    26. 26. Factors in Material
    27. 27. Factors in Material Material Manufacture
    28. 28. Factors in Material Material Manufacture Energy Consumption and Processes
    29. 29. Factors in Material Material Manufacture Energy Consumption and Processes Scarce Resources to Manufacture
    30. 30. Factors in Material Material Manufacture Energy Consumption and Processes Scarce Resources to Manufacture
    31. 31. Manufacturing Processes
    32. 32. Manufacturing Processes Utility audits
    33. 33. Manufacturing Processes Utility audits Lean processes
    34. 34. Manufacturing Processes Utility audits Lean processes Supplier questions
    35. 35. Manufacturing Processes Utility audits Lean processes Supplier questions Life Cycle Analysis - ISO 14040 & 14044
    36. 36. Life Cycle Analysis
    37. 37. Life Cycle Analysis 4 Phases Goal and Scope Life cycle inventory Life cycle impact assessment Interpretation
    38. 38. Life Cycle Analysis 4 Phases Goal and Scope Life cycle inventory Life cycle impact assessment Interpretation Some Variants Cradle to Grave Cradle to Gate Gate to Gate
    39. 39. An Example of Conflicting Information Total Energy Comparison
    40. 40. An Example of Conflicting Information Total Energy Comparison Polymer ACC Plastics Europe HDPE 68.9 76.7 LDPE 74.0 78.1 LLDPE 68.5 72.7 PP 63.4 73.4 PET 69.1 82.7
    41. 41. Polymer production Packaging (such as bottle, pouch, bag or wrap)
    42. 42. Polymer production Feedstock (natural gas, Monomer oil, corn, (such as Polymer soybeans, ethylene, (such as Packaging sugar cane) propylene, polyethylene, (such as lactic acid) polypropylene, bottle, polylactic acid) pouch, bag or wrap)
    43. 43. Paper vs. Plastic Plastic vs. Plastic
    44. 44. Paper vs. Plastic Plastic vs. Plastic • Biodegradability Issues • Lamination • Consumer awareness
    45. 45. Paper vs. Plastic Plastic vs. Plastic • Biodegradability Issues • Lamination • Consumer awareness • Use of scarce resources: • Water • Energy • Renewable vs. Non-renewable sources
    46. 46. Paper vs. Plastic Plastic vs. Plastic • Biodegradability Issues • Lamination • Consumer awareness • Use of scarce resources: • Water • Energy • Renewable vs. Non-renewable sources • Post-Consumer Plastic: choices in biodegradable vs. cogeneration
    47. 47. Biodegradable and Compostable
    48. 48. Biodegradable and Compostable Biodegradable testing include 90% must biodegrade Heavy metals test required Plant growing tests are carried out
    49. 49. Biodegradable and Compostable Biodegradable testing include 90% must biodegrade Heavy metals test required Plant growing tests are carried out Methods of Composting Industrial Home
    50. 50. Bio-Based Films
    51. 51. Bio-Based Films BASF EcoFlex™ PET Innovia’s NatureFlex™ Cellulose Film NatureWorks™ PLA Novamont Mater-Bi ™ Starch-based But............
    52. 52. Petro-based Films
    53. 53. Petro-based Films Degrade rapidly in sunlight Make good fuel in cogen power plants Can be recycled by manufacturers and distributors Thinner films are possible due to technological advances
    54. 54. What Consumers Want Most do not know what sustainable means But do know what recyclable means, just not the numbers on the plastic Want simple and minimal packaging (Hate clamshells) Want simple instructions on how to treat packaging Need to understand that sustainability is more than recycling
    55. 55. Bundling
    56. 56. Consumer Awareness
    57. 57. Suppliers Should Make it easy to switch choices among material options Build energy efficient machinery Know the limits of the machine and share that information Stay abreast of changes and improvements in wrapping
    58. 58. Food for Thought
    59. 59. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
    60. 60. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin
    61. 61. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin
    62. 62. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin
    63. 63. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin “The future depends on what we do in the present.”
    64. 64. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin “The future depends on what we do in the present.” Mahatma Ghandi
    65. 65. Food for Thought “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin “The future depends on what we do in the present.” Mahatma Ghandi
    66. 66. THANK YOU Kate Putnam http://www.packagemachinery.com kputnam@packagemachinery.com +1.413.732.4000 x100

    ×