Welcome to Week 1 of Art 576. This lecture introduces “the Object” and provides contextualized a foundation through historic movements, basic materials and forms. I’m excited that we have this opportunity to set paintings aside and focus exclusively on the object. As such, the content of this course is able to live outside the boundaries of painting movements (of which sculptures are often placed into when covering a given time period).The slides that follow will establish how the subject mater of “Object” will be organized for the remainder of this course.
Leading up to the 19th century and Modernity, the subject matter of object and sculpture followed three simple rules. 1st: it had to be Three Dimensional2nd: Materials most commonly used: - wood -stone -clay -metal 3rd : The Form: (shape) of sculpture can simply be categorized into one of the three subjects. -the figurative form -object as sculpture -space as sculpture The next three slides provides ancient historic examples from each of the three forms: figurative, object, and space. What can be learned from the cultures these objects come from? -Materials help us understand the technological advances of a culture -Shapes and decoration provide narratives that give insight into thoughts about life, death, beliefs systems.
Human FormHere are a few famous examples of the figurative form dating from pre history up through Roman civilization. These examples provide strong evidence that from the beginning of time, humanity has placed great impatience with the human form as subject mater. Expand your understanding of these figurative works by finding out the various sizes of these works. How does the scale of an object speak into the content of how it relates to the culture its from? What is the subject mater within each of these examples?
ObjectUtilitarian, decorative, practical ceremonial; objects can offer the researcher further details about a culture: way of life, technological advances with materials, values, religion/ afterlife beliefs, and cultural traits.The three examples presented to you come from 3 different cultures. What visual clues are presented on the surface of each of these objects? How are narratives communicated in each of these examples?
SpaceArchitectural structures, dwellings, monuments, city planning, and installations are examples of space as object.The above four examples show technological developments from early cultures. -The Lion Gate: an early example of a post and lentil construction which predates the arch. -Pyramids of Giza: monumental structures which exhibit highly advanced mathematical precision. -The Colosseum: designed to efficiently move large numbers of people through a confined space. -Pantheon: one of architectures first examples of a window. How does the design from each of these structure reveal characteristics about the culture that created them?
Introduction to Modernity: Now that we have been introduced to the organization of object types (human form, object, space) Lets begin investigating the culture of early 19th century. Making connections to between culture and the art created during this time. To read more about Modernity please visit the link provided: http://www.moma.org/collection/details.php?theme_id=10123&displayall=1#skipToContentOur research begins with an overview of the cultural climate. Starting here, will establish connections between art objects and the culture they are created in.Historical Climate:Events, technology, people, & lifestyle shifts -1804 first steam poweredlocomotive begins operation -1809-1817James Madison was president our fourth President -The War of 1812 Between the US and the British Empire. Which lasted over 2 years. - The Industrial Revolution was underway. -Between the 18th to the 19th century major changes were seen in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology. -Factories and machines were now able to recreate multiple identical objects. -New processes of handling materials revealed new inventions -This development led to greater possibilities of how to engage with materials and new technologies.
Political Ideologies This painting (the only painting we will be looking at in this course) by artist John Gast captures well the political tone of this era. A depiction of Manifest Destiny: 19thThe belief in an American mission to promote and defend democracy throughout the world, as expounded by Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow Wilson. This continues to have an influence on American Political ideology to this day. To read more about Manifest Destiny follow this link: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Manifest_Destiny
TechnologyFrom the industrial Revolution to the advancements in culture, creative minds and inventors were providing new technologies which sought to improve the well being of life for society. Above are a few of these examples examples. Blue Jeans invented / developed out of a need for clothing to withstand the rigor of the American Settler. 1800’s Camera Photography with chemical processingwas making advancements and was more common in the documentation of people and spaces. 1867 First patent onBarbed wire / a material used to define boundaries or private property. 1877 Thomas Edison invents the phonograph/ a device capable of recording sound) 1879 Thomas Edison tests first light bulb. It might be a stretch to see these specific technologies directly influencing art objects of the first part of modernity but as the course content moves closer toward present day art objects there are more obvious links between technologies and materials and their influence in the art world.
Artists The 3 most prominent Sculptors of the 19th Century were: Auguste Rodin Edgar Dega Fredric Augusta BartholdThe next 3 slides will provide a brief insight into the art that these artists became famous for.
Notes on image in slide:Rodin's initial inspiration came from Dante’s Inferno, the 1st part of the poem The Divine Comedy. This very large scale work was cast bronze, but not during Rodin’s lifetime. He spent 37 years working on this commission for a pair of bronze doors for a museum of the decorative arts, which was never built. The commission came from the French ministry of arts. For more information: http://www.rodinmuseum.org/collections/collectiontheme/4.html
Notes on image in slide:The girl who posed for Degas’s Little Dancer was Marie van Goethem,She was fourteen years of age when it was first shown, at the sixth Impressionist exhibition in 1881, the work was adorned with a real costume and hair. Two-thirds life-size, it was too real for many viewers, who found her “repulsive,” a “flower of the gutter.” But in her pose Degas had caught the essence of classical ballet, beautifully illustrating an 1875 technique manual’s admonition that a ballerina’s “shoulders must be held low and the head lifted. . . . ” Degas never exhibited the Little Dancer again, keeping it in his studio among the many other wax models that he used for making new drawings. The sculpture was cast in bronze (some 28 are now known to exist) only after his death in 1917, at age 83.For more information: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/29.100.370
Notes on image in slide:The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World was a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States and is a universal symbol of freedom and democracy. The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886, designated as a National Monument in 1924 and restored for her centennial on July 4, 1986.*For more information: http://www.nps.gov/stli/index.htm
Early Twentieth Century & the Human FormPrior to the twentieth century the human form made drastic visual shifts from realism to abstraction. One of the first abstracted examples came out of the Futurist movement.Notes on image in slide:The above work by Umberto Boccioni is one of the most famous examples of works from the Futurists. Inspired by the industrial revolution, and the development of film, Umberto Boccioni captured this static figurative form with an implied feeling of movement.
Early Twentieth Century & the ObjectPrior to the twentieth century, most “objects” of art were decretive, utilitarian, and or functional works. The early twentieth century experienced the greatest challenge to these traditions when the artist Marcel Duchamp exhibited Fountain, a men’s urinal turned on it side and signed “R. Mutt”. This art piece along with others that Duchamp presented, became known as “readymades”. For more information on readymades: http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/2006/dada/techniques/readymades.shtmDuchamp's approach to transforming this urinal into a piece of art were groundbreaking. The process of making this artwork and the philosophical framework that justified it as a piece of art was the beginning point for “conceptual art”. For more information on conceptual art: http://www.moma.org/collection/details.php?theme_id=10065The results of Duchamp's actions had a rippling on objects of art from this point forward. -Rules of material and methods were questioned -Sculptors began making work for themselves -sculptors Began to question “The Block” from which forms were carved. -Inter-disciplinary craftsmanship -The Camera provided an opportunity for Pictorial investigations of the third dimension
Early Twentieth Century & SpaceOne of the most influential spaces of the early twentieth century is the Bauhaus. This school based in Germany designed by Walter Groupius provided a space for education in the arts and creative thinking.Its core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to reflect the unity of all the arts.For more information on the Bauhaus: http://www.bauhaus-dessau.de/bauhaus-building.html
Mid to Late Twentieth Century & the Human Form During this period the Human Form/ figure took many shapes. Abstraction continued to be explored. The example in this slide by Henry Moore, was one of the most commissioned artist of the twentieth century. Primarily a figurative sculptor, inspired by nature and country side of his homeland “England” his works would often be placed in public spaces. As a result, The Human form would often integrates with space in monuments.For more information on Henry Moore: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/henry-moore-om-ch-1659
Mid to Late Twentieth Century & the ObjectWith Duchamp’s actions ofchallenging the rules of traditional objects in the early part of the century, by the time the mid century rolled around, this form of practice was common in most every form of three dimensional art practices. The example above is by artist Peter Voulkos (the Godfather of the contemporary ceramic art movement). Voulkos broke free from his foundational training as a ceramic potter in the early 1950’s. For more information on Peter Voulkos: http://www.franklloyd.com/dynamic/artist_bio.asp?ArtistID=34In addition to ceramics, another field that was recognized in the art world was welding.As objects transitioned away from having primary rolls as decretive, ceremonial, functional or utilitarian, the subject of: human psyche aggression and vulnerability, became more common.
Mid to Late Twentieth Century & SpaceArt transformed spaces in new ways too. -Development on Monuments and outdoor spaces. (transitioning beyond WWII) became common place. -Public Spaces became place for outdoor sculptures. -Large scale installations became more common as well. For more information on the Watts Towers: http://www.wattstowers.us/For more information on Art in Public Spaces: https://www.artsjournal.com/aestheticgrounds/For more information about Installations: http://www.moma.org/collection/details.php?theme_id=10101
Early Twenty-firstCenturyContemporary art objects prove to have an endless boundary of possibilities. Later in this course as we investigate deeper sculpture of the twenty-first century, we will investigate theme based works which will become the primary identifier of how objects/sculptures become organized from a historic standpoint. Several of these categories are: Strange Creatures Traditional Materials Minimalism Diorama Ceramics Installation Architecture Installation ClothingTakashiMurakami:His works come in all scale and are influenced by pop-culture of eastern and western culture. His works are often made from fiberglass and plastic. For more information on Murakami: http://www.takashimurakami.com/Antony Gormley: A more traditional figurative sculptor in form, Gormley’s often uses his own body as the subject in his art making practice. Gormly has stated about his work its, "an attempt to materialise the place at the other side of appearance where we all live." For more information on Gormley: http://www.antonygormley.com/Tara Donovan:Donavan's work explores the use of every day objects. Treating these objects as building blocks, new forms are created. Transforming our understanding of how we relate to these items we are often so familiar with. The example here in this slide is of Styrofoam cups. For more information on Donovan: http://www.acegallery.net/artistmenu.php?Artist=8Chris BurdenHis early career was most well known for his shocking performances such as “shoot“ where Chris had himself shot in the arm as a performance work. In his later career, Burden has found himself “playing as an adult”. The image above, ”Urban Lights” is a collection of old street lights from various parts of Los Angeles. This project originally started out of his love and interest in restoring historic artifacts. As Burden completed each Light he would set them up outside his studio. Eventually, LACMA purchased the complete set for one of there signature/ iconic works to be placed at the entrance of the museum itself. For more information on Burden: http://www.gagosian.com/artists/chris-burden-2
Art+576 week+1 introduction_proof
Art 576:The Modern
An Overview of this lecture:
-Background Leading up to Modernity
-Organization/ Types of sculpture
-The Human Form as Sculpture
-The Object as sculpture
-Space as sculpture
-Introduction to Modernity
-Brief Look beyond Modernity
- Key Artists & Defining moments
Date: 30,000 – 25,000 BCE
Title: Venus of Willendorf
Date: 1350 BCE
Inner Coffin of Tutankhamun
Date: 2800 – 2700 BCE
Title: Marble seated harp player
Date: 200 – 190 BCE
Title Nike of Samothrace
Date: 4th Century
Title: Emperor Constantine the Great
Date: 4th – 2nd millennium BCE
Title: Mortar Stone
Date: 2130 – 1990 BCE
Title: Statuette of hippopotamus
Date: 515 BCE
(bowl for mixing wine and water)
1. Mycenaean Date: 1250 BCE
Title: Lion Gate
2. Ancient Egypt
Dates: 2589 – 2504 BCE
Pyramids of Giza
Date: 70 – 82 CE
Date: 125 – 128 CE Pantheon (exterior 4A , Interior 4B)
The DeWitt Clinton
War of 1812