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The Americans Chapter 9

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  2. 2. 1. Protecting social welfare 2. Promoting moral improvement 3. Creating economic reform 4. Fostering efficiency 4 Goals of Progressives
  3. 3. Aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in american life. Progressive Movement
  4. 4. Protecting Social Welfare  YMCA – opened libraries, sponsored classes, and built swimming pools and handball courts.  Salvation Army fed poor people in soup kitchens, cared for children, and teachers of values to immigrants.
  5. 5. Florence Kelley Advocate for improving the lives of women and children. Appointed chief inspector at factories. After she helped win passage of the Illinois Factory Act in 1893. -it prohibited child labor and limited women’s working hours.
  6. 6. P R O H I B I T I O N – T H E B A N N I N G O F A L C O H O L I C B E V E R A G E S Promoting Moral Improvement
  7. 7.  Prohibitionist groups felt that alcohol was undermining American morals.  WCTC – founded in Cleveland in 1874  Woman’s Christian Temperance Union  Spearheaded the crusade for prohibition.  Members would enter saloons and sing, pray, and urge saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol.
  8. 8. FRANCIS WILLARD  Transformed the movement from a small religious group to a national organization.  Largest women’s group in the nation’s history.
  9. 9. Opened kindergartens for immigrants Visited inmates in prison Worked for suffrage WTCU
  10. 10. Trouble  Anti-Saloon League  Founded in 1895  Sought to close saloons  Immigrants grew angry because they liked alcohol  Also, saloons cashed paychecks and served meals.
  11. 11. Creating Economic Reform  Eugene V. Debs –  organized the American Socialist Party in 1901.  Commented on uneven balance among big businesses, government, and ordinary people.
  12. 12. Muckrakers  Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines.  Ida B. Tarbell wrote “History of the Standard Oil Company”, an article in McClure’s Magazine.
  13. 13. Fostering Efficiency Many progressives put faith in experts and scientific principles. “Brandeis brief” – Oregon lawyer Louis D. Brandeis was defending an Oregon law that limited women factory workers to 10 hour days. He looked at scientific data that showed the high cost of long hours both to the individual and society.
  14. 14. Frederick Winslow Taylor  Industry  Began using time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking tasks into simpler parts.  (The assembly line)  Problems?
  15. 15.  Not all people can work at the same rate.  High worker turn over – often due to injuries suffered by fatigued workers. 
  16. 16. Cleaning up Local Government  1900 – Hurricane in Galveston  Local government officials botched the rebuilding job  TX legislature appointed a 5 member commission to take over.  Each expert took charge of a different department.  The city adopted the commission idea as a local government and other cities followed.
  17. 17.  1913 – flood in Ohio  Led to adoption of the council-manager form of govt.  People elect a city council to make laws.
  18. 18. Reform Mayors  Hazen Pingree of Detroit - introduced progressive reforms fairer tax structure lowered fares work relief for unemployed rooted out corruption city workers built schools, parks, and a municipal lighting plant.
  19. 19. Tom Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio  Socialist mayor  Dismissed  corrupt officials  Greedy private owners of utilities  Converted utilities to publicly owned enterprises.  believed citizens should play an active role in city government.
  20. 20. Reform at the State Level  Reform governors  Robert M. La Follette – Republican  Governor of Wisconsin – 3 terms  “Fighting Bob”  Major target was the railroad industry  Taxed railroad property same as other business property  Set up a commission to regulate rates  State officials – no free passes on rr
  21. 21. Other governors who attacked big business were Charles B. Aycock
  22. 22. James S. Hogg of Texas
  23. 23. Protecting Working Children  More prone to accidents due to fatigue  Many developed health problems  Suffered from stunted growth  1904 National Child Labor Committee sent investigators to gather evidence of children working in harsh conditions.  Organized exhibitions – used photographs and statistics  Joined by labor union members
  24. 24. Keating-Owen Act - 1916  Prohibited the transportation across state lines of goods produced with child labor.  2 yrs. Later it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.  Reformers did succeed in nearly every state by effecting legislation that banned child labor and set a maximum number of hours for laborers.
  25. 25. Efforts to Limit Working Hours  1908 – Case of Muller v. Oregon  Louis Brandeis – (Florence Kelley, Josephine Goldmark)  Argued that poor working women were economically insecure  Women required the state’s protection  Won 10 hour work day for women  1917 – persuaded the Court to uphold a 10 hour workday for men.
  26. 26.  Progressives succeeded in winning worker’s compensation to aid the families of workers who were hurt or killed on the job.  1902 - Maryland was the first state to pass legislation requiring employers to pay benefits in these cases.
  27. 27. Reforming Elections  William S. U’Ren – prompted his state of Oregon to adopt  the secret ballot.  Also called the Australian ballot  The initiative  The referendum  The recall
  28. 28.  Initiative – a bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers, on the ballot.  Citizens could petition to place one.  Referendum – a way in which voters accepted or rejected the initiative. (Voting on the initiative) Recall – enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to fade another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it.
  29. 29.  1899 – Minnesota passed the first statewide primary system.  Enabled voters to elect candidates for public office through a special popular election.
  30. 30. Direct Election of Senators  17th Amendment – direct primary paved the way.  1912 – ratified in 1913 – made direct election of senators the law of the land.
  31. 31. SECTION 2 Women in Public Life
  32. 32. Women in the Work Force  Farm Women  Women’s roles in the South and Midwest had not changed  Household chores  Raising livestock  Plowed and planted in the fields  Harvested crops
  33. 33. Women in Industry 1900 – 1/5 American women held jobs 25% working in manufacturing 50% garment trade least skilled positions paid about ½ as much as the men they worked with.
  34. 34.  New Jobs for Women  Offices  Stores  Classrooms  All required a high school education  1890 women high school grads outnumbered men.
  35. 35.  Business Schools  Bookkeepers  Stenographers  typists
  36. 36. Domestic Workers  Required no formal education  Cleaned for other families  Cooks  Laundresses  Scrubwomen  Maids  Many were former slaves or immigrants  1870 – 70% of women employed were servants.
  37. 37. Women Lead Reform  Reasons for reform:  Dangerous conditions  Low wages  Long hours  Female industrial workers pushed for reform, especially after the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire in 1911.
  38. 38.  Women’s Clubs  Upper and middle class women  Discussed art or literature  ½ million members by 1910  Sometimes grew into reform groups addressing issues such as temperance or child labor.
  39. 39. Women in Higher Education  Vassar College –  Many women activists had attended here  Opened in 1865  Smith and Wesley Colleges - 1875  Columbia, Brown, and Harvard refused to admit women, but established separate colleges for them.
  40. 40.  Options for Women  Marriage was no longer their only option  work  College  Many college educated women in the late 1800’s never married, choosing to keep their independence.  Many of them applied their skills to social reform.
  41. 41. Women and Reform  Women either strengthened existing reform groups or formed new ones.  Sought to improve conditions at home and work.  Workplace reform  Housing reform  Educational improvement  Food and drug laws
  42. 42.  NACW  National Association of Colored Women  Formed 1896 by African American women  Merged 2 earlier organizations  Managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens.
  43. 43.  Seneca Falls convention in 1848  Women split over the 14th and 15th amendments  Granted equal rights to African American men, but excluded women.
  44. 44. Susan B. Anthony  Leading proponent of women’s suffrage.
  45. 45. NWSA  Founded in 1869 by Anthony and Cady Stanton.  1890 united with another group to become the NAWSA.  National Woman Suffrage Association Other leaders – Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe
  46. 46. 3-Part Strategy for Suffrage  1. tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote.  Wyoming – 1869 1st state to allow women voters  Utah, Colorado, and Idaho followed.  After 1869, efforts in other states failed.
  47. 47.  2. pursued court cases to test the 14th Amendment.  14th – declares that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose congressional representation.  1872 – Susan B. Anthony and other women attempted to vote at least 150 times in ten states and the District of Columbia.  1875 – the Supreme Court ruled that women were citizens, but that did not give them the right to vote.
  48. 48.  3. pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote.  It was introduced in California and was killed later  41 yrs. This cycle continued.
  49. 49. SECTION 3 Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal
  50. 50. Upton Sinclair  Wrote The Jungle  Novel about the human condition of the stockyards in Chicago.  Instead of Americans feeling pity for the workers, they were repulsed by the conditions of the meatpacking industry.  Roosevelt was also repulsed by the conditions.
  51. 51. Rough Riding President  1900 – gov. of NY  Ran as McKinley’s VP  City bosses of NY wanted to get rid of him.  McKinley served 6 months of his second term and was assassinated.
  52. 52. Roosevelt’s Rise  Born into a wealthy family in NY.  Attended Harvard  Boxed and wrestled  3 terms in NY State Assembly  NY city’s police commissioner  Assistant Sec. of the U.S. Navy  Grabbed national attention when he advocated war against Spain in 1898.
  53. 53. Roughriders  Spanish/American War  Volunteer cavalry brigade  Won public acclaim for its role in the battle at San Juan Hill in Cuba.  Roosevelt became a hero and was elected gov. of NY and later VP.
  54. 54. The Modern Presidency  1901 – at 42 he became the youngest president ever.  Still enjoyed boxing, horseback riding, etc.  Acted boldly  Used his personality and popularity to advance his programs
  55. 55.  Became the model by which all future presidents would be measured.  Thought the federal govt. should assume control when states could not deal with problems.  Saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit” in which he could influence news media and shape legislation.
  56. 56. Square Deal  If big business victimized workers, he would see to it that the common people received what he called a Square Deal.  Square Deal – term used to describe the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt administration.
  57. 57. Using Federal Power  His knowledge of history convinced him that America required a powerful government.  Trustbusting –  He did not believe all trusts were harmful  Wanted to curb actions of those that weren’t fair  1902 – he ordered the Justice Department to sue the Northern Securities Company, which had established a monopoly over the nw railroads.  1904 the Supreme Court dissolved the company  He filed 44 antitrust suits and won many of them  Broke up some of the trusts
  58. 58.  1902 Coal Strike –  140,000 coal miners went on strike in Pennsylvania  Demanded 20% raise, 9 hr. work day, right to organize a union.  Lasted 5 months – coal reserves were running low  Roosevelt called both sides to the White House to talk.  He threatened to take over the mine.  Arbitration commission listened to both sides  Miners won 10% pay hike and a 9 hr. work day.  Could not strike or form a union for 3 yrs.
  59. 59.  2 results –  Citizens now expect the govt. to intervene when a strike threatens public welfare.  Citizens believe that disputes can be settled in an orderly way with the help of experts.
  60. 60. Railroad Regulation  Roosevelt wanted federal regulation  Interstate Commerce Act, ICC  Roosevelt urged Congress to move and the Elkins Act was passed.  Elkins Act – 1903 made it illegal for rr officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular rr.  Railroads could not change set rates without notifying the public.
  61. 61.  Hepburn Act – 1906  Limited the distribution of free railroad passes  Gave ICC power to set maximum railroad rates.  Its passage boosted the government’s power to regulate railroads.
  62. 62. Health and the Environment  Regulating Foods and Drugs  Roosevelt read Sinclair’s The Jungle and appointed a commission of experts to investigate the meatpacking industry.  The commission issued a report that supported Sinclair’s account.
  63. 63.  1906 – Roosevelt pushed for passage of the Meat Inspection Act.  It dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers  Created the program of federal meat inspection that was in use until it was replaced.  Govt. - paid for inspections  Did not require companies to label their canned goods with date of processing information.  Meatpackers were granted the right to appeal negative decisions in court.
  64. 64. Pure Food and Drug Act  Before action was taken companies could say anything about their products.  Children’s medicines contained opium, cocaine, or alcohol.  Dr. Harvey Washington complained that harmful preservatives were being put in foods.
  65. 65.  1906 – PFD Act  Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines  Called for truth in labeling.
  66. 66. Conservation and Natural Resources  Conservation Measures  Roosevelt made conservation a primary concern  Set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves  1.5 million acres of water power sites  80 million for exploration of mineral and water resources  50 wildlife sanctuaries  Several national parks
  67. 67.  National Reclamation Act of 1902  Money from the sale of public lands funded large-scale irrigation projects.  Established the precedent that the federal government would manage the water resources of the West.
  68. 68. Roosevelt and Civil Rights  Often accused of not doing enough  Invited Booker T. Washington to the White House  Faced opposition from W.E.B. Du Bois who thought he was indifferent to racial injustice.  1909 – Du Bois and other black and prominent white reformers formed the NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.  Wanted full equality among races.
  69. 69. Muckrakers  Investigative reporting that uncovered corruption  Ida M. Tarbell – “The History of the Standard Oil Company”  Upton Sinclair – “The Jungle”
  70. 70.  Lincoln Steffens –  Leading figure of the muckraker movement  Exposed business and govt. corruption in McClure’s magazine.  Stories are collected in 2 books:  “The Shame of the Cities”  The Struggle for Self- Govt.”
  71. 71. S E C T I O N 4 Progressivism Under Taft
  72. 72. Taft Becomes President William Howard Taft Secretary of War for Roosevelt. Hand picked by Roosevelt to run against William Jennings Bryan Taft won the election
  73. 73. Taft Stumbles  Busted 90 trusts in his 4 yr. term  Could not subdue troublesome members of his party.  1st problem – tariffs and conservation
  74. 74. Payne-Aldrich Tariff  Payne bill – lowered rates on imported goods  Senate proposed an alternative bill – Aldrich bill  Aldrich bill – made fewer cuts  Increased rates  Payne – Aldrich Tariff – only moderated the high rates  Angered Progressives  Taft defended it
  75. 75.  2nd problem – Disputing Public Lands  Taft appt. Richard Ballinger as his secretary  Ballinger disagreed w/conservatives  He removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserve list and returned it to the public domain.  2 govt. officials accused Ballinger of letting commercial interests exploit natural resources that belonged to the public.  Taft supported Ballinger and fired Pinchot – one of the accusers.
  76. 76. The Republican Party Splits  Republicans, Progressives, and Conservatives split over Taft’s support of political boss Joseph Cannon.  Joseph Cannon – chairman of House Rules Committee.
  77. 77.  Joseph Cannon  Weakened or ignored Progressive bills  Republicans and Democrats wanted to strip him of his power  3/1910 – The House elected the Committee on Rules and excluded the Speaker from membership in the committee.  1910 – The Republican party was in shambles
  78. 78. Bull Moose Party 1912 – Roosevelt decided to run for office a 3rd time. Republican Progressives formed a 3rd party – The Progressive Party Roosevelt was nominated for president.
  79. 79.  Bull Moose = Progressive Party  Got the name Bull Moose because Roosevelt said he was as strong as a bull moose.  Proposed:  direct election of senators  Adoption in all states of the initiative, referendum, and recall  Advocated  Women’s suffrage worker’s compensation  8 hr. work day min. wage for women  Law against child labor federal trade commission to reg. bus.
  80. 80.  The split in the Republican party gave the Democrats a chance at the White House.  1912- Democrat Woodrow Wilson was nominated  Reform gov. of NJ
  81. 81. Democrats Win 1912  Wilson endorsed a progressive platform called the “New Freedom”  Demanded stronger anti-trust legislation, banking reform, and reduced tariffs.  Taft and Roosevelt were name calling  Wilson stayed out of the fight and won the election.
  82. 82. Wilson’s New Freedom  Background – from the South  Son of Presbyterian minister  Strict upbringing  Former lawyer, history professor, and president of Princeton University
  83. 83. Two Key Antitrust Measures  Clayton Antitrust Act – 1914  Strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890  Prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly.  If a company violated a law the officers would be prosecuted.  Specified that labor unions and farm organizations had the right to exist but would no longer be subject to anti-trust laws.  Strikes, picketing, boycotts became legal
  84. 84.  Federal Trade Commission  Given the power to investigate possible violations of regulatory statues  Could require reports from corporations, and put an end to a number of unfair business practices.  Under Wilson, FTC administered almost 400 cease-and-desist orders to companies engaged in illegal activity.
  85. 85. A New Tax System  Summoned Congress to a special session to plead his case.  Established the precedent of delivering the State of the Union Address in person.  Battled with senators and lobbyists for the Underwood Act on 1913.  He urged citizens to monitor their senator’s votes.  Senate voted to cut tariff rates even more than the House had done.
  86. 86. Federal Income Tax  Govt. had to replace the revenue the tariffs supplied  16th amendment legalized a graduated federal income tax.  Provided revenue by taxing individual earnings and corporate profits.  Larger incomes taxed at higher rates than smaller incomes.  Today it is the government’s main source of revenue.
  87. 87. Federal Reserve System  A decentralized banking system under federal control.  Divided the nation into 12 districts.  Established a central bank in each district.  Could issue new paper currency in emergency situations  Member banks could use the new currency to make loans to their customers.  Could transfer $ to member banks in trouble.  Still serves as the basis of the nation’s banking system.
  88. 88. Women Win Suffrage  Women continued to fight for the right to vote.  They saw the possibility of success with the results of 3 new developments:  The increased activism of local groups  The use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for the movement  Rebirth of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt
  89. 89.  Local Suffrage Battles  Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government  College Equal Suffrage League  Used door to door campaigns to reach supporters  Trolley tours with women speakers
  90. 90. Emmeline Pankhurst  British suffragist  Used bold tactics  Inspired American women.
  91. 91. Carrie Chapman Catt  President of NAWSA  Succeeded Susan B. Anthony  Organized tactics for success  Formed the NY Women’s Suffrage Party
  92. 92. Lucy Burns Alice Paul
  93. 93.  Lucy Burns and Alice Paul formed a radical organization, the Congressional Union and its successor, the National Woman’s Party.  Pressured govt. officials  Picketed the White House “round the clock” 1917  Some were arrested, jailed, and force fed when they attempted a hunger strike.
  94. 94. 19th Amendment  The acts of women suffragists and America’s involvement in WWI finally brought about the 19th Amendment.  19th Amendment – passed in 1919, ratified 1920  Gave women the right to vote
  95. 95. The Limits of Progressivism  Wilson and Civil Rights  Wilson retreated on civil rights when in office  During the election of 1912 he promised to speak out against lynching and support equality among races.  He would not address lynching once in office.  The Capitol and federal offices which had been desegregated were segregated soon after Wilson’s election.
  96. 96.  11/12/1914 – Wilson allowed an African American delegation to enter the White House.  The delegation was led by William Monroe Trotter  Accused Wilson of increasing segregation and not delivering what he had promised.  Wilson grew angry and asked the delegation to leave.
  97. 97.  Twilight of Progressivism  “There’s no chance of progress and reform in an administration in which war plays the principal part.”  Woodrow Wilson, 1913  Wilson realized that the war demanded America’s involvement.  Reform efforts stalled and all attention was placed on the war.  The Progressive Era had come to an end.