 Geography and
the environment
help shape human
cultures, but
humans also use
and alter the
environment to
fulfill their ...
 Human beings are
members of social
groups with shared
and unique sets of
behaviors and
attitudes.
 Culture - is the
total of
knowledge,
attitudes, and
behaviors shared
and passed on by
members of a
specific group.
 Culture is what helps
people fit into a
particular group.
 It ties people together
and separates them at
the same time....
 Language
 Education
 Security/Protection
 Political/Social
organization
 Society
 is a group that shares a geographic region,
a sense of identity, and a culture.
 ethnic group
is a group of ...
 Innovation –
 Taking existing
technology and
resources and
creating something
new to meet a need.
 Diffusion –
 The spread of
ideas,
inventions, and
behaviors from
one society to
another.
 In the age of
electronic
technology,
diffusion can
happen very
quickly.
 is a site of
innovation
from which
basic ideas,
materials, and
technology
diffuse to
many
cultures.
 River civilizations
such as those along
the Indus in India,
Huang He in China,
Nile in Egypt, and
Tigris and Euphrates
i...
Indus River
Nile RiverTigris-Euphrates River
Huang-He River
 Acculturation –
 Cultural change that
occurs when
individuals in a
society accept or
adopt an innovation.
 Wearing jeans instead
of traditional
garments.
 Having to drink only
bottled water in
certain parts of the
world.
 Bus...
 Allows people in a
culture to
communicate.
 Reflects all aspects
of culture.
 Common language
promotes unity and
nationalism.
 Nationalism –
A strong feeling of pride
in one’s nation.
 Language can also divide people
-(Ex: Canada, United States).
There are 3,000 – 6,500 languages spoken
worldwide.
There are many different versions of each
language.
 Dialect –
Ver...
 Language can be spread like any other
element of culture.
 Language is spread most often through trade
routes and migra...
A belief in a supernatural power or
powers that are regarded as the creators
and maintainers of the universe.
Can establ...
 Monotheistic – belief in one god
 Polytheistic – belief in many gods
 Animistic or Traditional – belief in divine
forc...
 Religions spread through diffusion and
converts.
 Converts – people who give up their former
beliefs for a new religion...
 The 5 major religions of the world are:
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Buddhism.
 Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all began
in Southwest Asia,
- they are monotheistic, and share some
similar beliefs, ...
 Three major religious groups all claim
Jerusalem in the land of Palestine as their holy
city: Christians, Muslims and th...
 Established 3,200 years ago.
 Followers live in Israel, USA, Canada, S
America and European cities.
 Basic laws and te...
 Torah establishes
claim to Holy Land
 Believe Holy Land
was gift from God to
Abraham.
 King David brought
ark containi...
 Evolved 2,000 years ago from Judaism.
 Based on teaching of Jesus Christ.
 Teachings recorded in the Bible.
 Spread f...
 Christians – site of Jesus’ life,
death and resurrection.
 Home to original cross and
stone of Christ’s tomb.
 Site of...
 Established around 613 A.D.
 Based on teachings of prophet Muhammad
 Has close ties to the prophets and
teachers of Ju...
 Qur’an establishes claim that
both Jews and Arabs are
descendants of Abraham.
 Believe God’s gift of Holy
Land to Abrah...
 Dates back 5,000 years.
 Concentrated in India.
 polytheistic
 Religious requirements of
the caste system shape
many ...
 Caste System -
 levels of fixed social classes with specific rites and
duties
 Animals play an important role in relig...
 Offshoot of Hinduism,
developed 563 B.C.
 Founder –
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
 Rejects Hindu idea of caste.
 http:...
 Promotes living the
correct way in order
to reach nirvana, an
enlightened spiritual
state.
 Missionaries spread
teachin...
POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
 Question: does the world already have too many people?
Can it support more? If so, where? Which people?
 2008 = 6.6 Bil...
 Population Geographer - studies aspects affecting
population
Birthrate: number of live births per thousand population
ac...
average number of children per woman
during childbearing years throughout
lifetime
according to CIA worldbook factbook: Ni...
Mortality Rate: number of deaths per thousand (also
called the death rate)
QUESTION--What would be an ideal or healthy mor...
Rate of natural increase: also known as the growth
rate. Subtract mortality rate from the birth rate
According to the CIA ...
 A graphic device that shows sex and age
distribution.
See page 79
What does a higher elderly age rate mean for a communi...
Habitable Lands
 90% of people live in Northern Hemisphere
 Lands between 20 degrees and 60 degrees N latitude have
very...
 Lower population density in polar regions,
heavily mountainous regions, desert regions
 More than 1/2 of world’s popula...
Migration
1.Push factors - factors causing people to leave homeland
and migrate to another region.
Environmental condition...
Pop. Den. Is the average number of people who live
in a measurable area (such as square mile or
kilometer).
How to calcula...
New Jersey has density of app. 1000 people
per square mile and Australia has density
of app. 6 people per square mile…what...
 Governmental units of the world can be
described in political or geographic terms.
 State – independent unit in a speci...
 Democracy – citizens hold power (direct/
representative). EX: United States
 Monarchy – ruling family holds the power
(...
 Size – size = power
 Shape
 Affects governing, trade and travel
 Location
 Landlocked – no direct route to sea
 Can help increase trade or cause a need for protection
 Establishes limits of control
 For taxes, legal codes, languages, resources, etc.
2 basic types:
Natural
Artificial
 Natural boundaries
 – based on physical features of the land
 Artificial boundaries
 - fixed line generally following...
 Countries are divided into smaller units to
make governing easier.
 EX: Cities, towns, and villages
 Larger political ...
 The study of how people use space in
cities.
 Cities –
Not just areas with large populations
Centers of business and ...
 Suburbs –
- built up area around central city
- political units touching the borders of
the central city or touching o...
 Exurbs
- cities or towns with space btw. them and
the central city.
 Metropolitan area
-Contains the city, its suburb...
Exurb Exurb
Suburbs
Central
City Exurb
Exurb
Exurb
 Cities
 are found in places that allow easy
transportation access
 Rivers, coast line, railroads
are found in places w...
are often places where goods change
transportation methods
EX: Chicago, IL
 Specialize in what is available around them
...
 Residential
 Industrial – manufacturing goods
 Commercial – buying and selling of goods
 Central business district – ...
 Business
 Entertainment
 Education
 Cultural activities
 Religious and social services
 Economy
 -the production and exchange of goods and
services.
 - are local, regional, national, international
 Geograp...
 Economic system:
 way people produce and exchange goods,
services.
 Four types of economic systems:
- traditional, or ...
 Subsistence
agriculture - food is
raised for personal
consumption
 market-oriented agriculture - Raising food
to sell to others.
 cottage industries - involve small, home-
based industri...
 Primary - involves gathering raw materials
for immediate use.
 Secondary - adds value to material by
changing its form....
 Natural Resources
—Earth’s materials that have economic value
Materials become resources when they can
be turned into ...
 Infrastructure
 —basic support systems to sustain economic
growth
critical to development are:
power communications,
w...
 Per capita income: average earnings per
person in a political unit
 Gross national product (GNP)
 —statistic to measure the total value of goods,
services produced by a country, globally
...
 Developing nations
have low GDP& per
capita income
 Developed nations
have high GDP & per
capita income
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
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Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5

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World Geography Chapter 4 - Combinations of different powerpoints from Slideshare put together. Some things I added and some I borrowed.

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Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5

  1. 1.  Geography and the environment help shape human cultures, but humans also use and alter the environment to fulfill their needs.
  2. 2.  Human beings are members of social groups with shared and unique sets of behaviors and attitudes.
  3. 3.  Culture - is the total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared and passed on by members of a specific group.
  4. 4.  Culture is what helps people fit into a particular group.  It ties people together and separates them at the same time. (ex: Jews/Palestinians, Hindus/Muslims, Aggies/Tide)
  5. 5.  Language  Education  Security/Protection  Political/Social organization
  6. 6.  Society  is a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture.  ethnic group is a group of people who share language, customs and heritage. Ethnic groups have an identity as a separate group of people within the region they live.
  7. 7.  Innovation –  Taking existing technology and resources and creating something new to meet a need.
  8. 8.  Diffusion –  The spread of ideas, inventions, and behaviors from one society to another.
  9. 9.  In the age of electronic technology, diffusion can happen very quickly.
  10. 10.  is a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to many cultures.
  11. 11.  River civilizations such as those along the Indus in India, Huang He in China, Nile in Egypt, and Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia are the best known cultural hearths.
  12. 12. Indus River Nile RiverTigris-Euphrates River Huang-He River
  13. 13.  Acculturation –  Cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation.
  14. 14.  Wearing jeans instead of traditional garments.  Having to drink only bottled water in certain parts of the world.  Business men bowing in the Far East (Japan).  A military upgrading its technology.
  15. 15.  Allows people in a culture to communicate.  Reflects all aspects of culture.
  16. 16.  Common language promotes unity and nationalism.  Nationalism – A strong feeling of pride in one’s nation.
  17. 17.  Language can also divide people -(Ex: Canada, United States).
  18. 18. There are 3,000 – 6,500 languages spoken worldwide. There are many different versions of each language.  Dialect – Version of a language that reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes.
  19. 19.  Language can be spread like any other element of culture.  Language is spread most often through trade routes and migration.  As people move, the language they carry with them sometimes takes hold in the region (Ex: English, Spanish, and French brought to the N and S America).
  20. 20. A belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as the creators and maintainers of the universe. Can establish beliefs and values that define how people worship and behave.
  21. 21.  Monotheistic – belief in one god  Polytheistic – belief in many gods  Animistic or Traditional – belief in divine forces of nature
  22. 22.  Religions spread through diffusion and converts.  Converts – people who give up their former beliefs for a new religion.  Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism actively seek converts.  Judaism and Hinduism do not.
  23. 23.  The 5 major religions of the world are: Judaism Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism.
  24. 24.  Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all began in Southwest Asia, - they are monotheistic, and share some similar beliefs, prophets, and teachers.  http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?ntt=islam&n=18343#selitemsperpage=20&intcurrentpage=1&no=20&n=18343%2
  25. 25.  Three major religious groups all claim Jerusalem in the land of Palestine as their holy city: Christians, Muslims and the Jews.
  26. 26.  Established 3,200 years ago.  Followers live in Israel, USA, Canada, S America and European cities.  Basic laws and teachings come from the Torah.  Jerusalem is the religious center of Judaism.  http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=92187
  27. 27.  Torah establishes claim to Holy Land  Believe Holy Land was gift from God to Abraham.  King David brought ark containing original Torah here.  Site of King Solomon's temple
  28. 28.  Evolved 2,000 years ago from Judaism.  Based on teaching of Jesus Christ.  Teachings recorded in the Bible.  Spread from Jerusalem.  Largest following of all religions (2 billion)  Three major groups: Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
  29. 29.  Christians – site of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection.  Home to original cross and stone of Christ’s tomb.  Site of sacred Church of the Holy Sepulcher.  Holds variety of Christian shrines.
  30. 30.  Established around 613 A.D.  Based on teachings of prophet Muhammad  Has close ties to the prophets and teachers of Judaism and Christianity  Holy book is the Qur’an.  Two major sects are Sunni and Shiite.  2nd largest following in the world.
  31. 31.  Qur’an establishes claim that both Jews and Arabs are descendants of Abraham.  Believe God’s gift of Holy Land to Abraham is meant for Arabs (first Muslims) too.  Site of Muhammad’s ascension into heaven
  32. 32.  Dates back 5,000 years.  Concentrated in India.  polytheistic  Religious requirements of the caste system shape many aspects of Hindu’s lives and culture.  http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=353
  33. 33.  Caste System -  levels of fixed social classes with specific rites and duties  Animals play an important role in religion and culture
  34. 34.  Offshoot of Hinduism, developed 563 B.C.  Founder – Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)  Rejects Hindu idea of caste.  http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=166179
  35. 35.  Promotes living the correct way in order to reach nirvana, an enlightened spiritual state.  Missionaries spread teachings to SE Asia, China, Japan, and Korea.
  36. 36. POPULATION GEOGRAPHY
  37. 37.  Question: does the world already have too many people? Can it support more? If so, where? Which people?  2008 = 6.6 Billion people (according to Wikipedia)
  38. 38.  Population Geographer - studies aspects affecting population Birthrate: number of live births per thousand population according to Wikipedia: Congo is highest with 49.6 per 1000 and Japan is lowest with 8.2 per 1000
  39. 39. average number of children per woman during childbearing years throughout lifetime according to CIA worldbook factbook: Niger is highest with 7.19
  40. 40. Mortality Rate: number of deaths per thousand (also called the death rate) QUESTION--What would be an ideal or healthy mortality rate? Infant Mortality Rate: number of deaths among infants under age one per thousand live births QUESTION--What nations might you assume have a high infant mortality rate? Why? Low rate? Why? What factors affect this? according to the CIA Worldfact book the US has 6.3 per one thousand, ranking number 46--behind Cuba, most of Europe, South Korea, Japan, and Singapore… is this surprising? Why or why not? Other rates studied: perinatal mortality, maternal mortality, child mortality, standardized mortality rate
  41. 41. Rate of natural increase: also known as the growth rate. Subtract mortality rate from the birth rate According to the CIA Wolrdfact book the US birth rate is appx. 14 per 1000 and the death rate is 8 per 1000. Rate of increase = Birth rate - Death rate = 14 - 8 = 6 per thousand
  42. 42.  A graphic device that shows sex and age distribution. See page 79 What does a higher elderly age rate mean for a community or society? Young age? What is most ideal?
  43. 43. Habitable Lands  90% of people live in Northern Hemisphere  Lands between 20 degrees and 60 degrees N latitude have very suitable climate and vegetation conditions = more dense human population  High population density in coastal regions and river valleys
  44. 44.  Lower population density in polar regions, heavily mountainous regions, desert regions  More than 1/2 of world’s population lives in rural areas, but dramatically changing  Largest city in world = city (proper) = Mumbai, India at 13 million QUESTION: What affect does a higher urban population have on society, nations, the world?
  45. 45. Migration 1.Push factors - factors causing people to leave homeland and migrate to another region. Environmental conditions War Natural disasters Persecution 2.Pull factors - factors that draw or attract people to another location Good economy High salary Climate
  46. 46. Pop. Den. Is the average number of people who live in a measurable area (such as square mile or kilometer). How to calculate? Total number of inhabitants/total amount of land.
  47. 47. New Jersey has density of app. 1000 people per square mile and Australia has density of app. 6 people per square mile…what is misleading about these figures? Carrying Capacity: the number of organisms a piece of land can support QUESTION--What factors can increase carrying capacity?
  48. 48.  Governmental units of the world can be described in political or geographic terms.  State – independent unit in a specific area that governs their own affairs.  Nation – group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.  When the 2 are together = nation-state
  49. 49.  Democracy – citizens hold power (direct/ representative). EX: United States  Monarchy – ruling family holds the power (king/queen). EX: UK or Saudi Arabia  Dictatorship – an individual or group holds all the power. EX: North Korea or Afghanistan.  Communism – nearly all political power and means of production (economy) are held by the govt. in the name of the people.
  50. 50.  Size – size = power  Shape  Affects governing, trade and travel
  51. 51.  Location  Landlocked – no direct route to sea  Can help increase trade or cause a need for protection
  52. 52.  Establishes limits of control  For taxes, legal codes, languages, resources, etc. 2 basic types: Natural Artificial
  53. 53.  Natural boundaries  – based on physical features of the land  Artificial boundaries  - fixed line generally following latitude or longitude lines
  54. 54.  Countries are divided into smaller units to make governing easier.  EX: Cities, towns, and villages  Larger political units are:  Counties, provinces, or states.  The largest political unit is the United Nations.  Consists of 200 members  Work to improve political, cultural, and economic conditions across the globe.
  55. 55.  The study of how people use space in cities.  Cities – Not just areas with large populations Centers of business and culture. Often the birthplace of innovation and change in society.
  56. 56.  Suburbs – - built up area around central city - political units touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city.
  57. 57.  Exurbs - cities or towns with space btw. them and the central city.  Metropolitan area -Contains the city, its suburbs, and exburbs.  Megalopolis  - more than one metropolitan area that has grown together.
  58. 58. Exurb Exurb Suburbs Central City Exurb Exurb Exurb
  59. 59.  Cities  are found in places that allow easy transportation access  Rivers, coast line, railroads are found in places with natural resources EX: gold in CA
  60. 60. are often places where goods change transportation methods EX: Chicago, IL  Specialize in what is available around them  Ex: Pittsburgh – close to iron ore and coal sources = produce steel
  61. 61.  Residential  Industrial – manufacturing goods  Commercial – buying and selling of goods  Central business district – core of the city that focuses on commercial activities
  62. 62.  Business  Entertainment  Education  Cultural activities  Religious and social services
  63. 63.  Economy  -the production and exchange of goods and services.  - are local, regional, national, international  Geographers study economic geography by looking at: - how people in a region support themselves - how economic activity is linked regionally
  64. 64.  Economic system:  way people produce and exchange goods, services.  Four types of economic systems: - traditional, or barter, economy - command, or planned, economy - market economy, also called capitalism - mixed economy, a combination of command and market.
  65. 65.  Subsistence agriculture - food is raised for personal consumption
  66. 66.  market-oriented agriculture - Raising food to sell to others.  cottage industries - involve small, home- based industrial production.  large industrial production - comes from commercial industries.
  67. 67.  Primary - involves gathering raw materials for immediate use.  Secondary - adds value to material by changing its form.  Tertiary - involves business or professional services.  Quaternary - provides information, management, research services.
  68. 68.  Natural Resources —Earth’s materials that have economic value Materials become resources when they can be turned into goods (3 types) Renewable  - (trees, seafood) can be replaced naturally Nonrenewable  - (metals, oil, coal) cannot be replaced Inexhaustible  -(sun, wind) are unlimited resources
  69. 69.  Infrastructure  —basic support systems to sustain economic growth critical to development are: power communications, water sanitation technology education systems transportation systems Communications systems
  70. 70.  Per capita income: average earnings per person in a political unit
  71. 71.  Gross national product (GNP)  —statistic to measure the total value of goods, services produced by a country, globally  Gross domestic product (GDP)  -statistic to measure the total value of goods and services produced within a country
  72. 72.  Developing nations have low GDP& per capita income  Developed nations have high GDP & per capita income

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