Chapter 4-–-people-and-places World Geography Sections 1-5
help shape human
humans also use
and alter the
fulfill their needs.
Human beings are
members of social
groups with shared
and unique sets of
Culture - is the
and passed on by
members of a
Culture is what helps
people fit into a
It ties people together
and separates them at
the same time.
is a group that shares a geographic region,
a sense of identity, and a culture.
is a group of people who share language,
customs and heritage.
Ethnic groups have an identity as a separate
group of people within the region they live.
new to meet a need.
The spread of
one society to
In the age of
is a site of
such as those along
the Indus in India,
Huang He in China,
Nile in Egypt, and
Tigris and Euphrates
in Mesopotamia are
the best known
Nile RiverTigris-Euphrates River
Cultural change that
individuals in a
society accept or
adopt an innovation.
Wearing jeans instead
Having to drink only
bottled water in
certain parts of the
Business men bowing in
the Far East (Japan).
A military upgrading its
Allows people in a
Reflects all aspects
promotes unity and
A strong feeling of pride
in one’s nation.
Language can also divide people
-(Ex: Canada, United States).
There are 3,000 – 6,500 languages spoken
There are many different versions of each
Version of a language that reflects changes in
speech patterns related to class, region, or
other cultural changes.
Language can be spread like any other
element of culture.
Language is spread most often through trade
routes and migration.
As people move, the language they carry
with them sometimes takes hold in the
region (Ex: English, Spanish, and French
brought to the N and S America).
A belief in a supernatural power or
powers that are regarded as the creators
and maintainers of the universe.
Can establish beliefs and values that
define how people worship and
Monotheistic – belief in one god
Polytheistic – belief in many gods
Animistic or Traditional – belief in divine
forces of nature
Religions spread through diffusion and
Converts – people who give up their former
beliefs for a new religion.
Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism actively
Judaism and Hinduism do not.
The 5 major religions of the world are:
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all began
in Southwest Asia,
- they are monotheistic, and share some
similar beliefs, prophets, and teachers.
Three major religious groups all claim
Jerusalem in the land of Palestine as their holy
city: Christians, Muslims and the Jews.
Established 3,200 years ago.
Followers live in Israel, USA, Canada, S
America and European cities.
Basic laws and teachings come from the
Jerusalem is the religious center of
claim to Holy Land
Believe Holy Land
was gift from God to
King David brought
original Torah here.
Site of King
Evolved 2,000 years ago from Judaism.
Based on teaching of Jesus Christ.
Teachings recorded in the Bible.
Spread from Jerusalem.
Largest following of all religions (2 billion)
Three major groups: Roman Catholic,
Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox.
Christians – site of Jesus’ life,
death and resurrection.
Home to original cross and
stone of Christ’s tomb.
Site of sacred Church of the
Holds variety of Christian
Established around 613 A.D.
Based on teachings of prophet Muhammad
Has close ties to the prophets and
teachers of Judaism and Christianity
Holy book is the Qur’an.
Two major sects are Sunni and Shiite.
largest following in the world.
Qur’an establishes claim that
both Jews and Arabs are
descendants of Abraham.
Believe God’s gift of Holy
Land to Abraham is meant for
Arabs (first Muslims) too.
Site of Muhammad’s
ascension into heaven
Dates back 5,000 years.
Concentrated in India.
Religious requirements of
the caste system shape
many aspects of Hindu’s
lives and culture.
Caste System -
levels of fixed social classes with specific rites and
Animals play an important role in religion and
Offshoot of Hinduism,
developed 563 B.C.
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Rejects Hindu idea of caste.
Promotes living the
correct way in order
to reach nirvana, an
teachings to SE Asia,
China, Japan, and
Question: does the world already have too many people?
Can it support more? If so, where? Which people?
2008 = 6.6 Billion people (according to Wikipedia)
Population Geographer - studies aspects affecting
Birthrate: number of live births per thousand population
according to Wikipedia: Congo is highest with 49.6 per 1000 and Japan is
lowest with 8.2 per 1000
average number of children per woman
during childbearing years throughout
according to CIA worldbook factbook: Niger is highest with 7.19
Mortality Rate: number of deaths per thousand (also
called the death rate)
QUESTION--What would be an ideal or healthy mortality rate?
Infant Mortality Rate: number of deaths among
infants under age one per thousand live births
QUESTION--What nations might you assume have a high infant mortality rate?
Why? Low rate? Why? What factors affect this?
according to the CIA Worldfact book the US has 6.3 per one thousand, ranking
number 46--behind Cuba, most of Europe, South Korea, Japan, and Singapore…
is this surprising? Why or why not?
Other rates studied: perinatal mortality, maternal mortality, child mortality,
standardized mortality rate
Rate of natural increase: also known as the growth
rate. Subtract mortality rate from the birth rate
According to the CIA Wolrdfact book the US birth rate is appx. 14 per 1000 and
the death rate is 8 per 1000.
Rate of increase = Birth rate - Death rate = 14 - 8 = 6 per thousand
A graphic device that shows sex and age
See page 79
What does a higher elderly age rate mean for a community or society? Young
age? What is most ideal?
90% of people live in Northern Hemisphere
Lands between 20 degrees and 60 degrees N latitude have
very suitable climate and vegetation conditions = more
dense human population
High population density in coastal regions and river valleys
Lower population density in polar regions,
heavily mountainous regions, desert regions
More than 1/2 of world’s population lives in
rural areas, but dramatically changing
Largest city in world = city (proper) = Mumbai,
India at 13 million
QUESTION: What affect does a higher urban
population have on society, nations, the world?
1.Push factors - factors causing people to leave homeland
and migrate to another region.
2.Pull factors - factors that draw or attract people to
Pop. Den. Is the average number of people who live
in a measurable area (such as square mile or
How to calculate?
Total number of inhabitants/total amount of land.
New Jersey has density of app. 1000 people
per square mile and Australia has density
of app. 6 people per square mile…what is
misleading about these figures?
Carrying Capacity: the number of
organisms a piece of land can support
QUESTION--What factors can increase
Governmental units of the world can be
described in political or geographic terms.
State – independent unit in a specific area that
governs their own affairs.
Nation – group of people with a common culture
living in a territory and having a strong sense of
When the 2 are together = nation-state
Democracy – citizens hold power (direct/
representative). EX: United States
Monarchy – ruling family holds the power
(king/queen). EX: UK or Saudi Arabia
Dictatorship – an individual or group holds all the
power. EX: North Korea or Afghanistan.
Communism – nearly all political power and means
of production (economy) are held by the govt. in
the name of the people.
Size – size = power
Affects governing, trade and travel
Landlocked – no direct route to sea
Can help increase trade or cause a need for protection
Establishes limits of control
For taxes, legal codes, languages, resources, etc.
2 basic types:
– based on physical features of the land
- fixed line generally following latitude or
Countries are divided into smaller units to
make governing easier.
EX: Cities, towns, and villages
Larger political units are:
Counties, provinces, or states.
The largest political unit is the United Nations.
Consists of 200 members
Work to improve political, cultural, and economic
conditions across the globe.
The study of how people use space in
Not just areas with large populations
Centers of business and culture.
Often the birthplace of innovation and
change in society.
- built up area around central city
- political units touching the borders of
the central city or touching other
suburbs that touch the city.
- cities or towns with space btw. them and
the central city.
-Contains the city, its suburbs, and exburbs.
- more than one metropolitan area that has
are found in places that allow easy
Rivers, coast line, railroads
are found in places with natural resources
EX: gold in CA
are often places where goods change
EX: Chicago, IL
Specialize in what is available around them
Ex: Pittsburgh – close to iron ore and coal sources =
Industrial – manufacturing goods
Commercial – buying and selling of goods
Central business district – core of the city that
focuses on commercial activities
Religious and social services
-the production and exchange of goods and
- are local, regional, national, international
Geographers study economic geography by
- how people in a region support themselves
- how economic activity is linked regionally
way people produce and exchange goods,
Four types of economic systems:
- traditional, or barter, economy
- command, or planned, economy
- market economy, also called capitalism
- mixed economy, a combination of command
agriculture - food is
raised for personal
market-oriented agriculture - Raising food
to sell to others.
cottage industries - involve small, home-
based industrial production.
large industrial production - comes from
Primary - involves gathering raw materials
for immediate use.
Secondary - adds value to material by
changing its form.
Tertiary - involves business or professional
Quaternary - provides information,
management, research services.
—Earth’s materials that have economic value
Materials become resources when they can
be turned into goods (3 types)
- (trees, seafood) can be replaced naturally
- (metals, oil, coal) cannot be replaced
-(sun, wind) are unlimited resources
—basic support systems to sustain economic
critical to development are:
technology education systems
Per capita income: average earnings per
person in a political unit
Gross national product (GNP)
—statistic to measure the total value of goods,
services produced by a country, globally
Gross domestic product (GDP)
-statistic to measure the total value of goods
and services produced within a country
have low GDP& per
have high GDP & per