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Learning~ Lecture 1  Shared by  Dr.K.Prabhakar  12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
Is it possible for a  teacher  to know what is happening in the brain of student?  No and it is a black box.  12/02/10 Dr....
12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar  So how to unravel the mystery?
A Superficial Review <ul><li>There are fifty theories of learning.  </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognit...
Behaviorism <ul><li>Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses solely on obs...
Behaviorism in the Classroom <ul><li>Rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for student learning rests s...
Critiques of Behaviorism <ul><li>Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed </li></ul...
This is what is being used as a model and most of this is teaching.  <ul><li>We are experiencing the same in most of the l...
Cognitivism <ul><li>Grew in response to Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols </li></ul...
Cognitivism cont. <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Epistemology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilati...
Cognitivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Inquiry-oriented projects </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for the testing of hypothes...
Critiques of Cognitivism <ul><li>Like Behaviorism, knowledge itself is given and absolute  </li></ul><ul><li>Input – Proce...
Social Learning Theory (SLT) <ul><li>Grew out of Cognitivism  </li></ul><ul><li>A. Bandura (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Learni...
SLT in the Classroom <ul><li>Collaborative learning and group work </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling responses and expectations <...
Critiques of Social Learning Theory  <ul><li>Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediatin...
Social Constructivism <ul><li>Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism, framed around metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Kn...
Social Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential activities </li></ul><ul><li>Pers...
Critiques of Social Constructivism  <ul><li>Suggests that knowledge is neither given nor absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Often ...
Multiple Intelligences (MI) <ul><li>Grew out of Constructivism, framed around  metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>H. Gardner ...
MI in the Classroom <ul><li>Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered classroom </li...
Critiques of MI <ul><li>Lack of quantifiable evidence that MI exist </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of evidence that use of MI as a...
Brain-Based Learning (BBL) <ul><li>Grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>D. Souza, N. Caine & G. Cai...
BBL in the Classroom <ul><li>Opportunities for group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Regular environmental changes </li></ul><u...
Critiques of BBL <ul><li>Research conducted by neuroscientists, not teachers & educational researchers </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Other Learning Theories of Note <ul><li>Andragogy (M. Knowles) </li></ul><ul><li>Flow (M. Czikszentmihalyi) </li></ul><ul>...
Suggestion from Prof.Felder and Mrs.Felder  <ul><li>Tested over 1,00,000 engineering students in USA with high validity an...
Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
Ideas for learning  <ul><li>Prepare the lecture in 15 minute segments ( if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop your lecture a...
Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
End of Session I and Session I 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
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Learning for engineering students (2)

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This presentation examines different learning theories.

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Learning for engineering students (2)

  1. 1. Learning~ Lecture 1 Shared by Dr.K.Prabhakar 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  2. 2. 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  3. 3. Is it possible for a teacher to know what is happening in the brain of student? No and it is a black box. 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  4. 4. 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar So how to unravel the mystery?
  5. 5. A Superficial Review <ul><li>There are fifty theories of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Social Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Brain-Based Learning </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  6. 6. Behaviorism <ul><li>Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses solely on observable behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>A biological basis for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is context-independent </li></ul><ul><li>Classical & Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexes (Pavlov’s Dogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback/Reinforcement (Skinner’s Pigeon Box) </li></ul></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  7. 7. Behaviorism in the Classroom <ul><li>Rewards and punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture-based, highly structured </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  8. 8. Critiques of Behaviorism <ul><li>Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher-centric environment </li></ul><ul><li>given and absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction & teacher-proofing </li></ul><ul><li>one size fits all </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  9. 9. This is what is being used as a model and most of this is teaching. <ul><li>We are experiencing the same in most of the learning situations. </li></ul><ul><li>We are feeling unfulfilling at the end of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>“ .”= covered the syllabus~ write exams~ results analysis~ This is what expected by parents. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ?”= more questions and discovery </li></ul><ul><li>“ !”= wonder at the sub ject </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  10. 10. Cognitivism <ul><li>Grew in response to Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is stored cognitively as symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the process of connecting symbols in a meaningful & memorable way </li></ul><ul><li>Studies focused on the mental processes that facilitate symbol connection </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  11. 11. Cognitivism cont. <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Epistemology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation and Accommodation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Jerome Bruner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery Learning ~story telling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learner as independent problem-solver </li></ul></ul></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  12. 12. Cognitivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Inquiry-oriented projects </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for the testing of hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Staged scaffolding </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  13. 13. Critiques of Cognitivism <ul><li>Like Behaviorism, knowledge itself is given and absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Input – Process – Output model is mechanistic and deterministic </li></ul><ul><li>Does not account enough for individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Little emphasis on affective characteristics </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  14. 14. Social Learning Theory (SLT) <ul><li>Grew out of Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><li>A. Bandura (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery </li></ul><ul><li>SLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bobo Doll Experiment </li></ul></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  15. 15. SLT in the Classroom <ul><li>Collaborative learning and group work </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling responses and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to observe experts in action </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  16. 16. Critiques of Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediating factors </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests students learn best as passive receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed to being active learners </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions and motivation not considered important or connected to learning </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  17. 17. Social Constructivism <ul><li>Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism, framed around metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is actively constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A search for meaning by the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextualized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inherently social activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogic and recursive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsibility of the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul></ul></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  18. 18. Social Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Journaling </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential activities </li></ul><ul><li>Personal focus </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative & cooperative learning </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  19. 19. Critiques of Social Constructivism <ul><li>Suggests that knowledge is neither given nor absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Often seen as less rigorous than traditional approaches to instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Does not fit well with traditional age grouping and rigid terms/semesters </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  20. 20. Multiple Intelligences (MI) <ul><li>Grew out of Constructivism, framed around metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>H. Gardner (1983 to present) </li></ul><ul><li>All people are born with eight intelligences </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar 1. Verbal-Linguistic 5. Musical 2. Visual-Spatial 6. Naturalist 3. Logical-Mathematical 7. Interpersonal 4. Kinesthetic 8. Intrapersonal
  21. 21. MI in the Classroom <ul><li>Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-directed learning </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  22. 22. Critiques of MI <ul><li>Lack of quantifiable evidence that MI exist </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of evidence that use of MI as a curricular and methodological approach has any discernable impact on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Development process is a time-sink </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestive of a departure from core curricula and standards </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  23. 23. Brain-Based Learning (BBL) <ul><li>Grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>D. Souza, N. Caine & G. Caine, E. Jensen (1980’s to present) </li></ul><ul><li>12 governing principles </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar 1. Brain is a parallel processor 7. Focused attention & peripheral perception 2. Whole body learning 8. Conscious & unconscious processes 3. A search for meaning 9. Several types of memory 4. Patterning 10. Embedded learning sticks 5. Emotions are critical 11. Challenge & threat 6. Processing of parts and wholes 12. Every brain is unique
  24. 24. BBL in the Classroom <ul><li>Opportunities for group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Regular environmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>A multi-sensory environment </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for self-expression and making personal connections to content </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based learning </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  25. 25. Critiques of BBL <ul><li>Research conducted by neuroscientists, not teachers & educational researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding of the brain itself makes “brain-based” learning questionable </li></ul><ul><li>Individual principles have been scientifically questioned </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  26. 26. Other Learning Theories of Note <ul><li>Andragogy (M. Knowles) </li></ul><ul><li>Flow (M. Czikszentmihalyi) </li></ul><ul><li>Situated Learning (J. Lave) </li></ul><ul><li>Subsumption Theory (D. Ausubel) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Learning (R. Gagne) </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  27. 27. Suggestion from Prof.Felder and Mrs.Felder <ul><li>Tested over 1,00,000 engineering students in USA with high validity and reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by learning process facilitators across the world. </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  28. 28. Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  29. 29. Ideas for learning <ul><li>Prepare the lecture in 15 minute segments ( if possible) </li></ul><ul><li>Stop your lecture and ask them to summarize in their own words by writing linearly. ( this is for reflective learners). </li></ul><ul><li>Let one of the student explain to others what has been said in three to four minutes.( this is for the active learner) </li></ul>12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  30. 30. Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  31. 31. Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  32. 32. Learning Preferences … 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar
  33. 33. End of Session I and Session I 12/02/10 Dr.K.Prabhakar

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