University of Missouri-Columbia, Cardiovascular Diagnosis from Ballistocardiogram
October 30, 2018
What is the problem?
• Electrocardiograms (ECGs) model
cardiac functioning and enable
diagnosis of improper functioning
• Ballistocardiograms (BCGs) model
cardiovascular functioning, and potentially
provide rich information on the cardiovascular
– Theoretically, BCGs should model functioning of
large arteries and can be used to pinpoint improper
functioning of the carotid artery, ascending aorta,
– However, the curve is poorly understood, so BCGs
are not used clinically
How does product/service solve problem?
• Giovanna Guidoboni developed a
closed loop mathematical model
that simulates the mechanisms
generating the BCG signal
• The solution provides a
quantitative framework for the
clinical interpretation of BCG
What is the market use?
(Hydraulic Bed Sensor)
(Weighing scale, …)
Fig. 5. Simulated pressure waveforms are compared with experimental measurements at different sites along the arterial tree. [Moein: can you please send
me the .m ﬁle to obtain this ﬁgure? We need to edit some things a little.]
between BCG waveforms reported in different studies.
Fig. 6. Waveform f A (t) associated with the acceleration of the body motion
simulated via the closed-loop model over one cardiac cycle. The waveform
exhibits the typical I, J, K, L, M and N peaks that characterize BCG signals
Figure 6 reports the waveform f A (t) simulated via the
closed-loop model over one cardiac cycle. The waveform
exhibits the typical I, J, K, L, M and N peaks that characterize
BCG signals measured experimentally , , , thereby
conﬁrming the capability of the closed-loop model to capture
the fundamental cardiovascular mechanisms that give rise to
the BCG signal.
A quantitative comparison between the simulated BCG
Fig. 7. BCG waveforms for displacement, velocity and acceleration, denoted
by f D , f V and f A , respectively. The ﬁgure reports the waveforms simulated
via the closed-loop model, the theoretical waveforms calculated by Noorder-
graaf and Heynekamp  and the experimental waveforms obtained by Inan
et al  Kim et al  and our group.
waveforms pertaining to displacement, velocity and accel-
eration of the center of mass is reported in Figure 7 by
means of the auxiliary functions f D , f V and f A . The wave-
forms simulated via the closed-loop model are compared
with (i) the theoretical results presented by Noordergraaf and
Heynekamp , where we calculated velocity and accelera-
What is the status of the intellectual property?
• Patent pending
What is the stage of development?
• Prototype built and tested on a small number of
What is needed for further development?
• More validation with more patients
• Refinement of model for improved accuracy
• Development of BCG sensing system
• Find an entrepreneur/licensee with
cardiovascular expertise for partnering on
– Medical grade application for physicians
– Remote monitoring applications such as embodying
the invention in a chair or bed
For more information please contact Jim Baxendale, Director of