The Female Side• The female reproductive system produces female sex hormones and stores female reproductive cells.• Located pretty much entirely inside the body in the pelvis area of females
The Female Side• Uterus: a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ inside the female body -This is where the fertilized egg will be nourished and protected from conception until birth
The Female Side• The uterus is made of some of the strongest muscles in the human body.• Before pregnancy the uterus is about 3” long and 2” wide
The Female Side• Fallopian Tubes: are attached to each side of the uterus and lead to the ovaries• Each one is about 4” long and look like spaghetti noodles• They also contain cilia, or hair like movement structures that help to move the egg from the ovaries to the uterus.
The Female Side• Ovaries: the female sex glands that store the ova(or female sex cell, aka egg) and produce female sex hormones • Estrogen and Progesterone• They are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper left and right of the uterus• They produce, store and release eggs into fallopian tubes
The Female Side• Ovulation: is the release of an egg into the fallopian tube• At birth a female’s ovaries contain more than 400,000 immature eggs
The Female Side• The menstrual cycle: provides important body chemicals and prepares your body for pregnancy each month• A cycle is counted from the first day of a period until the first day of the next period• A complete cycle usually lasts from 21-35 days in adults
The Female Side• At or around the 14th day the egg travels into the fallopian tube• The uterus builds lining to protect the egg in case of fertilization occurs in the tube• If its not fertilized the egg breaks apart and the lining of the uterus is shed during the menstrual period
The Female Side• http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/o ur-publications/fact-sheet/menstruation.cfm
The Female Side• PMS: Premenstrual Syndrome: both physical and emotional symptoms that many girls and women get right before their periods such as acne, bloating, fatigue, headaches, sore breasts, and food cravings• Usually 7 days before period
The Female Side• Vagina: a muscular elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body
The Female Side• Cervix: where the vagina and uterus connect• The cervix has strong, thick walls. The opening of the cervix is very small (no wider than a straw), which is why a tampon can never get lost inside a girls body. During childbirth, the cervix can expand to allow a baby to pass.
The Female Side• Problems with the Female Reproductive System: • Menstrual Cramps: often occur at the beginning of a cycle, severe or persistent cramping may need strong medical attention, however most are relieved via light exercise or heating pad • Toxic Shock Syndrome: rare but serious bacterial infection; can be fatal; symptoms include fever, vomiting, sun-burn like rash, red eyes, dizziness, muscle aches; to avoid change tampons regularly
Problems with Females• Vulvovaginitis: an inflammation of the vulva and vagina; can be caused by poor hygiene or irritating substances; symptoms such as itching and vaginal discharge can occur; can also lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease• Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): infection of fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding areas of pelvis; can lead to infertility; usually caused by an STD
Problems with Females• Endometriosis: occurs when tissue normally found only in the uterus starts to grow outside the uterus — in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other parts of the pelvic cavity. It can cause abnormal bleeding, painful periods, and general pelvic pain.• Ovarian Tumors: although theyre rare, can occur. Girls with ovarian tumors may have abdominal pain and masses that can be felt in the abdomen. Surgery may be needed to remove the tumor. They maybe cancerous and they may not be
Female Problems• Ovarian cysts: are noncancerous sacs filled with fluid or semisolid material. Although they are common and generally harmless, they can become a problem if they grow very large. Large cysts may push on surrounding organs, causing abdominal pain. In most cases, cysts will disappear on their own and treatment is unnecessary. If the cysts are painful, a doctor may prescribe birth control pills to alter their growth or they may be removed by a surgeon.
Female Cancers• Ovarian Cancer: Cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary (one of a pair of female reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, are formed). Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells).
Female Cancers• Estimated new cases and deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States in 2011: • New cases: 21,990 • Deaths: 15,460 Risk factors for Ovarian Cancer: 1) Age 2) Obesity 3)Reproductive History 4) Fertility Drugs 5)Family History of Ovarian, Breast, or Colorectal Cancer
Female Cancers• Symptoms: • Abdominal pressure, fullness, swelling or bloating • Pelvic discomfort or pain • Persistent indigestion, gas or nausea • Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation • Changes in bladder habits, including a frequent need to urinate • Loss of appetite or quickly feeling full • Increased abdominal girth or clothes fitting tighter around your waist • A persistent lack of energy • Low back pain
Female Cancers• http://www.medicinenet.com/ovarian_cancer_pict ures_slideshow/article.htm• Breast Cancer: cancer of the breast or surrounding tissues and glands, early detection is imparitive • Important to regularly check yourself and have regular doctor checkups • Family history is a major risk factor • http://www.medicinenet.com/breast_cancer_pictur es_slideshow/article.htm
Chapter 19!!!!• Fill out guided reading worksheets for Chapter 19!!!