Research Methodology – Term Paper Kevin Kovadia [AM0712] Adit Shah [AM2012] Scope of Renewable Energy in Automobile SectorIntroductionAny energy and environmental policy effort must come to grips with transportation. Roughly97% of all energy consumed by our cars, sport utility vehicles, vans, trucks, and airplanes is stillpetroleum-based.The automobile industry is comprised of companies that design, manufacture, market, sell andservice motor vehicles. It is a complex, highly fragmented supply chain that includes procuringraw materials such as steel, aluminum, plastics and glass, forming and manufacturing parts andassembling the parts into an end vehicle.The industry is highly dependent on government regulations and fuel price fluctuations thatinfluence vehicle design and consumer preferences. Because the automobile industry is also amajor consumer of electricity and fossil fuels, the industry has the opportunity to transform itsoperations, achieve cost savings and hedge against future volatility in energy prices throughmore efficient processes, increased use of renewable energy, and more self-generation ofelectricity.Due to the diversity of the automobile industry and the many finished parts of a vehicle,operational energy use must be assessed across the entire supply chain; from raw materials, toparts production, to manufacturing assembly, in order to optimize efficiency and renewableenergy use.The global automotive industry is undergoing a fundamental transformation due to increasingconsumer preferences toward vehicles with a lower carbon footprint.
Literature reviewBesides the tens of millions of passenger vehicles that are already in operation today, tens ofmillions more automobiles and light trucks will be manufactured in the near future to satisfyincreasing demand among the growing middles classes of China, Brazil, India and Malaysia aswell as other burgeoning economies around the world.We will need to replace gasoline with a zero-carbon fuel. All Alternative fuel vehicles pathwayrequire technology advances and strong government action to succeed. Hydrogen is the mostchallenging of all alternative fuels, particularly because of the enormous effort needed tochange our existing gasoline infrastructure. Achieving the transition to a low carbon sustainable economy will require a massivemobilization of skills and training – both to equip new workers and to enable appropriatechanges in practices by the three million workers already employed in these key sectorsinfluencing our environmental footprint. Current approaches do not appear sufficient formeeting these challenges. Few now doubt that we are rapidly approaching two conflicting mega-challenges – Peak Oil,and major climate change. Long-term option is dramatically increased use of renewableespecially wind, liquid biofuels, and solar and advanced nuclear concepts. The consumption of energy is increasing all over the world. At the same time, the availableresources are declining. There will eventually be a shortage of some of the types of energy weuse. At the same time, these energy sources are making a significant contribution to theincrease in global warming. Joint intervention and activity on the part of everyone involved isneeded to solve these problems. 
Objective 1. Need of RE (renewable energy)Central to the worlds mobility needs, the car industry has to innovate in order to survive, byapplying new energy solutions. Automobile industry is an energy consumer and a major sourceof CO2 emissions. It has been calculated that as much as 27 per cent of all CO2 emissions in theEurope comes from automobile industry.There are three principal factors that drive the need for alternative fuels. The increase in global warming to which the burning of oil is a contributory factor. Our enormous dependence on fossil fuels. When it comes to the transport sector, this dependence is extreme. Some 97% of all the energy that is used for transport comes from crude oil. Crude oil is a finite resource and its availability is steadily declining. 2. History about usage of RE in automobile sectorThough the first electric vehicle was developed in 1834, electric vehicles are even today not amainstream commercial proposition in developed markets. Long distances, high speeds, lowfuel costs, and high carrying capacities combined with the clout of the conventional vehiclelobby make electric cars uncompetitive in those markets.The energy crises of the 1970s and 80s brought a short-lived interest in electric cars, thoughthose cars did not reach mass marketing as todays electric cars experience it. Since the mid-2000s, the production of electric cars is experiencing a renaissance due to advances in batteryand power management technologies and concerns about increasingly volatile oil prices andthe need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
3. Future of REElectric carAn electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one electric motor or more, using electricalenergy stored in batteries or another energy storage device. Electric motors give electric carsinstant torque, creating strong and smooth acceleration.Electric cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engineautomobiles, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they have no tailpipe, andtherefore do not emit harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power at thepoint of operation reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the onboard source of power,depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation to charge the batteriesand less dependence on foreign oil, which for the United States and other developed oremerging countries is cause for concern about vulnerability to oil price volatility and supplydisruption.The advanced vehicles of the future will not just offer unmatched features, safety andconvenience; they will also be "clever" and environment friendly. The increasing fusion ofelectronics and IT with automotive technologies will give rise to vehicles with advancedintelligence and connectivity. Other developments in distribution models, financing options,flexible ownership models, personalization of vehicles and greater choices across theecosystem will further alter the entire experience of interacting with the mobility ecosystem.Reference Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2011, 1, 67-82 doi:10.4236/jtts.2011.14010 Published OnlineOctober 2011 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jtts) Romm, J. (2006). The car and fuel of the future. elsevier, Energy Policy 34 .
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