Chapter 1 NOTES


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Chapter 1 NOTES

  1. 1. Introduction to Chemistry and Matter Chapter 1 Pages 1-12, 238-243 Note: Periodic Table section contains more info than you need!
  2. 2. <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>A. Science is a body of knowledge collected by scientists over many years and the methods used to obtain knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Chemistry: the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>By analyzing the different aspects of matter we can solve problems and answer questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What?, How much?, How can it be changed?, How fast?, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruments are often used to help answer these questions </li></ul>
  4. 4. There are several branches of chemistry <ul><li>Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Substances contain carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Originally it was thought that all organic compounds were always related to life, but that is not true </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - Gasoline, Sugar, Alcohol </li></ul>
  5. 5. Inorganic Chemistry <ul><li>Substances that don’t contain Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Examples - Salt (NaCl), Calcium nitrate (CaNO 3 ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Physical Chemistry - deals with matter and energy (is the bridge between chemistry and physics) </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Chemistry - identification of substances (think CSI) </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry - combines biology and chemistry, chemistry of living things </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical Chemistry - uses computers, advanced mathematical models </li></ul>
  7. 7. II. Matter <ul><li>A. States of Matter </li></ul><ul><li>SOLID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely packed particles, little free space between them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definite volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotational particle movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles cannot slide past each other </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Transition between solid and liquid <ul><li>Solid to liquid = melting </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid to solid = freezing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Liquid <ul><li>Takes shape of container (no definite shape) </li></ul><ul><li>Definite volume (cannot change size) </li></ul><ul><li>Rotational and vibrational particle movement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Transition between liquid and gas <ul><li>Liquid to gas = Vaporization </li></ul><ul><li>Two Common Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation - the molecules escape from the liquid state to the gas state without any external heat source. Molecules with high energy escape thereby lowering the temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling - escape of molecules from a liquid state being continually heated </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Transition between gas and liquid <ul><li>Condensation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gas <ul><li>Indefinite volume and shape </li></ul><ul><li>Expands to fill any container </li></ul><ul><li>Widely spread particles </li></ul><ul><li>Rotational, vibrational, and translational particle movements </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transitions between gas to solid <ul><li>Solid to Gas = Sublimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - dry ice (solid CO 2 going straight to CO 2 gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas to Solid = Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - how snow forms in clouds </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. B. Properties <ul><li>Physical Property: Doesn’t alter identify of substance </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive - independent of amount (color, melting point, density, temperature, hardness) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive - depends on amount (mass, length, volume) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Property: Ability of a substance to undergo a change that alters its identity </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - rusting iron, milk turning sour, metals reacting with acids to form hydrogen gas </li></ul>
  15. 15. C. Changes <ul><li>Physical: change that does NOT alter identity of substance </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - cutting/tearing paper into smaller pieces, molding clay </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Chemical: changes in which at least 1 substance changes identity (becomes something new) </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning paper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sodium (reactive metal) + chlorine gas (poisonous) = sodium chloride (table salt) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Nuclear: different substances with different properties </li></ul><ul><li>Changes occur in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE - fission, fusion, radioactive decay, TMI </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conservation of Matter and Energy <ul><li>In a reaction, the total amount of matter and energy stays the same </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, if you start with 20 grams of a compound at the end you should still have 20 grams of the compound although it probably changed form. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important for a lot of chemical ideas </li></ul>
  19. 19. A little chemistry cartoon