This paper says something about how can education make effective response to poverty and deprivation that has become the identity of South Asia and how such a capacity is built using education as a tool for that purpose.
Building Educational Response to Combat Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia
1 BUILDING EDUCATIONAL RESPONSE TO COMBAT Poverty and Deprivation in South Asia Keshav Prasad Bhattarai1 Poverty menaces and DeprivationMore than 200 years ago noted English man of letters Samuel Johnson (1709-84) said that` poverty is agreat enemy to human happiness, it certainly destroys liberty and it makes some virtues impracticableand others extremely difficult’.Yes poverty was there in past and it is among us at present. The genesis of poverty and sense ofownership over natural resources are coetaneous. Obviously poverty is a human creation with mostinhuman and ugly effect.Generally speaking inability to afford an adequate standard of consumption is poverty, but notedEconomist Amartya Sen analyses poverty in terms of both income and capability deprivation. Accordingto Sen rise in income may not necessarily generate capability, similarly income can not be converted intocapability but capability it self has profound income generating impact .Therefore agreeing with Sen bypoverty we also mean state of living under severe level of deprivation regarding fundamental freedom ofactions and choice(1). Poverty therefore is a capability deprivation with relations to the absence ofownership and entitlements regarding productive skills and abilities, inheritance and transferentitlements. Such absence comprises entitlement to trade something that some body owns, ownsomething produced by his or her ability and resource management skills, ownerships of labor powerrelated to trade, service and production and exercise it on own. Besides such absence, obviously includespower to own given or transferred entitlements willingly or legitimately (2). An Iranian politician turnedacademician Majid Rahnema defined poverty in simple term as a situation lacking `deficiencies ordeprivation of material, non material and existential kind.(3)In 1987 Father Wresinski defining poverty suggested that social vulnerability is the absence of one ormore assured capacities which permit individuals and their families to carry out their basicresponsibilities and enjoy their fundamental rights. The insecurity which results from such a conditionleads frequently to extreme poverty and tends to prolong itself over time, becoming persistent andgravely compromising the ability to recover the exercise of these rights and responsibilities within theforeseeable future.(4) Going to wider repercussions of poverty he stresses,|`behind any poor communityis another which is poorer. Behind poverty stricken street is another even worse and behind a poorfamily we can almost always find another poorer’ (5) Therefore we can understand that poverty anddeprivation is a situation when someone is denied minimum requirements for survival, wellbeing, statusand freedom creating more, again more poverty and deprivationThus we can comprehend poverty as inability to meet one’s basic needs or non availability of minimumnecessities as required by economic, cultural and biological survival. It is lack of power and selfconfidence to change one’s life and inability to command love and respect from others. Also it is asituation when any individuals quite unable to carry his /her responsibility towards family and society.The alarming thing about poverty is that- both the cause and effect of poverty is deprivation anddestitution translated to hunger, malnutrition, home less-ness and ill health. Therefore poverty is amulti-faceted human predicament covering the whole range of inequality, oppression and dominationrelative to the prevailing character of socio- political and economic regimes. It is a source of culturaldegrades and patterns of all kind of conflict situations. The irony of poverty is that when people inpower feel socially, politically or economically unsecured, more oppression, exploitation and corruption
2takes place; breeding more poverty and victimizing more to poor. So poverty brings sense of insecurityto the people who rule and people who are being ruled. Thus it creates a vicious cycle of poverty withwider repercussions.This way poverty hits hard to the state as a whole, narrowing people’s ability to enlarge or protect theirinterests and stakes both in individual or social terms. In this way poverty has become sum total impactof socio- political, economic, religious and cultural settings of South Asian societies.Poverty has become the scourge of human society for centuries. It has assaulted human dignity in amost cruel way and with severest form of exclusion resulting war, conflicts, social tension and violence.The severities of its sufferings have climbed up with each of our technological advancement. Also theglobalize nature of modern economics has brought wider possibilities of prosperity with equal effect toglobalize nature of human avarice.2. Causes of povertyAccording to a World Bank study poverty is caused by lack of income to meet basic requirements ofpeople, a sense of voiceless-ness and powerless-ness in the institutions of state and society andvulnerability to adverse shocks and effects with inabilities to cope with them; causes poverty. Buildingpeople’s assets is the only answer to poverty and these assets includes human, natural, physical, financialand social. All assets, either this way or that way depend on education of people.There fore, poverty is the result of economic, political and social processes that interact with eachother and frequently reinforce each other in ways that exacerbate the deprivation in which poor peoplelive.(6)In almost all situations, evidently, poverty is caused by defective state policies, programs and practicesincorporated by inefficient social structures and community cultures. They are continuously re-enforcedby low graded socio-political leadership plus faulty personal and social practices.Poverty is not only the lack of income and ability but also the lack of supporting structures, cultures andpractices to help people break the poverty cycle. Thus low income to meet basic requirements, low levelof health and nutrition, sense of voiceless ness, powerlessness and vulnerabilities to adversities and inabilities to cope with them cause poverty. In short prevailing social injustices making people sufferworst at the hands of vulnerabilities to adversities is the main reason of poverty.3. Poverty vs. developmentDevelopment is a heavy loaded word compared to much restricted word growth; meaning to the processof economic growth in per- capita income and availability of certain level of human capability necessaryto promote and protect his/her economic and social stakes and interests. Development on the otherhand covers the whole range of growth situations really transmittable to gross national product relativeto industrialization, trade increase, broad social inclusion and empowerment of common people throughdemocratic transformation of society with guaranteed civil and political freedoms.Indubitably, development is creation. Likely non development is destruction. Through deprivation rootedin contradictions, attitudes and behaviors of all individuals and social actors, we give space to nondevelopment.It is easy to learn that when basic needs of people are met, development is accelerated.Similarly, non -development results into deprivation practices creating poverty, violence, exploitation,repression. Therefore poverty and deprivation is based upon socio-economic, political and legal structureand culture with negative practices. Developments depend upon education through their incomegenerating activities, health care, increased life expectancies and birth control.According to a World Bank Report (WDR 20002001) investment in improving poor peoples access toeducation and health have double impact in improving growth and reducing poverty directly.Thus reducing poverty is educating people to build their – • Access to market decisions and policies serving their interests • Ability to participate in decisions and fighting negations
3 • Organize institutions to work for them and build their capacity to work for themTherefore, development in short is social transformation with human face. It is transformation ofhuman environment to satisfy basic needs of the people and from there to realize maximum individualand social potential. So when we say development it is absence of poverty, human sufferings, illiteracy,un-freedom, domination, exploitation, and violation of human rights or in short it is absence of humanadversaries or absence of neglected survival of man. Development is a complete journey; journey with allnecessities and accessories and a destination of complete living; complete in the sense that when wemake journey to development it is made in perfect match not overburdened with one thing and emptyhanded with another thing .Therefore development is understood in its approach and effect It it’s a process of rational action onthe part of individual, social, national or global to satisfy basic human needs. It is not a single entity buta set of separate entities with common contribution to maximize human happiness. When we speakdevelopment we mean both production and distribution. The development approach cannot be satisfiedwith raise in income but in quality of income raise and quality of consumption and distribution.In these respects we would like to list the component of policy and goal directives of developmentstrategy as follows:a. Policy Directive Strategies- • Enhancement of state capacity to facilitate development through effective provision of legal and institutional reform packages, • Promoting effective provision of public services regarding quality of development hard wares (infrastructures) including transport, energy, tele communications and,b. Goal Directive Strategies • Inclusiveness of whole section of society within the parameters of national development efforts. • Meaningful participation of entire population in the process of development. • Equitable distribution of income and wealth among whole section of society. • Higher level of human development with full realization of human potentialc. Acculturation strategy: modification or transformation of culture with change in attitudes, belief system of people. 4. Development by participation and Empowerment The level of poverty and Deprivation in south Asia as recorded by several international agencies haveshown that the efforts made in all these years is no more than myth. We are failures becauseAmong the total world population of people living in less than 1$ a Day 44% live in South Asia. It hasproved that the efforts made in all these years are no more than a failure when compared with othercountries. The main reason of this failure is our faulted developmental approach; the approach of stateimposition but not participatory.Participation is most effective development strategy. It is a strategy of organizing people’s inspirationto achieve their aspiration and encouragement to build their involvement in programs targeted tosupport their stakes. When participation is worked out, people’s needs and supports are assessed, theyare encouraged to raise their say in decisions and tackled in democratic order.Participation does not only bear political linkages it is opted because participation enhances investmentsand better policy initiatives to raise funds, develop own resources and mobilize them for better results.We also import participation for building institutions to consolidate social capital and accelerate change,building legitimacy for development institutions of development and accountability to development. It isso, because Participation in decisions empowers the stakeholders, ensures their inclusion through thehelp they needed. It promotes state efficiency to proceed with re organization of political and legalinfrastructures and disciplines them for meaningful developmental culture of nation and society.In short participation is empowerment of people and enlargement of better opportunities for them.Empowerment through participation also ensures freedom and justice resulting into institutions of broad
4social inclusion and protections against vulnerabilities arising from all sorts of socio economic andenvironmental hazards. Similarly participation broadens opportunities for people and encourages limitedpersonal and social entrepreneurship to join the larger forces of market with boundless possibilities.Therefore it is basically the participation that capitalizes peoples’ potential, enhances their confidenceto make collaboration between their primitive infrastructures and national and global infrastructures oflarger stream,5. Education ,Poverty Reduction and DevelopmentAccording to Schumacher` development does not start with goods; it starts with people with theireducation, organization and disciplines….Every country no matter how devastated, which had a high levelof education, organization and discipline, produced an economic miracle(7) The East Asian miracle nodoubt is the result of education and education promoted organization and discipline. This very fact madeWorld Bank conclude that 85% of the wealth Japan consist of is human and social capital.(8) obviously,only people are the primary and ultimate source of any wealth whatsoever. (9) Therefore poverty is boththe cause and effect of un-educationEducation, no doubt is the most effective means of self defense available for human beings. Withoutbasic education individuals are not entitled to defend themselves in different aspects of socio economiclife viz. defend oneself in court, obtain bank loan, enforce inheritance rights, take advantage of newtechnology, compete for securing employment (10) Education in short gives incentives to people toparticipate success fully in the modern economy and society and bring change in society withouteducation and knowledge they can not look after their nutrition, health, manage family and organize intocooperatives and trade unions (11).South Asia has oppression, marginalization and poverty. We have this for our neglects of educationalroles to promote justice, equality, freedoms and empowerment. So according to Dreze and Sen thisneglect is not confined to government circles but much of it on the part of political parties, tradeunions, revolutionary organizations and other social movements (12) The sheer example of this neglect isillustrated by Andhra prudish chief minister N. Chandrababu Naidu that` the cost of maintaining onepubic sector employee for a year is roughly the same as what it costs to run a primary school (13).The millennium Development Goals declared by UN General Assembly in 2000 have targeted to halve thelevel of extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. But for a region housing the half of the Asian poor withhigh population growth, in sufficient GDP growth, low level of human development and dismal picture ofsocial security for the poor has put formidable pressure against the attainment of U.N. MillenniumGoals. The inequality of income in the region is so pervasive that the poorest 10% of the population havea share of income of only 3.6% when compared with the richest 10% on 29.6% of national income. Thisleaves no way except on effective educational intervention contributing efficiency and productivityincrease by means of technological advancement including ICT sector.According to a renowned South Asian scholar and the great Human Development expert; South Asia isthe poorest, most illiterate, the most malnourished and the most gender insensitive region in the World(14). Millions of people in South Asia are denied opportunities at every step. To continue with the samescholar the countries of South and East Asia had started at roughly the same per capita income level in1960 and by the end of the century the per capita income of East Asia was about 27th time higher (15)and obviously it was for the central role of education.In short people lacking support are poor and become poor. Without the support of education those bornpoor are most likely to die poor. Therefore only education is best support for them. Developmentexperiences of well developed countries have proved that education ad technical skills of theirpopulation has not only given them higher level of income with lowest level of human deprivation and agrandeur of peace and prosperity but overwhelmingly major part of their national wealth consist humanand social capital deriving from education .
5Education is antidote of illiteracy. So when illiteracy is counted for not only depriving people culturally;but also excluding people from national life. It is also personal tragedy and a powerful force inpreserving inequalities and oppression making the poor suffer the worst in educating a child. It is themost acute state of deprivation because to be illiterate is to be helpless in a modern state run by way ofcomplex laws and regulations. (16).About 400 million illiterate adults, 90 million children not going school and 135 million child labors areour South Asian identity. About 515 million people below poverty line lacking self confidence, personalhonour, living with humiliations, insults; robbing of their human essence is not giving this a humane face.Education, therefore in the presence of illiteracy does not need to prove its significance. It gives hopeand meaning to life and when combined makes quality of life. When quality of life is concerned, accordingto Edmund O’Sullivan it is our way of growing into life with energy, vitality and joy (17).Similarly, according to Derek Parfit, “What makes a life go best (18) is quality. The life goes best whensomeone can fulfill the happiness, satisfaction and ideals (19) of life with autonomy of his/her actionsand decisions. No need to say that this fulfillment with autonomy of actions and decisions is attained byeducation.Now we would observe some of the hard realities of world in the context of South Asia. No need to goevery sector of human deprivation, South Asia is counted in each and every aspect of this deprivation.Here educational intervention is needed more effectively and it has been proved education can dobetter than any other measures – take some examples though overall percentage of illiterate people inworld has decreased, the number of illiterate has actually increased. In1960 there were 701 millionilliterate but by the end of last century it was more than 854 more than 150 million increase. If we takeour case we South Asians own half of the world’s illiterates. Similarly 40% of the world’s 1.2 billion poorand 75% of out of school children (85 million out of 113 million) are from South Asia. By the end of2000, the newest death trap and a vicious force of exclusion HIV-AIDS had taken lives of 22 millionpeople and more than 40 million were living with AIDS; with more than 10% infected people are fromSouth Asia.Poverty deprivation and other human sufferings of South Asians do not end here, it may take pages butwe would like to go to educational contribution to end poverty and facilitate development.According to the senior Vice President of World Bank Nicholas Stern `better educated person is moreflexible; she absorbs new information faster and applies unfamiliar inputs and new processes moreeffectively. In the uncertain and dynamic environment of rapid technical change, more highly educatedworkers have big advantage. More education and skill allow people to adopt and profit from the new workopportunities and new technology. (20) Similarly he also focuses that the full returns to physicalinvestments, whether private or public, will not be realized without concomitant investments ineducation. More educated are poised to benefit from opportunities afforded them through extra capitaland less educated are not (21)6. Educational Response to combat PovertyPoverty reducing and growth accelerating role of education is well established by many studies andresearches made by distinguished scholars, national and international agencies. And this is quite simplebecause human capital, the creation of education is most significant input for economic growth. We havesome best experiences in building educational response to combat poverty and deprivation. Many nationshave eliminated poverty and achieved huge development in a short time by using their human potential tothe maximum extent. We need not cite examples of Norway or Japan. South Korea, Taiwan andSingapore are no less examples in this regard. In 1960 South Korea had a per capita income of 230$ in2001 it was 9400$. Korea made it possible with successful basic education and highest percentage ofstudents’ enrollment in education especially in science and technology. Similarly in 1960 Korea had 5%enrollment ratio in tertiary education and in 2000 it was 80% and public expenditure per student in 1900in Korea was 2700 $ and in 2000 it was 4500$. When Taiwan was gaining a status of East Asian Tiger
6more than 80% of the cabinet berths were occupied by PhD. holders with dreams to give Taiwan arespectful place in world community through education. Within a period of 1965-1976 Singaporeachieved more than 15% growth rate in average. Dr. Man Mohan Singh in India and Dr. Mahbub Ul Haq inPakistan single handedly oriented their nations to the basics of development- acceleration of economywith skilled manpower. Similarly China is another illustrious example gaining such a huge progress withsuch a huge population with huge quality investments in education.So the starting point is not unclear. Make a fresh start with re-structuring education and school systemthat could foster technical support, practical knowledge and democratic freedom consciousness amongthe students and build proper social patterns to prepare them for future.Education is a community activity and all community actions are to be reflected into schools. And schoolsmust support community activity and learn from each other .To build coherent educational response tocommunity needs; schools are to be restructured in such a way that any person of any age groups couldget support from school when s/he needs it. If we have schools for public debates, students guardiansinvolved in preparing both formal and informal curriculums from the very beginning and communitypeople participate in community activities, sharing their experiences with students under a short termlearning contracts, a educational environment will be created. Part time schooling and part time workingin community job will broaden the horizon of students’ perception.7. Markets, Poverty Reduction and EducationMarkets have always been a very strong socio-political and economic force of human society. These daysmarket forces are overwhelmingly powerful perhaps than all other institution of human society, becauseit is directly involved to supply people with their basic needs and meet their basic needs.Markets have existed throughout human history and it has characterized the nature and culture ofgovernment and civil society. So the market does not only bear financial but social and political cost also.Maximizing profit from market without social accountability may easily turn a state system withtotalitarian effect and social stratification.Markets facilitate growth and development but defining market to support poor is the greatestchallenge before us. Market works for all if all are able to protect their interests. And this protectioncomes through education with direct implications. A very effective factor to increase productivity andbuild better climate for investment is basically the promotion of rural entrepreneurship, a key forreducing poverty and accelerate development in South Asia. This reality is realized if schools areorganized to prepare skilled back force to accelerate growth and development.Market is most effective mean for growth and development but it looses its relevance in the long termif does not work for poor. Similarly to be able to bag the benefits of market poor have to participate inmarket and make market support and work for them. Unless market is accessible to millions of poor,unless it helps poor get rich, market will just turn to be a recreation center for a few rich but not asymbol of prosperous economy. Market grows well and is Vigo rated when millions of people have moneyto buy things in market and entrepreneurship to introduce into market. Market forces must acknowledgethe fact that market grows well when there are more consumers with more money in their pockets. Themoney or wealth no doubt is the creation of quality life situations promoted by good education and goodhealth.But equally poor have to build competency to secure their stakes in market and the states have to comehere to protest the interests of poor and empower poor politically and instrumentally. It is to be donewith active participation with market forces and design public action to the priorities of poor. The besta state can start this is through education and training to poor. This is to be done through betterorganization of schools and building a better delivery system of education. Facilitate good institutions,norms and behavior for development to organize better provision of public service to poor is realizedwhen people are empowered by education. So when organization and delivery of education comes
7adequate resource mobilization and efficiency of such mobilization has become a major issue. Thevolume of resources does not matter if it is organized through low quality polices and practices.Education prepares people for democracy and development. Equally it prepares people for markets andmarket promoted growth. Education also protects people against the side effects market led inequalityand poverty.Therefore to make more democratic and adaptive to poor people’s needs, education has distinct role andtransform market efficiency, market functioning and market growth compatible with democraticregulation (22) supportive to poor and protect them through educational empowerment.So the aims and objectives before us as stated is to • Promote socio-economic and political policies inclusive of poor and peoples of deprived community • Build equality and justice through broad social solidarity and public accountability to all sections of society • Promote `public spaces’ for education health and different form of social protection • Organize public action and build structures to govern and regulate individual and group activities incompatible to social well being • Address public disenchantment and frustration through a socio-political frame work on a regular basis • Build market accountability and spontaneous individual entrepreneurship to the broad framework of social justice and foster formation of human and social capital better equipped to build smooth access in global market • Improve level of human productivity by providing better education, training centers, promoting scientific and technological research • Prepare state and society pay compensation for environmental damage, unemployment, health hazards etc. • Empower people to influence decisions related to their life • Reorient state allocation to the poor and deprived community and build sound rural infrastructure so that income poverty and capability poverty of poor people is addressed • Build effective conflict management framework at all levels so that clashing interest among different economic stakes is regularly addressed and monitored • Make markets reach whole sections of society and address the real aspirations of total population. If market can only serve the purpose of a few it will turn to be an evil structure bringing more sufferings to poor.To achieve the mentioned and build proper educational response to combat poverty and deprivation andfoster development the following policies are suggested; • Ensure adequate investment in education with quality policies, plans, programs and practices so that national education system can prepare capable and skilled work force as demanded by socio- economic needs • Design appropriate program to end:-Gender bias in education -Educational exclusion of poor community and marginalized section of society • Create proper balance between community involvement in school management and state accountability in building educational establishments. • Build educational response to support people for their life long need of education and support • Build well defined administrative accountability to the access and quality aspect of education • Ensure merit education training decisive in allocating any opportunities to the teachers and educators • Educate and train people of all age group to cope with individual and social vulnerabilities • Empower education to drive economic development
8 • Update the transformative learning with advanced modalities of delivery and organization of education compatible to the revolution in information and communication sector. • Reorient educational programs to meet the incoming market needs of societies • Restructure education in recognition to build maximum level of human and social capital building dimension. Strategies and educational intervention combat poverty and deprivation Build educational capacityto • change attitudes, beliefs, cultures individual and community approach to combat poverty • map poverty, on development and deprivation level of community on attitudes, behaviors and prevailing contradictions • Build focus on structures, practices and actors responsible to poverty and deprivation. • Organize combat poverty and deprivation forums and councils at all levels. • Organize interaction, dialogue sessions among interests groups to aggregate common and conflicting interests. • Identify acceptable goals, strategies and community action plans. • Develop self sustaining process of feedback operation. • adjustment and readjustment of goals strategies and action plans • make local people responsible and accountable to local level decisions through participatory process Programs to combat poverty and deprivation through education: • Build people’s assets and plan effective use of these assets (the assets include-human, natural, physical, financial and social assets)1. Building assets and effective use of these assets means enhancing opportunities for people by building basic infrastructures to help people2. Promote and protest quality of such infrastructures, defining these infrastructures to support poor people, raise investment in pro-poor sector and inequality sector • Empower poor people through:3. Enhancing their capacity in influencing decisions, ensuring their participation in decisions and decision making process,4. Educating and training them, removing their disadvantages and barriers, building institutional accountability to them • Make poor people raise their voice in: 1. creating responsible government with accountability to them, rule of law, 2. remodeling political, legal and social structures, • Organize public forums to 1 facilitate social dialogue; action forums 2 raise poor people’s voice and ensure their interestsConclusionThe message or lesson learned by various studies is that social and economic program is achieved if weare able to build educational system able enough to acquire, advance and apply knowledge at its properdimensions. Undoubtedly it is education that creates wealth both economic and social and corrects thevulnerabilities of poor people. Creation, dissemination and application of knowledge and abilities acquiredduring education and training has direct impact upon poverty reduction.Peoples and nations are poor not because they lack natural resources or basic physical infrastructures,they are poor because they lack human capital and they will go on further marginalization if they lackpolitical will and determination to support education build its capacity in addressing the real problems ofpeople.
9Not nations it is people who compete in modern economy and peoples preparation to compete for theirshare is through a better process of creation and application of knowledge.Innovations and competency building of populations do not start with individual or group charity it startswith state policies and programs best addressed to support the basic needs of people satisfied witheducational capacity, generating and mobilizing resources, building higher level of efficiency andaccountability in state system of delivery of education.Education for all the countries in North and South, in East and West is to become the first priority withallocation of at least 7% of GNP. No one should be leaved out of educational protection-children, adultsand elders focus on the education of women, indigenous and poor. They should be provided life skills tomaintain their life with technical and vocational aspect of their policy must realize that without updatingpeople with education and training profession and future profession. Information of their profession andoccupation productivity can not be enhanced and communication technology has become a Source ofknowledge as power.Education is to be provided to children to make them prepared for active citizenship, forces ofdemocracy and freedom and a promoter of environmental protection. -----------------------------------------------------References(1). Quoted in World Development Report 200/2001, World Bank, p.1(2) Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, Oxford, 1999, p-87-110.(3) Majid Rahnema in Wolfgang Sachs edited, The Development Dictionary,Orient Longman, 1997,p.213(4) Genugten and Bustillo edited The Poverty of Rights, Zed Books p. 59.(5)(ibid.60)(6)WDR,2000/2001,WorldBank(7) E. F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful, Vintage, 1993, p. 138-139,(8) M. Haq, Reflections on Human Development, Oxford: 2000, p.218,(9)Schumacher,ibid,p.140,(10) Dreze and Sen; India Development and Participation: oxford, 2002 p.143.(11)op.cit.(12)ibid.144-145,(13) N. Chandrababu Naidu, Plain Speaking Viking, 2000, p.47.14) Dr Mahub Ul Haq, Reflections on Human Development Oxford 2000, p.216.(15)ibidp.217(16) Paul Harrison, Inside the Third World-the Anatomy of Poverty 1993, p. 304-305(17) Edmund O’ Sullivan, Transformative Learning: Educational Vision for the 21st century,ZedBooks,1999p.237.(18) Quoted by Dan Brock in Martha Naussabaum and Amartya Sen edited, The Quality of life, Oxford,1999, p.96.(19) Ibid.p.99,(20)Nicholas Stern, A Strategy for Development, World Bank, p.94.(21)op.cit.(22)Eduardo S. Bustelo in Genugten and Busillo edited The Poverty of Rights: Human Rights andNote: This paper was presented by the writer in his capacity as the General Secretaryof SAARC Teachers’ Federation, a body of teachers from Bangladesh, India, Nepal,
10Pakistan and Sri Lanka, with participants from the all five countries in a programorganized in Nepal in April 2002.