Citing Your Sources - APA


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A brief overview on using APA

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Citing Your Sources - APA

  1. 1. Using APA Style in a college paper
  2. 2.  Anytime you write a paper, give a speech or complete a project for class, you are going to do some research  Find statistics, quotes, definitions, case studies, business reports, etc.  Find research and ideas about a topic  These are the sources you must cite!
  3. 3.  Helps the reader understand the basis for information presented in your paper  Readers of your paper might want further information on your topic…your references will lead your reader to that information  You should give credit to the person who conducted the original research  Protect yourself from plagiarism
  4. 4.  Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional  It occurs anytime you quote, reference or use someone else’s work (article, book, photo, information on a website, etc.) and you don’t cite your source  Or if you paraphrase but use too much of the original source.
  5. 5.  Citation styles were created to provide a guide for authors/writers to consistently reference another person’s work  Citation styles have a very specific set of RULES  Punctuation, Italics, Underlining, capitalization, parentheses – IT ALL PLAYS A ROLE
  6. 6.  APA (American Psychological Association) style is most often used in the social sciences and research.  APA provides writers of research papers a style to properly reference their sources, using parentheses in their essays and a References page at the end.  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition)  In-text citations require an entry on the References page
  7. 7.  12 point Times New Roman font  1” margins all around  Double  All indents ½” from left margin  Page numbers – in header, flush right  Header  Do 2 space – all caps, flush left not hyphenate a word at the end of a line spaces after a period in text
  8. 8. Your instructor’s “Rules” override any official guidelines  Title Page  Centered in upper half of page  Contains Title of Paper, Author, Institutions  Running Header  Abstract  Center the word “Abstract”  No indentations  150-200 words  Header
  9. 9.  Actual paper  1st page – center title of paper  Header  Has in-text citations  References Page
  10. 10.  A working bibliography consists of all sources used in your research process.  References page lists only those sources cited in your paper.  It is always a good idea to capture the information just in case it will need to appear in your reference list or in a citation. Basic source information for the reference Date(s) that you accessed web pages Page/paragraph information for key statistics, photos, charts  Page/paragraph information for potential quotes   
  11. 11.  Used to indicate the source of the fact or idea or quote  Format  Books, is usually not source dependent journals and web pages are all formatted similarly
  12. 12.  In-text citation: (Author, Year) 70% of students going back to college feel overwhelmed (Smith, 2009).  In-text citation where the author is mentioned: (Year) According to Smith (2009), 70% of students going back to college feel overwhelmed.
  13. 13.  In-text citation with multiple authors: (Author1 & Author2, Year) Deaths from HIV rose 58% between 1980 and 1992 (Weiner & Tyler, 1998).
  14. 14.  In-text citation: (Author, Year, Page Number) “70% of students going back to college feel overwhelmed” (Smith, 2009, p. 16).  In-text citation where the author is mentioned: According to Smith (2009), “70% of students going back to college feel overwhelmed” (p. 16).
  15. 15.  At the end of the paper References  Every work on the References page should appear in your paper and vice versa  Hanging  List indent Smith, Rhonda. (2008). Getting ready to work. New York, NY: Dell Publishing. Washington, George. (2010, July 5). Cutting down an apple tree. American Journal of Psychology 34(3), 15-25. Retrieved from gton.htm Zeller, Dan. (2009, April 4). Learning APA style. American Journal of Writing. 3(3), 59-68. sources alphabetically by author – if there is no author by the first important word in the title
  16. 16. Things to Note:  Book titles and Article titles: Only first word is capitalized unless the word is a proper noun. Also capitalize first word after certain types of punctuation (e.g., colon, dash).  Journal titles: All major words are capitalized.  Months are spelled out.  If a web site is used and the URL has upper and lower case (e.g., youtube urls) use the upper and lower case.
  17. 17. Websites – include as much information as you can find. Information for the citation might be on a different page. This is especially true if the page(s) is part of a larger work (i.e., the author is treating it like a chapter) Check out the home page or the contact us page (especially if you’ve Googled to find the page)
  18. 18. Book Sources Last Name, First and Middle Initials. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Smith, R. J. (2008). Getting ready to work. New York, NY: Dell Publishing.
  19. 19. Article from Print Journal: Last name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), pages. Snowden, M. (2013). ACOs set to expand cost savings. Health Management Technology, 34(1), 12. Article from Online Journal: Last name, Initials. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number(Issue number), pages. doi (if available, if not URL) Ansen, D. (2012, December 31). A lost generation. Newsweek, 62. Retrieved from
  20. 20. Article from Web Page: Last name, Initials. (Date). Title of article. Retrieved from http://URL Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, February 11). Vaccine virus selection for the 2012-2013 influenza season. Retrieved from American Red Cross. (2013, November 12). Vaccine virus selection for the 2012-2013 influenza season. Retrieved from
  21. 21. Article from Web Page: Topic overview [Exercise-induced asthma home]. (2011, February 13). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic staff. (2013, April 24). Tetanus: Definition. Retrieved from
  22. 22. doi - digital object identifier Usually appears on the first page of an article Purpose is to provide a way to locate an article that is not dependent upon a URL or changes to the URL doi string may be numeric or alphanumeric If the doi string does not exist use the format Retrieved from http://url Provide a doi if available – even if you used a print source
  23. 23.  Print APA Handbook  OWL online  Databases – generate citations  Citation Machine Nobody memorizes ALL the rules, in fact most people have to refer to the APA guidelines every time they write a paper. Remember even if a source provides an APA reference you are ultimately responsible to make sure it is in the correct format!