• Describes self‐organizing behavior in popula$ons by
which local interac0ons between decentralized simple
agents can create complex global swarming behavior.
• Every agent is only responsible for its individual
• Swarm intelligence refers to systems which accomplish
complex global tasks through the simple local
interac$ons of autonomous agents.
• Swarm intelligence relies upon the emergent
proper$es of its components to manifest itself.
Emergence is the process by which complex paAerns
form out of the interac$on of simpler rules.
Interrela$ons in swarm
• An individual must maintain an iden$ty
throughout its existence.
• An individual must sa$sfy its viability
(capability of normal growth and
development) condi$ons while interac$ng in
• The team has collec$ve intelligence if the
viability of the group as a whole is required for
each individual to sustain viability.
• In social swarms individuals rely on the swarm
• Swarm level ac$vi$es create condi$ons for
INDIVIDUAL AS A
Types of communica$on in swarms
• altering the environment
• reading informa0on from the environment
For example, when an individual ﬁnds some
loca$on of interest it deposits a chemical
signal, which draws other agents to it.
By using this method the environment itself
becomes a shared memory.
AAractors are leI on the trail
• Foraging is a behavior of
loca$ng food and
transpor$ng it back to the
• The ants are individuals
responding to their own Deposit a;ractant pheromone on
sensory informa$on and the trail from food.
pheromone signals. Follow the pheromone up its
concentra0on gradient to the
• Pheromones are chemical source.
basis for ant communica$on Increase pheromone concentra0on
to aAract more.
deposited/detected by ants. This posi0ve feedback loop
produces a swarm of ants to quickly
transport the food source.
Individuals become trail markers
• For a low density of individuals it is beneﬁcial to
use linear chains to form a path for search.
• With high density of individuals, a more branched
structure is a beAer choice for search.
Campo & Dorigo, 2008
AAractor is connected with building blocks
In the ﬁrst, a termite picks up a soil
pellet, mas$cates it into a paste and
injects a termite‐ aArac$ng
pheromone into it.
When the pellet is deposited, the
pheromone s$mulates nearby
termites to pellet‐gathering
behavior and makes them more
likely to deposit their pellets nearby.
Second, small obstacles in the
terrain s$mulate pellet deposits and
can seed pillars.
Finally, a trail pheromone allows
more workers to be drawn to a
construc$on site. Building the termite nest is a swarming behavior
Detect the signal
Finding food Following the from the
signal trail environment
leaving signal trail Analogy
Fading in $me
Quan$ta$ve deﬁni$on of swarm
• Performance gains through swarming occurs
when a cri0cal mass of agents come together and
enter a posi0ve feedback loop.
• Explicit use of the environment in agent
interac$ons means that environmental dynamics
are directly integrated into the system’s control,
and in fact can enhance system performance.
Narra$ve cues in swarms
• Swarms are communi$es in which decision‐
making takes place based on cues/traces leI
by individual swarm members in the
environment or picked up from their real
• These cues may be small narra$ve or visual
pierces or longer stories.
Wri$ng narra$ves as a swarm
Detect the signal
No$cing a story
Detec$ng aAractor Analogy Selected no$cing
Following the from the
signal trail environment
leaving signal trail
Increasing aAractor Modifying the signal
Expanding, transla$ng, interpre$ng
• Par$cipa$ng in social networks resides on social
• However, when many transac$ons are
aggregated, pa;erns become visible.
• Narra$ve paAerns may be used to assemble a
detailed proﬁle revealing the ac$ons, habits,
beliefs, loca$ons frequented, social connec$ons,
and preferences of the individual.
• Swarms can use it as environmental informa$on
to adopt them be;er to the environment.
• Involves community‐based recording of an
ac$vity from the perspec$ve of a par$cipant
in the ac$vity.
• Personal sousveillance is the art, science, and
technology of personal experience capture,
processing, storage, retrieval, and
Marke$ng swarms by Chuck Brymer
• Today, we are dealing with a swarm where people
gather and deposit informa$on with the collec$ve
intelligence of an en$re social network.
• Ul$mately the swarm decides whether your brand is a
peer or a predator, and does so quickly and
• Since you only control part of this informa$on, it will
become more cri$cal than ever to engage the people
who inﬂuence swarm communi0es.
• Once a swarm has been launched, human overseers
can observe its emerging behavior and intervene on an
Untrustworthy communica$on is
• An enemy trying to conceal the search target,
may spread false signals to aAract the agents
to a loca$on of liAle interest.
• Strategy: respond to an external signal only if
it passes a threshold value.
• Strategy: in case of detected communica$on
disturbance enter to an isola0on state for a
$me and act independently not responding to
• What kind of aAractors work in the hybrid
• Can these aAractors be used for triggering
• Monitoring swarm paAerns becomes essen$al to
sell beAer, to trigger for swarming, but how can
we monitor automa$cally?
• Can we avoid being monitored without harming
swarming? What and where to restrict access,
and think of security?