Even if Grice’s maxims are broken
Conversation can still be cooperative
We say Grice’s
maxims are flouted…
We often imply
Lies are necessary…../Truth isn’t always welcome.
Sarcasm is used…
We use hedges. I suppose/I don’t mean to be rude
We use euphemisms.
We imply meaning.
If we don’t this is what happens….
Do we adapt our
We can diverge
we don’t try
and adapt our
to match our
language to the
We can converge upwards-The other
person/participants speaks Standard English so you
speak Standard English e.g. if you met the Queen
or the Prime Minister.
We can converge downwards-The other
person/participants may use non-standard English and
dialects so you use more non-standard English e.g. you
move to yorkshire and pick up bairn and other nonstandard words. You want to fit in so you use these
We can diverge upwards. You may start
using Standard English if you dislike the
other person or disagree with someone’s
opinions. You might move to a different
area which has a strong accent/dialect so
you deliberately use Standard English.
We can diverge downwards. You may be
around others who use Standard English.
You want to keep your identity and so
you use non-standard English/ nonstandard dialects e.g. Alan Sugar still
uses the Cockney Dialect amongst
business people, in the boardroom and
house of lords.
What do the following spoken features
How could you turn these into hints?
Buy me a drink.
We present ‘a face’ in every
We try and support each other and
Facework: The way speakers
protect, support or even challenge
other people’s faces.
Positive Face Need
Positive Face Need is the need to be
accepted and liked.
Positive Politeness-Appealing to
someone’s positive face i.e. showing you like
the person and that you accept them.
Strategy 1: Using terms of endearment like
“love, duck, dear, darling, honey”.
Strategy 2: Using slang/dialect/non-standard
forms: “Give us a cuppa”.
Often used between people of equal social
Negative Face Need
Negative Face Need is the need to be
respected and independent.
Negative Politeness-Recognising the
independence and status of the person you are
Strategy 1: Hedges/expressing pessimism “I
don’t mean to be rude but…”/ I don’t suppose I
could have a drink…
Strategy 2: Acknowledging you are
imposing: “sorry to trouble you…”
Strategy 3: Being polite Excuse me/Please/thank
you and using titles Mr/Mrs/Miss.
Face Threatening Acts
An act that threatens someone’s positive face needs or
negative face needs.
All positive politeness strategies (strategies that close the
social distance) threatens negative face needs-the need to
All Negative Politeness strategies (strategies that creates
the social distance and respects the independence)
threatens the positive face needs-the need to be accepted