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Introduction to Open Access (OA)

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These slides introduce Open Access (OA) by providing a synopsis of its formation starting with the commercial publishing industry, changes from its offering print-based to online-based materials, and the Serials Crisis in libraries. OA is then defined as a way of making scholarly, creative, or academic work more openly available, and its attributes are described. This presentation then identifies how OA publications can be found, and ways OA can be supported and promoted.

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Introduction to Open Access (OA)

  1. 1. Introduction to Open Access Scholarly Communication Services (SCS) By Kristy Padron, MLIS SCS Coordinator and Associate University Librarian kpadron@fau.edu https://library.fau.edu/scholarly-communication 2020 **Original Content by J. Strudwick & K. Padron, 2018, updated by K. Padron in 2020.
  2. 2. Objectives • Outline the general background of commercial publishing (also known as scholarly or academic publishing) and its business model. • Define Open Access (OA) and its attributes. • Identify OA publications. • List ways to support OA publishing. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Permission by CC0.
  3. 3. Commercial Publishing Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  4. 4. Scholarly and some creative works are communicated through the commercial publishing industry.  Also known as scholarly, academic, or professional publishing. Commercial Publishing Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  5. 5. History  Scholarly journals were created by professional, academic societies to communicate their work and related matters. • Experiments and innovations • Announcements • Correspondences (letters to editor, opinion) • Before that, scholars usually wrote to each other, individually or to groups.  First journals: • Journal des sçavans, France, 1665. • Philosophical Transactions (left), England, 1665. Commercial Publishing Images Credit: Wikimedia.com. Permission by CC BY 4.0.
  6. 6. History  Scholarly societies continued to distribute their work through this medium; commercial publishers were in existence and started more collaborations with them after WWII. • One way scholarly societies funded their organizations was through journal subscriptions.  Societies gradually started turning their publishing to commercial publishers (Burayani, 2017). • This was influenced by various resources: backlogs of manuscripts, time, personnel, cost scalability. • Publishers provided various services to the societies in exchange for a portion of the funds from journal subscriptions.  Many changes came with technological innovations, and this brought a transition from print- to online-based publishing. Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. Commercial Publishing
  7. 7. The Current Business Model: • Authors contribute content and usually transfer copyright to publisher (e.g., Taylor & Francis, Elsevier, Sage). • Publisher has control over the use and distribution of work. • Publisher provides services such as peer review management, copy editing, web hosting, marketing, and distribution. • Libraries purchase access to publications through licenses and subscriptions with publishers, and libraries then provide access to their users. • Funded by university allocations. Commercial Publishing Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  8. 8. ~1990s/ 2000s Broader Changes in Publishing from Print-Based to Online Subscriptions • Individual (an academic) • Institutional (a library) • Largely institutionally- based Access to Publication • Copyright exceptions typically allowed publications to be openly read and loaned after purchase. • Available as long as the print version was around (“in the stacks”). • Various conditions of access dictated by licenses provided through subscriptions. • Access for duration of subscription (or with purchase of “backfiles”). Costs • Individuals and institutions could purchase individual titles and at a reasonable cost. • Subscriptions are made through “bundles” or “Big Deal” packages. Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. Print Online
  9. 9. The Serials Crisis & Libraries • Since the 1980s, the cost of academic journal subscriptions has outpaced library budgets, with the range of increases from 4 to 8%. • Specializations in research increased, so new (and additional) publications were created. • Libraries spend up to 75% of their budgets on journals and “Big Deal” packages offered by major scholarly publishers (DeltaThink, 2020). • Libraries have seen decreased allocations from their universities (-50%) over the past 20 years (Association of Research Libraries, 2019). Commercial Publishing Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  10. 10. Criticisms of Its Business Model:  Funding of Research / Scholarly / Creative Outputs: by governments, institutions, and other types of funders.  Use of Unpaid Labor: editorial boards and reviewers do this as an expected part of professional service.  Profits: Worldwide revenue stream for commercial publishers was of $25B in 2017 (O’Loughlin & Sidaway, 2020).  Largest was Elsevier at $3.35B with profit of 35%, larger than those of Apple and Google (Buranyi, 2017). Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. Commercial Publishing
  11. 11. Criticisms of Its Business Model:  Copyright: authors give their copyright to commercial publishers • Affects how author can share, distribute, or post their work.  Distribution model: restrictive • Subscriptions/ Licenses: organizations or institutions subscribe to journals (Big Deal packages) and electronic access is limited to on- site or to affiliates only. • Paywalls: pay for an article (anywhere between $5.00 to $75.00 or more)  Costs: • The Serials Crisis and library funding (Bosch, Albee, & Romaine, 2020). • Journal prices typically increase between 4 to 8% each year. • Costs for journals vary by discipline. Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. Commercial Publishing
  12. 12. *Based on journals indexed in Scopus (Bosch, Albee, & Romaine, 2020). Average Costs of Journals by Subject AVG Cost Per Tittle (2019) AVG Cost Per Title (2020) # of Change 2020 Average (all subjects) $ 1,546 $ 1,638 6 Humanities $ 446 $ 468 5 Social Sciences $ 958 $ 1,019 6 Health Sciences $ 1,451 $ 1,547 7 STEM $ 2,277 $ 2,416 6 Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  13. 13. *Based on journals indexed in Web of Science (Bosch, Albee, & Romaine, 2020). Average Costs of Journals in STEM AVG Cost Per Tittle (2019) AVG Cost Per Title (2020) # of Change 2020 General Science $ 1,470 $ 1,536 5 Math & Computer Science $1,705 $ 1,777 4 Engineering $ 2,512 $ 2,647 5 Biology $ 2,903 $ 3,071 6 Chemistry $ 5,660 $ 5,897 4 Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  14. 14. “Faculty work very hard to carry out useful research and then they turn it over to publishers who typically restrict access to those who can pay. The open access movement encourages faculty to retain control over their research and provides tools to help faculty make the results widely available.” --Carol Hixson, Dean of Libraries Florida Atlantic University Commercial Publishing Enter Open Access (OA) Image Credit: FAU Libraries.
  15. 15. Open Access (OA) Defined Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Permission by CC0.
  16. 16. • Open Access (OA) allows users free, unrestricted online access to journals and other types of content or publications (SPARC, n.d.). • OA developed as a response to technological changes in scholarly publishing (print-based to online), and changes in the commercial publishing business model. • Technology allows for easier, faster, and lower costs to create and deliver information. • Subscriptions or access through organizational affiliations are generally not required for access to OA publications. Open Access (OA) Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Permission by CC0.
  17. 17. Funded by alternative ways of paying for publication costs: • Author Processing Charges (APCs): authors/ institutions/ funders pay for publishing fees • 70% of journals of the 10,893 indexed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) do not charge an APC. Legitimate OA publications do the following: • Maintain quality controls, such as peer review. • Include policies for its various processes (retraction, archiving, author rights). • Are frequently affiliated with a scholarly organization or institution. • Follow professional standards from the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) or Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Open Access (OA) Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Permission by CC0.
  18. 18. Open Access… Open Access (OA) Images Credit: Wikimedia Commons and Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. …Is Not:  Free to produce.  A type of license.  A business model.  (Always) Deceptive or predatory publishing.
  19. 19. Open Access… Open Access (OA) Images Credit: Wikimedia Commons and Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. …Is Not: …But Is/ Does:  Free to produce.  Funded by author processing charges (APCs), or institutions / organizations.  A type of license.  Use copyright or Creative Commons licenses.  A business model.  An access model.  (Always) Deceptive or predatory publishing.  Allow more inclusivity in academic publishing.
  20. 20. From an intellectual perspective, Open Access… Open Access (OA) Images Credit: Wikimedia Commons and Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. …Is Not:  Reduced quality.  A surrender of copyright by author(s).  Against financial benefits for usual work.  A promotion of intellectual laissez faire (plagiarism, no attribution).
  21. 21. From an intellectual perspective, Open Access… Open Access (OA) Images Credit: Wikimedia Commons and Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0. …Is Not: …But Is/ Does:  Reduced quality.  Use various types of peer review.  A surrender of copyright by author(s).  Use copyright or Creative Commons licenses.  Against financial benefits for usual work.  A response ongoing trends in the publishing market.  A promotion of intellectual laissez faire (plagiarism, no attribution).  Respect the academic norms of peer review and professional recognition through publication.
  22. 22. Academics, Creators, and Researchers: Availability: OA increases the visibility and availability of published scholarly works. Control: Authors can maintain some degree of copyright and the rights that go with it. Accessibility: OA provides more access to information and scholarly outputs; no paywalls or toll-access. Promote Scholarship & Ideas: Access to new knowledge leads to more inquiry, research, and development, and on a more rapid basis. Why Open Access (OA)? Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  23. 23. Academics, Creators, and Researchers: Inclusivity: Academics in less-resourced areas (institutions, regions, or countries) can have access. Public Access Mandates: OA helps scholars fulfil public access mandates for government- or foundation-sponsored research. Teaching and Learning: Open Education Resources (OER) such as texts or learning objects use OA or Creative Commons (CC) licenses. • Supportive of textbook affordability / OER initiatives. Why Open Access (OA)? Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  24. 24. Libraries and Universities: Availability: Works are more readily available to view; typically no embargo to view a full article or publication. Accessibility: Can provide more work and publications for library users. Inclusivity: Less-resourced places have access and can provide it to users. Preservation & Archiving: Increases chances of long-term storing and availability (and having access does not depend on a subscription, license, or a backfile). Funding: Valuable resources can be reallocated for other necessities and uses. Why Open Access (OA)? Image Credit: FAU Libraries. Image Credit: K. Padron, 2020
  25. 25. General Public: Availability: OA publications can be found through simple web searches (or other mentions). Accessibility: Only a device and access to the Internet is necessary (although the Digital Divide still exists and can be a hurdle). Inclusivity: Lower barriers to information (no paywalls or tolls). Teaching and Learning: Promotes lifelong education and an informed citizenry. Promote Innovation & Citizen/ Consumer Research: novel uses of new discoveries (patents, businesses, products, etc.). Why Open Access (OA)? Images Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  26. 26. Identify and Support OA Publications Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  27. 27. PLos One • ‘About’ page: • Organizational sponsorship • Editorial board • Indexing and abstracting sources • Bibliometrics (impact factor, CiteScore) • ‘Browse Issues’ (check consistency of publication and contact) • Contact information • Open Access policies: publication fees if any • How to submit a manuscript and review process  Explore a journal’s attributes and its home page. Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.
  28. 28. Image Source: Public Library of Science (PLoS One), https://journals.plos.org
  29. 29. • ThinkCheckSubmit.Org • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) https://www.doaj.org • zetoc (British Library): https://zetoc.jisc.ac.uk • JournalGuide.Com  Check with Publishing Organizations or Their Directories Image Credit: Think.Check.Submit. https://thinkchecksubmit.org
  30. 30. Search the DOAJ for OA Journals (and Articles) Image Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), https://doaj.org
  31. 31. Search the DOAJ: Refine Results Image Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), https://doaj.org
  32. 32.  Find a suitable journal and submit your manuscript (Suber, 2017). • Directory of Open Access Journals • Publications with your colleagues’ articles. • Publications where your colleagues serve as peer reviewers or are on its editorial board.  Inquire about Funding (Gold Access) • Fee Waiver: request one from an OA journal. • Funder/ Grant: see if publishing costs are acceptable uses of funds. • Institutional funding (note: FAU Libraries does not offer funds for this). How can I support Open Access? Image Credit: Stony Brook University Libraries.
  33. 33.  Self-Archiving (Accepted Works, Green Access): deposit in an OA repository • Check your publisher’s policies about this (many toll access journals may also allow this). • Some publishers allow authors to deposit their “proofs” or peer-reviewed manuscripts in an OA repository. • Self-Archiving (Unsubmitted Manuscripts or Past Works): • Some publishers may not accept works posted in an OA repository (“Ingelfinger Rule”), so see their policies. • Also check policies for self-archiving previous works. How can I support Open Access? Images Credit: Wikimedia Commons and K. Padron Permission by CC0.
  34. 34.  Serve & Advocate • Become a peer reviewer or join the editorial board for an OA journal. • Communicate your support of OA policies and publishing.  Stay updated • Follow OA organizations of interest: • SPARC, OASPA, Open Society Foundation • Read blogs, social media, or other posts • Scholarly Kitchen (SSP blog) • Read up on various declarations of support for OA. • Budapest Open Access Initiatives (2002). • Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003). How can I support Open Access? Image Credit: K. Padron, 2020
  35. 35. More Information Image Credit: Pixabay.com. Permission by CC0.  Open Access LibGuide https://bit.ly/scs-oa  Scholarly Communication Services Home https://bit.ly/scs-fau
  36. 36. Association of Research Libraries (2018). Library Expenditures as a Percent of University Expenditures, 1982-2017. https://www.arl.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/ARL- Library-Expenditures.pdf Bosch, S. Albee, B., & Romaine, S. (2020, april 14). Costs outstrip library budgets; Periodicals price survey 2020. Library Journal. https://www.libraryjournal.com/?detailStory=Costs-Outstrip-Library-Budgets-Periodicals- Price-Survey-2020 Buranyi, S. (2017, June 27). Is the staggeringly highly profitable business of scientific publishing bad for science? The Guardian (UK). https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/jun/27/profitable-business-scientific- publishing-bad-for-science DeltaThink.Org (2020, May 3). Library spending and the serials crisis [Blog post]. https://deltathink.com/news-views-library-spending-and-the-serials-crisis/ O’Loughlin, J., & Sidaway, J.D. (2020). Commercial publishers: What is to be done? Geogorum, 112: 6-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2019.12.011 SPARC (n.d.). Open access [Web page]. https://sparcopen.org/open-access/ Suber, P. (2012). Open access [E-book]. MIT Press. https://archive.org/details/9780262517638OpenAccess Works Cited
  37. 37. Introduction to Open Access Scholarly Communication Services (SCS) By Kristy Padron, MLIS SCS Coordinator and Associate University Librarian kpadron@fau.edu https://library.fau.edu/staff/scholarly-communication 2020 **Original Content by J. Strudwick & K. Padron, 2018, updated by K. Padron in 2020.

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