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Can I post my article on ResearchGate? Possibilities for Sharing Your Work

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[Updated] When authors publish their work through commercial publishers, they typically sign a copyright transfer agreement (CTA) which gives the copyright to the publisher, meaning the author is limited in how they can share their work. The internet has made sharing information very easy, but despite the ease, sharing isn't as straightforward as thought. Many academics share their copyrighted work on scholarly collaboration networks such as Academia.Edu and others which may not follow the terms of their CTA, and the authors may receive takedown notices from their publisher as a result. This presentation provides suggested practices to share information while complying with copyright, and recommends Open Access publishing as a way to share work freely; OA licenses typically allow authors to maintain copyright and permissions to share their work.

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Can I post my article on ResearchGate? Possibilities for Sharing Your Work

  1. 1. Can I Post My Article on ResearchGate? Possibilities for Sharing Your Articles Scholarly Communication Services (SCS) By Kristy Padron, MLIS SCS Coordinator and Associate University Librarian kpadron@fau.edu https://library.fau.edu/scholarly-communication 2020
  2. 2. Objectives • Introduce the motivations and ways published work is shared • Define essential copyright principles and how commercial publishers apply them to work they distribute. • Outline ways to share work by complying with copyright and publisher policies. • Identify Open Access models as ways of sharing work. **The focus will be on published, textual works. Some of this may apply to other types of work.
  3. 3. Common Sharing Scenarios for Published Works  ...e-mail its PDF to a colleague.  ...upload its PDF to a learning management system (LMS) for students.  ...upload a PDF onto one’s ResearchGate (or another SCN) profile.  ...through an institutional or disciplinary repository.Image Source: Kristy Padron ResearchGate profile (2020), https://www.researchgate.net/pro file/Kristy_Padron
  4. 4. Why do academics share their published work? • To Collaborate: exchange ideas and information, and further knowledge; identify other collaborators. • Inspire: new discussion, ideas, applications, or work. • Educate: students or public • Promote: their work, research, or institution. • Influence: inform policy • Follow Requirements: public or other funder mandates.
  5. 5. How is the work shared? • Face-to-face: conversations, conferences, presentations • E-mail and listservs • Social media: Twitter, Instagram, etc. • Web page: personal, blogs • Social Collaboration Networks (SCNs): ResearchGate, Academia.Edu, LinkedIn • Institutional promotion: Institutional repositories or publications (e.g., Division of Research’s Owl Research & Innovation); departmental web pages • Publishers of work: e.g., Taylor & Francis, Sage, university presses (Image Source: Dr. Jason McKinney, Ph.D Twitter profile, 2020, https://twitter.com/DrJMcKinneyPhD) (Image Source: Kristy Padron, 2019)
  6. 6. With whom do they share work? • Students • Colleagues: within discipline or other setting • Practitioners • Government agencies and policy-makers • General public • Media
  7. 7. Sharing Work in Acceptable Ways  Published work is typically protected by copyright.  Copyright dictates ways work can be shared.  A basic knowledge of copyright and publisher policies are important to know acceptable ways to share work.  Good sharing practices can be a model for our colleagues (and students).
  8. 8. Copyright defined:  Exclusive rights that give creators of a work permissions to: • Distribute • Sell • Publicly perform or display • Make copies • Create derivatives • Authorize its rights to others (limited or exclusive)  Available for certain types of work: • Literary works: anything textual; computer programs • Musical works • Dramatic works • Pantomines and choreographic works • Pictrial, graphic, and cultural works • Motion picture and other audio-visual works • Sound recordings • Architectural works Copyright Essentials (Image Source: Kristy Padron, 2019)
  9. 9. Copyright defined:  Automatically granted once an idea is in a fixed form (though registration is typically recommended for legal purposes).  Held by the copyright holder; authors can transfer their copyright.  Copyright Law of the United States provides legal definitions, parameters, and exceptions for copyright (US Copyright Office, 2020). Copyright Essentials
  10. 10. • Authors submit their work to commerical publishers (e.g., Taylor & Francis, Elsevier, Oxford University Press). • After work is accepted, copyright is typically transferred to the publisher through a copyright transfer agreement (CTA) between them and an author. • CTAs provide publisher with exclusive rights to the work (or in plain language, control over its use and distribution). • Publisher defines how authors, subscribers and readers can share licensed content (content available through subscriptions or toll-access). When Copyright is Transferred to Commercial Publishers
  11. 11. o The internet allows quick and relatively easy access to large amounts of information. This also allows sharing information on the same levels. • Promoted a mindset that all information on the internet is reliable (we know it’s not), and also free and open (but it’s not). • “If it’s on the internet (or YouTube or other site), it’s not copyrighted and it’s fair game to use.” o Copyright and what it allows is not widely understood when it comes to sharing information. o Fair Use and other copyright exceptions are frequently (and erroneously) invoked for sharing: • “Since I’m doing this for a class (or for intellectual purposes), it’s ok.” Issues with Copyright & Sharing Houston, we have a problem…
  12. 12. Common problems or issues from not following copyright or sharing policies:  Mass sharing of copyrighted or otherwise restricted works (files, PDFs, or other forms of published works protected by copyright).  Uploading copyrighted or licensed materials onto learning management systems (LMS).  Pirated works and the sites that post them (e.g., Sci-Hub).  Disruptions to the business models of organizations and publishers.  Takedown notices and statements. Issues with Copyright & Sharing
  13. 13. Commercial publishers created organizations and statements that address unauthorized sharing (takedown notices).  Coalition for Responsible Sharing http://www.responsiblesharing.org/ They created tools to help authors determine ways to share their work  How Can I Share It.Com https://www.howcanishareit.com Professional societies have also issued statements about unauthorized sharing and its effect on their organizations.  International Center for Medieval Art (ICMA): lost income from subscription cancellations due to article sharing (n.d.) Publisher Actions Towards Sharing
  14. 14. Coalition for Responsible Sharing Statement (2020) Regarding ResearchGate: “…ResearchGate’s primary service is taking high-quality content written and published by others and making as many as 7 million copyrighted articles – 40% of its total content – freely available via its for-profit platform. …ResearchGate acquires volumes of articles each month in violation of agreements between journals and authors and without making any contribution to the production or publication of the intellectual work it hosts. ResearchGate’s business model depends on the distribution of these in- copyright articles to generate traffic to its site, which is then commercialised through the sale of targeted advertising. ResearchGate often also substantively alters articles for the same purpose, and where corrections or retractions are issued, it fails to update articles accordingly on its site, undermining research integrity. …[member] organizations will begin to issue takedown notices to ResearchGate requesting that infringing content be removed from the site.” http://www.responsiblesharing.org/coalition-statement/ Publisher Actions Towards Sharing
  15. 15.  Refer to your publisher agreement and their policies for sharing work.  See also tools for determining this. (Image source: Wiley, n.d. https://authorservices.wiley.c om/asset/Article_Sharing_Gui delines.pdf) Best Practices for Sharing (Published Works)
  16. 16.  Check what your publisher copyright transfer agreement or publication sharing policy allows for the following:  Self-archiving: authors may deposit their work (usually post-prints) into an institutional (e.g., FAU Digital Library) or disciplinary repository (e.g., arXiv, Humanities Commons, SSRN, etc.). • This is known as Green Open Access.  Social Collaboration Networks (SCNs): See if your SCN has agreements with commercial publishers to share work (e.g., Figshare, Mendeley, ReadCube, or others) and what they allow to be shared  Embargoes: some publishers may allow posting a post-print or final version of record after a period of time after its publication Best Practices for Sharing (Published Works)
  17. 17.  Copyright / Fair Use Exceptions:  These allow links and DOIs to be shared (but does not waive a paywall or toll-access for those who do not have licenses or subscriptions to where the work appeared).  They also allow sharing a file between individuals.  The published work of others can be downloaded for your personal use, information, or collection. Best Practices for Sharing (Published Works) (Image Source: Kristy Padron, 2019)
  18. 18.  Post your pre-prints  Pre-prints: unedited, finished drafts of manuscripts that have not been submitted for publication.  Some academics post pre-prints on pre-print or disciplinary servers for feedback (e.g., arXiv).  Caveats:  Some academics do not want to distribute pre- prints for fear of getting “scooped.”  Version control: pre-prints are not the version of record.  Ingerfinger Rule: some publishers do not accept works in pre-print servers.  Consider submitting your work to an Open Access Publisher. Best Practices for Sharing (Non-Published Works) DRAFT
  19. 19. Open Access Publishers:  Open Access (OA) allows users free, unrestricted online access to journals and other types of content or publications (SPARC, n.d.).  Maintain quality controls, such as peer review, and follow professional publication standards (OASPA or COPE).  Are frequently affiliated with a scholarly organization or institution.  Different models of OA: Green, Gold, and Hybrid  Authors hold copyright, so they can share and add Creative Commons licenses. Best Practices for Sharing (Non-Published Works - OA) Open Access (OA)
  20. 20. Open Access (OA) Models Type of Publisher Costs Availability/ Version Copyright/ Creative Commons Licensing Self- Archiving Green Toll-access, commercial publisher None Post-Print; Embargo possible for version of record Publisher retains copyright; Author may request author addendum for limited copyright uses. Post-print Gold Open Access Publisher APCs vary, or none Final version of record available Author typically retains copyright; Work can be shared by CC licenses Final Version of Record allowed. Hybrid Toll-access, commercial publisher APCs vary Final version of record available Publisher (typically) retains copyright; CC license varies Dependent on publisher Check on individual publishers for their self-archiving or OA policies.
  21. 21. Let’s review the sharing scenarios:  ...e-mail its PDF to a colleague.  ...upload its PDF to a learning management system (LMS) for students.  ...upload a PDF onto one’s ResearchGate (or another SCN) profile.  ...through an institutional or disciplinary repository.
  22. 22. Fair Use allows article sharing between individuals (US Copyright Office, 2014) for non-profit, educational purposes. Answer (Meme source: AwwMemes.com, n.d., https://awwmemes.com/t/baby-meme-yes)
  23. 23. Let’s review the sharing scenarios:  ...e-mail its PDF to a colleague.  ...upload its PDF to a learning management system (LMS) for students.  ...upload a PDF onto one’s ResearchGate (or another SCN) profile.  ...through an institutional or disciplinary repository.
  24. 24. Answer Depending on the circumstances of this use, it may or may not fall under Fair Use for sharing, and may not follow licensing agreements. But, there are alternatives! (Meme source: Gfycat.Com, n.d., https://gfycat.com/smoggyhilariousbaiji-chadwick-boseman-black-panther-infinity-war)
  25. 25.  To apply Fair Use, consider and weigh its 4 factors: Alternatives FACTOR WEIGHTING TOWARDS FAIR USE WEIGHING AGAINST FAIR USE Purpose of Use and Work's Character • Nonprofit, academic, educational use; • Criticism or commentary; • Transformative use; • Creating a new meaning or use. • Commercial, for-profit use; • Decorative use. Amount and Proportion of Work Used • Small proportions of a work; • Less significant amounts or content. • Using a whole work, especially when not needed for a given purpose; • Using a proportionally large amount; • Using the most significant content within a work Nature or Type of Work • Fact-based works (non-fiction); • Published works. • Creative works (literature, poetry, or images). Effect on Potential Market Value or Demand • Use has no effect on market; • Does not affect demand or use of a work. • Diminishes the demand or price of a work; • The work can be readily obtained for a given purpose at a reasonable cost. Source: Padron, K. (2020). Fair use [LibGuide]. https://libguides.fau.edu/scs-copyright/fair-use
  26. 26.  Provide a link (DOI) to it if: • The library possess it • It is posted in an institutional/ discipline repository)  Distributing its post- print may be acceptable per your CTA or publisher sharing policy.  If it’s determined that Fair Use doesn’t apply, request permission to reuse from a copyright holder. (Image Source: Stacy Rossow (2018). Music Research [Canvas Course]. Florida Atlantic University. https://canvas.fau.edu) Alternatives
  27. 27. Let’s review the sharing scenarios:  ...e-mail its PDF to a colleague.  ...upload its PDF to a learning management system (LMS) for students.  ...upload a PDF onto one’s ResearchGate (or another SCN) profile.  ...through an institutional or disciplinary repository.
  28. 28. Answer This does not follow what is typically allowed in copyright transfer agreements (CTAs), but we can take different approaches. Image source: David Baptise Chirot [Blog], 2014, davidbaptistechirot.blogspot.com
  29. 29.  Provide a link to it: • DOI, URL, or a link through your library’s subscription or institutional/ disciplinary repository.  Distributing its post-print may be acceptable per your CTA or publisher sharing policy.  Check your SCN’s policy for sharing work; it may be have agreements with publishers or repositories (e.g., Figshare). Alternatives Image Source: Kristy Padron ResearchGate profile (2020), https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kristy_Padron
  30. 30. Let’s review the sharing scenarios:  ...e-mail its PDF to a colleague.  ...upload its PDF to a learning management system (LMS) for students.  ...upload a PDF onto one’s ResearchGate (or another SCN) profile.  ...through an institutional or disciplinary repository.
  31. 31. Typically, yes! To be sure check your CTA or publisher sharing policy regarding self-archiving, embargoes, and what versions can be added to institutional or disciplinary repositories. (Meme source: Braxton Coil Twitter account, 2014 https://twitter.com/theboysnamegirl/status/522075137798336514) Answer
  32. 32.  Post-Print of article (left): Thiel, V., Blumenberg, M., Hefter, J., Pape, T., Pomponi, S., Reed, J., Reitner, J., Worheide, G., & Michaelis, W. (2002). A chemical view of the most ancient metazoa – biomarker chemotaxonomy of hexactinellid sponges. FAU Digital Library [Document]. http://purl.flvc.org/FCLA/DT/2709 448 (source of image, left).  Its version of record: Thiel, V., Blumenberg, M., Hefter, J., Pape, T., Pomponi, S., Reed, J., Reitner, J., Worheide, G., & Michaelis, W. (2002). A chemical view of the most ancient metazoa – biomarker chemotaxonomy of hexactinellid sponges. Naturwissenschaften, 89, 60–66 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114- 001-0284-9 Answer
  33. 33. “Evidence-based instructional strategies for adult learners” is published in Codex, an Gold Open Access journal. The authors and I have copyright, and the work itself has a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY), meaning others can freely use it as long as they give credit to us. Publishing in Open Access (OA) Gold: Another Possibility (Image source: Carlson McCall, R., Padron, K., & Andrews, C., 2018.)
  34. 34. Publishing in Open Access (OA) Gold: Another Possibility An (author) processing charge (APC) was not required. The manuscript was edited through blind peer review. The manuscript was accepted about weeks after submission, and its version of record was published 4 months later. It has been viewed and cited more than an article I co-authored 9 years ago. (Image source: Carlson McCall, R., Padron, K., & Andrews, C., 2018.)
  35. 35. “Faculty work very hard to carry out useful research and then they turn it over to publishers who typically restrict access to those who can pay. The open access movement encourages faculty to retain control over their research and provides tools to help faculty make the results widely available.” --Carol Hixson, Dean of Libraries Florida Atlantic University FAU Libraries: Supporting Open Access (OA) (Image Credit: FAU Libraries, n.d.)
  36. 36. More Information  Scholarly Communication Services LibGuides https://bit.ly/scs-fau-libguides  Open Access  Scholarly Publishing  Copyright  Creative Commons  Scholarly Communication Services Home https://bit.ly/scs-fau
  37. 37. Carlson McCall, R., Padron, K., & Andrews, C. (2018). Evidence-based instructional strategies for adult learners: A review of the literature. Codex: The Journal of the Louisiana Chapter of the ACRL, 4(4). http://journal.acrlla.org/index.php/codex/article/view/137 International Center of Medieval Art (n.d.). ICMA Publications Committee statement on article sharing [Web page]. https://www.medievalart.org/article-sharing-and-best- practices SPARC (n.d.). Open access [Web page]. https://sparcopen.org/open-access/ US Copyright Office (2014). Circular 21: Reproduction of copyrighted works by educators and librarians [Document]. https://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf _____ (2020). Copyright law of the United States [Web page]. https://www.copyright.gov/title17/ Unless noted, all images are from Pixabay.com, Unsplash.com or Wikimedia Commons with permission by CC0 (Public Domain). Memes are used through Fair Use Doctrine at https://www.copyright.gov/fair-use/more-info.html. Works Cited
  38. 38. Can I Post My Article on ResearchGate? Possibilities for Sharing Your Articles Scholarly Communication Services (SCS) By Kristy Padron, MLIS SCS Coordinator and Associate University Librarian kpadron@fau.edu https://library.fau.edu/scholarly-communication 2020

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