Beyond the Client-Server Architectures:                          A Survey of Mobile Cloud Techniques                      ...
{Advanced | ATLAS | Awesome | Aachen}                          Community Information Systems (ACIS)                       ...
Agenda                          Motivation                          Mobile & Cloud Computing                          A...
Mobile + Cloud Computing                            Cloud computing allows to                  Mobile cloud computing be...
Current State of Mobile Applications                            Offline applications                             – A fat ...
Current State of Mobile Apps (cont.)                            Online applications                             – Connect...
The Need for Adaptation                            A new cloud development paradigm of mobile apps                       ...
Alternative Models for                                Mobile-Cloud Applications                          Augmented execut...
Augmented Execution                            Augmented execution / Offloading                             – Overcome li...
Coarse-grain Offloading                            VM-based                             – VM-based Cloudlets [Satynarayan...
Fine-grain Offloading                            Elastic application partitioning                              – Ability ...
Cost ModelLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems)   Prof. Dr. M. Jarke                                      [Kovachev ...
Code Partitioning                            Partitioning determines which part of code should be                        ...
Partitioning Algorithms                          Partitioning determines which part of code should be run locally/remotel...
Application Mobility                            Migration of running application states from one                         ...
Ad-hoc Mobile Clouds                          A group of mobile devices that serve as a cloud                           c...
Comparison of the Mobile Cloud                                       Application Models                            Middle...
COMPARISON OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED MOBILE      CLOUD COMPUTING APPROACHES
MACS Architecture                         Application logic is structured from multiple Android services (Si)             ...
AIDL Tool                          Android Interface Definition Language                            - Define the interfac...
Workflow                         Service          Client         Monitor                         Cloud                    ...
Results                          Execution Time (detailed)                          Remote                               ...
Conclusions and Future Work                            Benefits of the mobile and cloud fusion                           ...
Thanks for your attention!                                  Q&ALehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems)   Prof. Dr. M. ...
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Beyond the Client-Server Architectures: A Survey of Mobile Cloud Techniques

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Mobile applications nowadays are developed either for a local (native) or for a client-server execution. However, applications in the future will be developed with cloud in mind, i.e. act as native applications, but do the heavy processing and storage in the cloud, deliver only needed parts and data at runtime and able to run offline. In order to better understand how to facilitate the building of mobile cloud-based applications, we have surveyed existing work in mobile computing through the prism of cloud computing principles. We provide an overview of the results from this survey, in particular, models of mobile cloud applications. We also highlight research challenges in the area of mobile cloud computing.

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Beyond the Client-Server Architectures: A Survey of Mobile Cloud Techniques

  1. 1. Beyond the Client-Server Architectures: A Survey of Mobile Cloud Techniques Dejan Kovachev & Ralf Klamma RWTH Aachen University Advanced Community Information Systems (ACIS) kovachev@dbis.rwth-aachen.deLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-1 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
  2. 2. {Advanced | ATLAS | Awesome | Aachen} Community Information Systems (ACIS) Web Engineering Responsive Community Web Analytics Open Visualization Community and Information Simulation Systems Community Community Support AnalyticsLehrstuhl Informatik 5 Requirements(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-2 Engineering
  3. 3. Agenda  Motivation  Mobile & Cloud Computing  Alternative Models for Mobile-Cloud Apps  Mobile Augmentation Cloud Services (MACS)  ConclusionsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-3
  4. 4. Mobile + Cloud Computing  Cloud computing allows to  Mobile cloud computing benefits develop, deploy and run from applications that can – The computation power of the – Easily grow capacity (scalability), clouds – Work fast (performance), – Anywhere at any time access – Abstracted nature and – Longer battery life location of the underlying – Same quality of experience as on infrastructure desktops/laptops – Running of “heavier” applicationsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-4
  5. 5. Current State of Mobile Applications  Offline applications – A fat offline client, with periodic data synchronization with the cloud – Pros – Good integration with device functionality and access to its features – Performance optimized for specific hardware and multitasking – Always available capabilities, even without network connectivity – Cons – No portability to other platforms – Complex code – Increased time to market – A requirement for developers to learn new programming languagesLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-5
  6. 6. Current State of Mobile Apps (cont.)  Online applications – Connection between mobile devices and backend systems is available most of the time – Pros – Multi-platform – Directly accessible from anywhere – Widespread knowledge of Web technologies – Cons – Large latency for real-time responsiveness, (even 30 msec latency affects interactive performance [3]) – Restricted access to device’s features such as camera or motion detection – Difficulties in handling complex scenarios that require keepingLehrstuhl Informatik 5 communication session over longer period of time(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-6
  7. 7. The Need for Adaptation  A new cloud development paradigm of mobile apps – Deliver only needed parts and data at runtime  Preserved native user interactivity and app capabilities – Act as native applications, but do the heavy processing and storage in the cloud – Hidden communication latency  Seamless integration with cloud computation and storage – Able to run offline Context-aware adaptation (dynmically)Lehrstuhl Informatik 5 Offline Online(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke (native apps) (web apps) I5-KoKl-0812-7
  8. 8. Alternative Models for Mobile-Cloud Applications  Augmented execution  Application mobility  Ad-hoc mobile cloudsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-8
  9. 9. Augmented Execution  Augmented execution / Offloading – Overcome limitations of mobile phones in terms of memory, CPU and battery with external resources – Illusion of virtually much more “powerful” devices  Benefits – Stand-alone apps that can work offline – Use of external resources on demand adaptively – Privacy  Challenges – Distributed app binariesLehrstuhl Informatik 5 – Computation/Storage offloading decision – Seamless computation/storage integration and consistency(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-9
  10. 10. Coarse-grain Offloading  VM-based – VM-based Cloudlets [Satynarayanan et al. 2009] – CloneCloud [Chun and Maniatis 2009] – ThinkAir [Kosta et al. 2011]  Simple idea, no code to be modified – But, not scalable, too much overheadLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke Source: Satynarayanan et al. 2009 I5-KoKl-0812-10
  11. 11. Fine-grain Offloading  Elastic application partitioning – Ability to acquire and release resources on demand  Function level – Proxy class to forward function calls – Methods instrumenting [Ou et al. 2007] [Cuervo et al. 2010]  Service/Module [Kemp et al. 2010] [Giurgiu et al. 2009] [Zheng et al 2010] – Application logic is encapsulated in different unitsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke Source: Guiriu et al. 2009 I5-KoKl-0812-11
  12. 12. Cost ModelLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke [Kovachev et. al. 2010] I5-KoKl-0812-12
  13. 13. Code Partitioning  Partitioning determines which part of code should be run locally/remotely – Find cut in a graph-based model – “Consumption” graph – communication, transmission and proxy building costs [Guirgui et al. 2009] – Minimal historical transmission between two partitions [Gu et al. 2003] – (k+1) partitioning on a multicost graph [Ou et al. 2007] – Bayesian inference [Zhang et al. 2010] – Optimization problemLehrstuhl Informatik 5 – Integer linear programming [Kovachev et al 2012](Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-13
  14. 14. Partitioning Algorithms  Partitioning determines which part of code should be run locally/remotely Easy to Optimization Optimization Method/Project Model Profiling Implement Result Goal AIDE Execution No N/A Component No [Gu et al. 2002] Graph Granularity (k+1) Multi-cost No Global CPU, Memory, No [Ou et al. 2007] Graph Bandwidth AlfredO Consumption No Local Interaction No [Guirgiu et al. 2009] Graph Latency MAUI Call Graph No N/A Power Yes [Cuervo et al. 2010] Consumption Scavenger Multi-info Graph No N/A Not Considering Yes, dual profile [Kristensen 2010] Energy Usage MACS ILP optimization Yes Global Flexible Work in [Kovachev et al. progress 2012]Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-14
  15. 15. Application Mobility  Migration of running application states from one device to another to which the user has an immediate access [Ahlund et al. 2009] [Koponen et al.2004] – Seamless user experience – Access the cloud through different devices  Process migration [Milojčić et al. 2000]  Internet Suspend/Resume [Satyanarayanan et al. 2005]  Virtualized desktopsLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-15
  16. 16. Ad-hoc Mobile Clouds  A group of mobile devices that serve as a cloud computing provider by exposing their computing resources to other mobile devices.  Computing communities in which users can collaboratively execute shared tasks [Huerta-Canepa and Lee 2010]  Hadoop on mobile devices [Marinelli 2009]Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-16
  17. 17. Comparison of the Mobile Cloud Application Models  Middleware – The enabling underlying technology used to achieve desired system properties  Cost Model – Are the different parameters of mobile clouds used to provide best performance?  Programming Abstraction – How powerful are the used programming tools to achieve quicker solid applications, while preserving the control over different mobile cloud parts?  Solution Generality – Does the solution work for all applications or only for a few?  Implementation Complexity – How difficult is it to develop mobile cloud applications?  Static & Dynamic Adaptation – What is the separation of responsibilities between mobile clients and the cloud?  Network Load – How large is the volume of data transferred? – What is the introduced latency by offloading?  Scalability – Can the application scale?Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-17
  18. 18. COMPARISON OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING APPROACHES
  19. 19. MACS Architecture Application logic is structured from multiple Android services (Si) Services can be offloaded into the cloud.Lehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-19
  20. 20. AIDL Tool  Android Interface Definition Language - Define the interface of IPC  Embedded code into the generated code - Hidden implementation details to developers - Modification of the compile procedure MACS code Generated codeLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-20
  21. 21. Workflow Service Client Monitor Cloud Function Call Register Remote InitializeService Install Service TransmitCall Remote File Service NotResult Remote Installed InitializeOK Install OK File Needed Transmit File OKLehrstuhl Informatik 5 Result(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-21
  22. 22. Results  Execution Time (detailed) Remote Use Case B While offloading, our framework introduces small overheadLehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-22
  23. 23. Conclusions and Future Work  Benefits of the mobile and cloud fusion – Faster execution, higher performance – Less energy consumption  Currently, two extremes of mobile applications – Native (offline) and web-based (online) applications  The full potential lies in between these two extremes – Dynamically shifting the responsibilities between mobile device and cloud – Current projects cover different subset of the desired mobile cloud characteristics  Challenges – Multiple clouds/services – Runtime behavior estimation and cost models – Automatic offloading and predictive algorithmsLehrstuhl Informatik 5 – Integration with existing development practices (programming abstraction)(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-23 – Support legacy applications
  24. 24. Thanks for your attention! Q&ALehrstuhl Informatik 5(Information Systems) Prof. Dr. M. Jarke I5-KoKl-0812-24

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