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Presentation of green revolution

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Presentation of green revolution

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY : I) KOUSTAV DASII)BIKASH MURMUIII)SHUBHAM CHOUDHARYIV)BIKRAM ROY
  2. 2. Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technologytransfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1970s, thatincreased agriculture production around the world, beginning most markedly inthe late 1960s. It forms a part of the neo-colonial system of agriculture whereinagriculture was viewed as more of a commercial sector than a subsistence one.The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green Revolution"credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved thedevelopment of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigationinfrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution ofhybridized seeds, syntheticfertilizers, and pesticides to farmers.The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former United StatesAgency for International Development (USAID) director William Gaud, whonoted the spread of the new technologies:"These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makingsof a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets,nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the GreenRevolution.
  3. 3. THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT THAT BEGAN IN MEXICO BY NORMAN BORLAUG IN1943 (BASED ON NAZARENO STRAMPELLIS STUDIES) HAD BEEN JUDGED AS A SUCCESSAND THEROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION SOUGHT TO SPREAD IT TO OTHER NATIONS. THEOFFICE OF SPECIAL STUDIES IN MEXICO BECAME AN INFORMAL INTERNATIONALRESEARCH INSTITUTION IN 1959, AND IN 1969 IT FORMALLY BECAME CIMMYT, THEINTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER.IN 1961 INDIA WAS ON THE BRINK OF MASS FAMINE.[3] BORLAUG WAS INVITED TO INDIA BYTHE ADVISER TO THE INDIAN MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE M. S. SWAMINATHAN. DESPITEBUREAUCRATIC HURDLES IMPOSED BY INDIAS GRAIN MONOPOLIES, THE FORDFOUNDATION AND INDIAN GOVERNMENT COLLABORATED TO IMPORT WHEAT SEED FROMCIMMYT. PUNJABWAS SELECTED BY THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO BE THE FIRST SITE TOTRY THE NEW CROPS BECAUSE OF ITS RELIABLE WATER SUPPLY AND A HISTORY OFAGRICULTURAL SUCCESS. INDIA BEGAN ITS OWN GREEN REVOLUTION PROGRAM OFPLANT BREEDING, IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT, AND FINANCING OF AGROCHEMICALS.[4]INDIA SOON ADOPTED IR8 – A SEMI-DWARF RICE VARIETY DEVELOPED BYTHE INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (IRRI) THAT COULD PRODUCE MOREGRAINS OF RICE PER PLANT WHEN GROWN WITH CERTAIN FERTILIZERS AND IRRIGATION.IN 1968, INDIAN AGRONOMIST S.K. DE DATTA PUBLISHED HIS FINDINGS THAT IR8 RICEYIELDED ABOUT 5 TONS PER HECTARE WITH NO FERTILIZER, AND ALMOST 10 TONS PERHECTARE UNDER OPTIMAL CONDITIONS. THIS WAS 10 TIMES THE YIELD OF TRADITIONALRICE.[5] IR8 WAS A SUCCESS THROUGHOUT ASIA, AND DUBBED THE "MIRACLE RICE". IR8WAS ALSO DEVELOPED INTO SEMI-DWARF IR36.
  4. 4. IN 1960, THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OFTHE PHILIPPINES WITH FORD AND ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATIONSESTABLISHED IRRI (INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCHINSTITUTE). A RICE CROSSING BETWEEN DEE-GEO-WOO-GEN ANDPETA WAS DONE AT IRRI IN 1962. IN 1966, ONE OF THEBREEDING LINES BECAME A NEW CULTIVAR, IR8. IR8 REQUIREDTHE USE OF FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES, BUT PRODUCEDSUBSTANTIALLY HIGHER YIELDS THAN THE TRADITIONALCULTIVARS. ANNUAL RICE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILIPPINESINCREASED FROM 3.7 TO 7.7 MILLION TONS IN TWO DECADES.THESWITCH TO IR8 RICE MADE THE PHILIPPINES A RICE EXPORTERFOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE 20TH CENTURY. BUT THE HEAVYPESTICIDE USE REDUCED THE NUMBER OF FISH AND FROGSPECIES FOUND IN RICE PADDIESIR8 AND THE PHILIPPINES
  5. 5. IN 1970, FOUNDATION OFFICIALS PROPOSED A WORLDWIDENETWORK OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTERS UNDER APERMANENT SECRETARIAT. THIS WAS FURTHER SUPPORTED ANDDEVELOPED BY THE WORLD BANK; ON 19 MAY 1971,THE CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURALRESEARCH WAS ESTABLISHED, CO-SPONSORED BY THE FAO, IFADAND UNDP. CGIAR, HAS ADDED MANY RESEARCH CENTERSTHROUGHOUT THE WORLD.CGIAR HAS RESPONDED, AT LEAST IN PART, TO CRITICISMS OFGREEN REVOLUTION METHODOLOGIES. THIS BEGAN IN THE 1980S,AND MAINLY WAS A RESULT OF PRESSURE FROM DONORORGANIZATIONS. METHODS LIKE AGROECOSYSTEM ANALYSISAND FARMING SYSTEM RESEARCH HAVE BEEN ADOPTED TO GAINA MORE HOLISTIC VIEW OF AGRICULTURE. METHODS LIKE RAPIDRURAL APPRAISAL AND PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL HAVEBEEN ADOPTED TO HELP SCIENTISTS UNDERSTAND THEPROBLEMS FACED BY FARMERS AND EVEN GIVE FARMERS A ROLEIN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS.
  6. 6. THERE HAVE BEEN NUMEROUS ATTEMPTS TO INTRODUCE THE SUCCESSFULCONCEPTS FROM THE MEXICAN AND INDIAN PROJECTS INTO AFRICA.THESEPROGRAMS HAVE GENERALLY BEEN LESS SUCCESSFUL. REASONS CITED INCLUDEWIDESPREAD CORRUPTION, INSECURITY, A LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE, AND AGENERAL LACK OF WILL ON THE PART OF THE GOVERNMENTS. YETENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, SUCH AS THE AVAILABILITY OF WATER FORIRRIGATION, THE HIGH DIVERSITY IN SLOPE AND SOIL TYPES IN ONE GIVENAREA ARE ALSO REASONS WHY THE GREEN REVOLUTION IS NOT SO SUCCESSFULIN AFRICA.A RECENT PROGRAM IN WESTERN AFRICA IS ATTEMPTING TO INTRODUCE A NEWHIGH-YIELD VARIETY OF RICE KNOWN AS "NEW RICE FOR AFRICA" (NERICA).NERICAS YIELD ABOUT 30% MORE RICE UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS, AND CANDOUBLE YIELDS WITH SMALL AMOUNTS OF FERTILIZER AND VERY BASICIRRIGATION. HOWEVER THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN BESET BY PROBLEMS GETTINGTHE RICE INTO THE HANDS OF FARMERS, AND TO DATE THE ONLY SUCCESS HASBEEN INGUINEA WHERE IT CURRENTLY ACCOUNTS FOR 16% OF RICE CULTIVATION.AFTER A FAMINE IN 2001 AND YEARS OF CHRONIC HUNGER AND POVERTY, IN 2005THE SMALL AFRICAN COUNTRY OF MALAWI LAUNCHED THE "AGRICULTURAL INPUTSUBSIDY PROGRAM" BY WHICH VOUCHERS ARE GIVEN TO SMALLHOLDER FARMERSTO BUY SUBSIDIZED NITROGEN FERTILIZER AND MAIZE SEEDS. WITHIN ITSFIRST YEAR, THE PROGRAM WAS REPORTED WITH EXTREME SUCCESS, PRODUCINGTHE LARGEST MAIZE HARVEST OF THE COUNTRYS HISTORY; ENOUGH TO FEEDTHE COUNTRY WITH TONS OF MAIZE LEFT OVER. THE PROGRAM HAS ADVANCEDYEARLY EVER SINCE. VARIOUS SOURCES CLAIM THAT THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN AN
  7. 7. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND FOODSECURITYTECHNOLOGIES:-THE GREEN REVOLUTION SPREAD TECHNOLOGIES THAT HAD ALREADY EXISTEDBEFORE, BUT HAD NOT BEEN WIDELY USED OUTSIDE INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS.THESE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDEDMODERN IRRIGATION PROJECTS, PESTICIDES, SYNTHETIC NITROGENFERTILIZER AND IMPROVED CROP VARIETIES DEVELOPED THROUGH THECONVENTIONAL, SCIENCE-BASED METHODS AVAILABLE AT THE TIME.THE NOVEL TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION WASTHE PRODUCTION OF NOVEL WHEAT CULTIVARS. AGRONOMISTS BRED CULTIVARSOF MAIZE, WHEAT, AND RICE THAT ARE GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS HYVS OR“HIGH-YIELDING VARIETIES”. HYVS HAVE HIGHER NITROGEN-ABSORBINGPOTENTIAL THAN OTHER VARIETIES. SINCE CEREALS THAT ABSORBED EXTRANITROGEN WOULD TYPICALLY LODGE, OR FALL OVER BEFORE HARVEST, SEMI-DWARFING GENES WERE BRED INTO THEIR GENOMES. A JAPANESE DWARF WHEATCULTIVAR (NORIN 10 WHEAT), WHICH WAS SENT TO WASHINGTON, D.C. BY CECILSALMON, WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN DEVELOPING GREEN REVOLUTION WHEATCULTIVARS. IR8, THE FIRST WIDELY IMPLEMENTED HYV RICE TO BE DEVELOPEDBY IRRI, WAS CREATED THROUGH A CROSS BETWEEN AN INDONESIAN VARIETYNAMED “PETA” AND A CHINESE VARIETY NAMED “DEE-GEO-WOO-GEN.”
  8. 8. WITH ADVANCES IN MOLECULAR GENETICS,THE MUTANT GENES RESPONSIBLE FOR ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA GENES (GA 20-OXIDASE,[GA1, GA1-3), WHEAT REDUCED-HEIGHT GENES (RHT) AND A RICESEMIDWARF GENE (SD1) WERE CLONED. THESE WERE IDENTIFIEDAS GIBBERELLIN BIOSYNTHESIS GENES OR CELLULAR SIGNALING COMPONENTGENES. STEMGROWTH IN THE MUTANT BACKGROUND IS SIGNIFICANTLYREDUCED LEADING TOTHE DWARF PHENOTYPE. PHOTOSYNTHETIC INVESTMENT IN THE STEM ISREDUCED DRAMATICALLY AS THE SHORTER PLANTS ARE INHERENTLY MORESTABLE MECHANICALLY. ASSIMILATES BECOME REDIRECTED TO GRAINPRODUCTION, AMPLIFYING IN PARTICULAR THE EFFECT OF CHEMICALFERTILIZERS ON COMMERCIAL YIELD.HYVS SIGNIFICANTLY OUTPERFORM TRADITIONAL VARIETIES IN THEPRESENCE OF ADEQUATE IRRIGATION, PESTICIDES, AND FERTILIZERS. IN THEABSENCE OF THESE INPUTS, TRADITIONAL VARIETIES MAY OUTPERFORMHYVS. THEREFORE, SEVERAL AUTHORS HAVE CHALLENGED THE APPARENTSUPERIORITY OF HYVS NOT ONLY COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONALVARIETIES ALONE, BUT BY CONTRASTING THE MONOCULTURAL SYSTEMASSOCIATED WITH HYVS WITH THE POLYCULTURAL SYSTEM ASSOCIATEDWITH TRADITIONAL ONES.

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