Canada:\nlabatt, molson, sleeman\n\nStatistics Canada figures show that liquor sales in Canada amounted to $19.4 billion worth of alcoholic beverages,\nBeer sales totalled $8.8 billion\nThe top selling style of beer in Canada, by far, is the pale lager.\n\nlarge exporter of malter barley \n\n47 to 28 beer to wine\n\n\n
Nearly every culture developed their own version of beer using different grains. Africans used millet, maize and cassava. The Chinese used wheat. The Japanese used rice.\n\n\n500 AD - beer brewed in monastaries as susentance for monks during their fast\n822 - hops used in brewing for flavouring\n1300 monastaries and pubs brew for mass consumption \n1514 - beer purity law passed: water, barley, hops\n\n1750 - industrial revolution \nthermometer, hydrometer, steam engine enable the mass production of beer\n\n\n1857 In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved in the paper "M&#xE9;moire sur la fermentation alcoolique" that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst\n1870 breweries become the leading users of refrigeration technology, keeping beer cold during shipping\n\n1900s - draught ber begins being served in carbon-dioxide pasteurized kegs.\n\n1973 - light beer, Miller Light is introduced\n\n\n\n\n
dry stout - dark irish beer (roasted barley used)\nwheat beer - greater than 50% is used \nindia pale ale - higher alcohol, hop content\nporter - brown malt used\npilsner - light lager, creamy, dense\nbock - bottom fermenting\n\n\n
fermentation\n\nAles are brewed with top-fermenting (actually ferments throughout the wort) yeast which allows for rapid fermentation at warmer temperatures; Lagers are brewed with bottom-fermenting yeast which ferments more slowly and at colder temperatures.\n\nAle\ntop fermenting\nsits at the top until falling after a few days\nrquires warmer temps to respire \n\n\nLager - yeast flocculates and sinks to the bottom\nlighter in colour and taste dryer\nmost common in US (less alcohol, less complex)\nat lower temperatures, the yeast\nIt is then stored for 30 days or longer close to the freezing point, and during this storage sulphur components developed during fermentation dissipate.\n\n
anaerobic respiration\n\nstrains have been cultivated\nSaccharomyces cerevisiae\nbrewing yeast strains act slower, but tend to produce fewer off-flavours and tolerate higher alcohol concentrations (with some strains, up to 22%).\n\n
water\nhard vs. soft\n\nThe water must possess the right mix of salts. fine ales are produced from waters with high levels of calcium.\nFamous pilsners are from waters with low levels of calcium. This is because of the acidifying effect that calcium has on the wort* The lower pH improves &#xDF;-amylase activity and thus wort fermentability and extract.\nthis enzyme increasing the production of maltose from Amylose, and thus making worts more fermentable.\n* Calcium has a beneficial effect on the precipitation of wort proteins, both during mashing and during the boil.\n\n\n\n
british hops\ngerman hops\namerican hops\n\nflavour!\nHops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer: they contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; they provide floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours; they have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms; and they aid in "head retention", the length of time that a foamy head will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative. Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops.\n\n\n\n
Generally, six-row barley has a higher enzyme content for converting starch into fermentable sugars, more protein, less starch, and a thicker husk than two-row barley. ... The husk of the malt is high in polyphenols (tannins) that contribute not only to haze, but also imparts an astringent taste."\n\n\n
Characteristics important for beer making:\n-- starchy\n\nwhy is barley better than wheat or other grains?\n\n
Some brewers will have added starch from other sources, such as maize or rice, to supplement that from malt. These other sources are called adjuncts. \nAdjuncts are nothing more than unmalted grains such as corn, rice, rye, oats, barley, and wheat.\n\noften with the intention of cutting costs, but sometimes to create an additional feature, such as better foam retention.\n\nuch as adding wheat to a pale ale for the purpose of creating a lasting head. \nThe term adjunct is often used to refer to corn and rice, the two adjuncts commonly used by pale lager brewing companies as substitutes for barley malt. This use of ingredients as substitutes for the main starch source, (to lower the cost of production or lighten the body) is where the term adjunct is most often used.\n\nAdjuncts can be broadly classified according to the physical form in which they are used into solids and liquid syrups.\nSolid adjuncts are either starchy adjuncts which need to be converted to simpler sugars, or solid sugar adjuncts which can be added after conversion.\nSolid starchy adjuncts are normally produced from cereals and are used in the form of flakes, grits, flour or purified starch and must be added before the mash tun to convert the starch into simple sugars which the yeast can use during fermentation. Cereals with a higher gelatinisation temperature than the standard mashing temperatures and must be cooked in a cereal cooker to gelatinise the starch before adding to the mash.\nSolid sugar adjuncts include granulated sugar and glucose chips.\nLiquid adjuncts are either sucrose syrups or a syrups from a grain (maize, rice or wheat), are added directly to the wort kettle and therefore can be used to reduce loading on the mash and lauter tun and effectively increase the brewhouse capacity.\nLiquid adjuncts may also be added post fermentation as primings sugars to give sweetness to the beer for secondary fermentation as in cask or bottle conditioning.\n\nSources of starch adjuncts\nRice is sometimes used in the production of pale lagers, most notably Anheuser-Busch's Budweiser. Anheuser-Busch is the largest North American buyer of U.S. rice. Rice may be used to lighten the body and the mouthfeel, or increase alcohol content, or add a little sweetness. Because rice is cheaper than barley, it can be used as a cost-saving measure.\nCorn is commonly used in the production of American-style pale lagers, particularly malt liquor. Corn is generally used in brewing as corn syrup, and as such is highly fermentable. Like rice, corn is cheaper than barley, so it is used as a cost-saving measure.\nSorghum is used in Africa as a local ingredient saving on expensive imported malt and developing the local agricultural sector. Sorghum has a high gelatinisation temperature and is added to a mash cooker to gelatinise the starch before adding to the mash tun. Sorghum has been used for hundreds of years as the main ingredient in many of the indigenous traditional African beers. Sorghum can be used in the malted or the un-malted form.\nWheat is used in German and American wheat beers, in lambic and other Belgian ales, and in English ales. Wheat lightens the body, improves head retention, and provides a tart flavour. Wheat beers are often served with fruit syrups and/or slices of lemon in the US and Germany.\nBarley is used as an un-malted grain at up to 10% of the grist. Barley provides both carbohydrates and proteins to the wort, on the negative side the cell walls of the un-malted barley contain high levels of beta-glucans impacts on wort viscosity and haze problems in the bright beer. Barley is also used in the mash as roasted barley to provide colour to the beer.\nCassava is a novel adjunct used in Africa either as a wet cake or as a purified starch.\nRye is used in roggenbiers from Germany and in rye beers from America. Rye is notoriously difficult to brew with, so most rye beers only include a small amount of rye. Rye provides a spicy flavour to beer and dramatically increases head formation.\nOats are used in oatmeal stouts. Oatmeal stouts usually do not specifically taste of oats. The smoothness of oatmeal stouts comes from the high content of proteins, lipids, and gums imparted by the use of oats. The gums increase the viscosity and body adding to the sense of smoothness.\n\nSugar adjuncts\nSucrose may come from sugar-cane or from sugar-beet.\nGrain syrups (primarily corn syrup in north America) may be made from maize, wheat, rice or sorghum and are normally added in the wort kettle during the boil. The carbohydrate profile of these syrups may be tailored to suit the brewers' requirements and normally have a fermentability of between 70 and 100%. Typically these syrups are 74 to 80% w/w extract.\nPrimings sugars such as maple syrup, honey, and molasses are common in craft beers.\nCandi sugar is a common ingredient in strong Belgian ales, where it increases the beer's strength while keeping the body fairly light; dark varieties of candi sugar also affect the colour and flavour of the beer.\nHoney in honey beer (known as mead) supplies a portion of the sugars converted during fermentation and is used primarily for flavour.\nCaramel syrup is used to provide colour to brews and can either be added in the wort kettle or at filtration when needed to correct low beer colours. This caramel is not sweet and provides little or no fermentable extract.\nSugar adjuncts provide only carbohydrates and if used at high levels will result in wort lacking in amino acids and this may lead to poor yeast growth causing tailing fermentations and poor yeast crops.\n\n\n
so how does barley from the field become the beverage?\n
Three step process\n1. steeping\n2. germination\nFrom the silos the barley is transported to the steeping and germination plant. During the steeping process, the moisture level in the barley reaches approximately 45% over a period of two days. At the completion of steeping, the germinating grain, now referred to as "green malt", is transferred to the germination boxes and allowed to germinate for five days.\n3. kilning\nThe germinated green malt is dried in the kiln with heated air which is blown through the layer of green malt for approximately 24 hours to produce about 285 tons of finished malt form the original 330 tons of cleaned barley. The moisture content after kilning is approximately 4%.\n
\nBarley is submerged in water (~12-15 &#xB0;C) to increase the moisture content of the grain.\nhydration of the barley to 42 to 48%\n
Gibberillic acid (hormone)\n\nB-glucanases\nxylanases\na-amylases\nproteases\ncarboxylpeptides\nlipoxygenases\n\nDuring germination endogenous enzymes hydrolyse proteins, &#x3B1;-glucans and hemicellulose in the barley cell wall. This will render the malt produced more susceptible to milling and brewers extract production. Controlled application of BioGibb will ensure consistent malt modification.\n\nGibberellins from the embryo of germinating grains are necessary for the synthesis of &#x3B1;-amylase by the cells of the aleurone layer, which, in turn is necessary for the hydrolysis of starch within the endosperm\nthe grains are spread out to germinate, during which time the starch within the endosperm will be hydrolyzed by &#x3B1;-amylase allowing the embryo to begin to grow. This process of starch breakdown is referred to as &#x201C;modification.&#x201D;\n\nGibberellic acid may be applied during this time and will supplement the native GAs in the grain, enhance the production of &#x3B1;-amylase, and consequently, speed up the hydrolysis of starch\n\n
kilning:\nThe germinated grains, which show a well-developed root and have a shoot (termed an &#x201C;acrospire&#x201D;), which is approximately 75% of the length of the grain, are then kilned. This is a two-step process, first to dry the grain, and second, to cure or heat it. The temperature to which the modified malt is cured will determine whether light-colored (low-temperature curing) or dark beer (high-temperature curing) is to be produced. The modified and kilned malt provides the raw material for the fermentation.\n\n
3. &#x201C;Mash Tun&#x201D;The crushed malt (which is mostly now starch particles) is mixed with warm brewing water in the mash tun. The resulting mash is then heated slowly and allowed to rest at __________ temperature for differing lengths of time, thus helping the enzymes contained in the malt to convert proteins into simpler products. he enzymes are also responsible for the most important aspect of mashing, namely the breaking down of starch into the malt sugar (maltose) that is later converted by yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide.\ntypically mashes have a thickness of three parts water to one part malt and contain a stand at around 65&#xB0;C, at which temperature the granules of starch are converted from an indigestible granular state into a 'melted' form which is much more susceptible to enzymatic digestion. \n\n4. Lauter Tun\n\nThe purpose of the lauter tun is to separate the liquid and solid portions of the mash to obtain wort, a malt extract. In the process, the liquid portion of the mash drains over a period of about two hours into one of the two whirlpool kettles, while the solid portion (the spent grain) is held back by the slatted false bottom of the tun. The spent grain is then transferred to the spent grain silo, and fetched by farmers for use as animal feed.\n\nLautering is the separation of the wort (the liquid containing the sugar extracted during mashing) from the grains. This is done either in a mash tun outfitted with a false bottom, in a lauter tun, or in a mash filter\n\n
While the grain is being mashed, the temperature is raised in steps, each of which optimizes the activity of a different hydrolase (Fig. 3). At 52&#xB0;C, the protein hydrolases are activated. Then at 68&#xB0;C, the starch hydrolases convert long-chain sugars to the disaccharide maltose, which can support yeast fermentation. The final temperature (77&#xB0;C) inactivates all enzymes; then the mash is cooled, pressed, and filtered. The liquid filtrate of the mash is called wort.\nThe enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of starch are &#x3B1;-amylase (e.g. Bioferm&#xAE;, producing dextrins and maltose) and amyloglucosidase (e.g. Amylo for glucose and "low carb" beer production). The combined actions of these enzymes help to produce a wort sugar spectrum suitable for fermentation. For starch liquefaction and/or extract production from adjuncts Hitempase addition to the cereal cooker is recommended.&#x3B2;-Glucan (a non-starch polysaccharide) is a major constituent of malt and barley cell walls. If malt is poorly modified or if the brewing process employs a significant proportion of unmalted barley the &#x3B2;-glucan released during mashing is insufficiently hydrolysed. The resulting gums can increase wort viscosity and significantly reduce the porosity of the grain bed resulting in poor lautering / mash filtration performance. &#x3B2;-glucan passing through the grain bed in the wort will survive into the beer and may subsequently cause filtration problems or lead to &#x3B2;-glucan haze formation in the final product. Malt &#x3B2;-glucanases are temperature labile (max. 60&#xB0;C) and if not destroyed during the kilning process survive for a limited period during mashing depending on the mashing conditions. Kerry Ingredients & Flavours produces a range of Bioglucanases, which can be used in both mashing vessels and fermentation/maturation tanks to hydrolyse malt/barley &#x3B2;-glucans and remove large beta-glucans from wort and green beer.In instances where there is a significant percentage of unmalted barley or another adjunct is used there is the danger that insufficient nitrogen will be available for yeast growth and fermentation may be sluggish as a result. The Kerry Ingredients & Flavours Bioprotease range is used to increase wort free amino nitrogen (FAN) levels. Use of glucanases, proteases, amylases and xylanases can help to significantly reduce viscosity levels within the mash thereby standardising or controlling wort filtration rates. The Promalt range provides these enzymes in a single addition.\n
While the grain is being mashed, the temperature is raised in steps, each of which optimizes the activity of a different hydrolase (Fig. 3). At 52&#xB0;C, the protein hydrolases are activated. Then at 68&#xB0;C, the starch hydrolases convert long-chain sugars to the disaccharide maltose, which can support yeast fermentation. The final temperature (77&#xB0;C) inactivates all enzymes; then the mash is cooled, pressed, and filtered. The liquid filtrate of the mash is called wort.\n\n\n\n
\nThe Wort:\n\nBoiling serves various functions, including sterilisation of wort, precipitation of proteins (which would otherwise come out of solution in the finished beer and cause cloudiness), and the driving away of unpleasant grainy characters originating in the barley. Many brewers also add some adjunct sugars at this stage and at least a proportion of their hops. \n\nThe hops have two principal components: resins and essential oils. The resins (so-called a-acids) are changed ('isomerised') during boiling to yield iso-a-acids, which provide the bitterness to beer. This process is rather inefficient. Nowadays, hops oils are often extracted with liquefied carbon dioxide and the extract is either added to the kettle or extensively isomerised outside the brewery for addition to the finished beer (thereby avoiding losses due to the tendency of the bitter substance to stick on to yeast). \n\nThe oils are responsible for the 'hoppy nose' on beer. They are very volatile and if the hops are all added at the start of the boil then much of the aroma will be blown up the chimney. In traditional lager brewing a proportion of the hops are held back and only added towards the end of boiling, which allows the oils to remain in the wort. For obvious reasons, this process is called late hopping. In traditional ale production, a handful of hops is added to the cask at the end of the process, enabling a complex mixture of oils to give a distinctive character to such products. This is called dry hopping. Liquid carbon dioxide can be used to extract oils as well as resins and these extracts can also be added late in the process to make modifications to beer flavour. \n\n\nThe wort is supplemented with hops, a traditional herb used for centuries in Europe to contribute a distinctive flavor of beer. After boiling with hops, the wort is again filtered.\n\n5. Whirlpool Kettle I\n\nThe wort is now boiled with hops in either one of the two whirlpool kettles to achieve the extraction of hops resins.\n\n6. Boiling\nFurther important reasons for the boiling process, which lasts approximately one hour:\n\nevaporation of superfluous water\nsterilization of the wort\ndestruction of enzymes\nprotein precipitation/coagulation (break formation)\ndissipation of certain volatile constituents\n7. Whirlpool Kettle II\n\n7. \nAfter the boiling, the wort is pumped in the same whirlpool kettle tangential to bring the hot wort in rotation. This process leaves the hot break (protein that was precipitated and coagulated during the boil) in a compact mound at the bottom and center of the whirlpool (teacup effect). \n\nSome 30 minutes later, the liquid (now called the bitter wort) can be separated from the hot break, and pumped to the wort cooler\n\n\n\n
After the precipitate produced during boiling has been removed, the hopped wort is cooled to bring down to fermentation temperature.pitched with yeast. There are many strains of brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae),and brewers jealously guard and look after their own strains because of their importance in determining brand identity. \n\nBoth types need a little oxygen to trigger off their metabolism, but otherwise the alcoholic fermentation is anaerobic. Ale fermentations are usually complete within a few days at temperatures as high as 20&#xB0;C, whereas lager fermentations at as low as 6&#xB0;C can take several weeks. Fermentation is complete when the desired alcohol content has been reached and when an unpleasant butterscotch flavour which develops during all fermentations has been mopped up by yeast. The yeast is harvested for use in the next fermentation\n\n\n9. Fermentation\n\nThe wort is now transferred to a unitank, where yeast is added to initiate fermentation &#x2013; a process in which the sugars from the wort are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide.\nFermentation with bottom fermenting yeast takes place at between 7&#xB0;C and 9&#xB0;C and requires approx. 6 to 7 days, whereby the yeast settles to the bottom of the vessel; fermentation with top fermenting yeast takes 4 to 5 days at 18 &#x2013; 20&#xB0;C, whereby the yeast rises to the surface.\n\nThe wort is inoculated with a special strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae known as brewer&#x2019;s yeast. The yeast conducts ethanolic fermentation on the maltose from hydrolyzed starch. At the same time, minor by-products, such as long-chain alcohols, impart good flavors. \n\n10. Storage Tank\n\nThe fermented beer is cooled to a temperature of 0&#xB0;C to -1,5&#xB0;C. The beer undergoes a natural maturation and clarification process in this tanks for four to six weeks. This matures the beer and refines and rounds off its flavor.\n\n\n\n
\n\n11. Beer filter\n\nBefore the mature beer can be filled into kegs and bottles, clouding agents such as protein-tannin compounds, hop resins and yeast have to be removed. This clarifies the beer and ensures a long shelf life.\n\n\n\n
Some brewers[who?] feel that beers brewed mainly from cereals such as millet, rice, sorghum, buckwheat and corn (which either contain no gluten or contain glutens that do not trigger an autoimmune response in celiacs), and including a proportion of barley or rye, are safe to drink. These brewers argue that the proteins from barley are converted into non-harmful amino acids. Statements from brewers show that their scientists feel confident that their product is non-harmful to those who are gluten intolerant. However, there is some concern and evidence that the claim is not true.(for example: Sheehan, Evans & Skerritt, 2001).Brewers who produce low gluten beers are required to test every batch for gluten, and record gluten levels in "parts per million" ('ppm'). Although the barley hordeins in such tests may not be detected, smaller pieces of these proteins, known as peptides, may remain and be toxic for celiacs. Those involved in gluten-free brewing, and others representing celiacs or those with other conditions that require a gluten-free diet, tend to be concerned that beer brewed using wheat or barley are not appropriate for those with celiacs or dermatitis herpetiformis,  although the carefully controlled gluten levels of particular malt brews of England and Finland may be low enough to be consumed in relative safety (Against the Grain, 5ppm; Koff, 20ppm; Laitilan, 4ppm).\nAlthough most celiacs should be able to drink beer with less than 20ppm such as Budweiser or beer made with rye malt (in moderation) without causing themselves any harm, each person displays a different level at which an autoimmune response will be activated. As such, there is ongoing debate about acceptable gluten "levels" to celiacs.Consumers of "low gluten" beverages are advised to inform the consultants of their diet, and to ensure that even if the obvious symptoms are absent, there are no hidden negative effects from peptides in the beer. Some brewers suggest that their low barley malt beers are not dangerous to celiacs, but not all evidence supports this. There are brewery statements that "normal beverages" such as Budweiser are safe, tempered with advice that they should be drunk with caution. Donald D. Kasarda, a research chemist with the United States Department of Agriculture, says that: "It is not proved beyond any doubt that the peptides in beer are actually toxic to celiac patients, but it is quite possible that the peptides remaining in any barley-based or wheat-based beer ... are harmful to celiac patients." \nAccording to tests done by the Argentine Coeliac Association (ACELA) and the Swedish National Food Agency, Corona beer, contains less than 20 ppm, making it legally gluten-free. This is probably due to the fact that despite using barley malt, Corona is mostly derived from rice and corn. Corona has made no statement regarding these tests.\nThe recent development of gluten-free ales and lagers has been seen as a positive move forward for those who suffer a variety of related gluten intolerant conditions; and there are a number of people working to produce gluten-free beer.  Of gluten-free products, beer is seen as the most difficult to produce in a commercially acceptable version. As of early 2012, a fast-growing range of ales and lagers is becoming widely available.Gluten-free beer brands include Bard's Beer , Greens , Steadfast Pale Ale, Hambleton Ales Gluten Free Ale and Hambleton Ales Gluten Free Lager,, Lakefront Brewery's New Grist, Joseph James Brewing Fox Tail , Redbridge, Beljica Brewing , St. Peter's Sorghum Beer, New Planet Tread Lightly Pale Ale, Schnitzer Br&#xE4;u Gluten-Free Organic Millet Beers  and Brasserie Brunehaut bio Amber and Blonde (see photo at right).\n\n\n
CONCLUDING REMARKS HE WAS A WISE MAN WHO INVENTED BEER. - Plato
QUESTIONSAle is a result of ____________ fermentation, achievedat temperatures between _____ C and ______ C, while________________ is a result of warm or ________fermentation, achieved at temperatures rangingbetween ________ C and ________ C .
QUESTION #2After steeping and germinating, the barley isnow referred to as ______________ malt.
QUESTION #3Unmalted grains (including corn,rice, and rye) which substituted inthe malt are called ___________.
QUESTION #4 ________________ is the hormonefound in the ___________ of germinating grains necessary to synthesize α-amylase.
QUESTION #5True of False?Hops are the main ﬂavouringagent in most beers.