MOTIVATION Motivation is an important factor which encourages persons togive their best performance and help in reaching enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation will enable to increase output of employees. But a negative motivation will reduce their performance. According to Likert “Motivation is the core of management which shows that every human being gives himself a sense of worth inface to face groups which are most important to him. A supervisor should strive to treat individuals with dignity and should try to recognize their personal worth.”
• The following diagram illustrates the layout of the motivation model. Search and Goal directed Need choice of behaviour deficiency strategy Revaluation of Reward or Evaluation of needs punishment performance
• Let us see how this model works with the help of an example.• Suppose a employee desires to have a promotion. This desire for promotion represents need deficiency (stage 1) also said inner state of disequilibrium, tension or urge, which is the starting point in the motivation model. Now employee is expected to search for strategies to get promotion and make a choice among them(stage 2). Let us say, there are two ways of getting promotion. One way is putting in better performance and the another way is to please the boss..let assume that the employee adopted the first strategy. He puts in regular attendance, completes allotted work on schedule and works hard. This forms the third step i.e. goal directed behavior. The fourth stage in motivation model represents assessment of employee performance by his boss. In the light of evaluation of performance, the employee is either promoted(reward) or promotion is denied to him (punishment). Awarding or denying promotion represent the fifth phase in motivation model. If sincere and hardwork has benefited the employee through promotion, he feels encouraged to repeat better performance. If promotion is denied to the employee, the employee feels discouraged. He may not repeat better performance. He will probably wonder whether it was worth working hard. He will give up the idea of striving for promotion ( sixth stage).
Importance of motivation• Probably no concept of organisational behavior receives as much attention as that of motivation. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons. 1) “Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job” This statement can apply for corporate strategists, and to production workers who are looking for better ways to do a job. When people actively seek new ways of doing thing, they usually find them. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing jobs. 2) “A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented” This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spendingextra time on data gathering or analysis for a report, or a clerk taking extra care while filling important documents. In either case, the organization benefits, because individuals in and out side the organization see the enterprise as quality conscious.
3) “ Highly motivated workers are more productive than apathetic workers” Much has been written recently about the high productivity of Japanese workers and the fact that fewer workers are needed to produce a automobile in Japan than else where. The high productivity of Japanese workers is attributable to many reasons, but motivation is the main reason.4) “Every organization requires human resources, in addition to the need for financial and physical resources for it to function” Three behavioral dimensions of human resources are significant to the organization . A) people should be attracted not only to join the organization but also to remain in it. B) people must perform the task for which they are hired, and must do so in a dependable manner . C) people must go beyond this dependable role performance and engage in some form of creative, spontaneous and innovative behavior at work.
• 5) “ motivation can be found in the present and future technology required for production”• modern technology can no longer be considered synonymous with the term “automation”. Consider the example of the highly technologically based space program in the indian space research oragnization (ISRO). The polar satellite launch vechile’s (PSLV) lift-off has been the result of 12 years of developmental work, transfer of technology to private industry, smoothening the manufacture of components and subsystems, complex project management, and dedicated work by literally thousands in the ISRO, industry and other national laboratories and research institutes. With this feat india has joined the exclusive club of half a dozen nations that can build and more importantly, launch its own satellites.• The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals.
6)” While organizations have for sometime viewed their financial and physicalresources from a long term perspective, only recently have they begun seriously to apply this same perspective to their resources .” Many organizations are now beginning to pay increasing attention to developing their employees as future resources(a “talent bank”) upon which they can draw as they grow and develop. Evidence for this concern can be seen in the recent growth of management and organization and organization development programmes , in the increased popularity of “assessment centre” appraisals, in recent attention to manpower planning and in the emergence of “human resource accounting” systems. More concern is being directed , in addition, towards stimulating employees to enlarge their job skills(through training, job design, job rotation and so on) at both blue- collar and white- collar levels in an effort to ensure a continual reservoir of well-trained and highly motivated people.
MOTIVATION- NATURE• Motivation is mainly concerned with the directing of employees towards organisational objectives. The nature of motivation is discussed hereunder:• Motivation is a continuous process• As we have studied in economics, human wants are unlimited. It is said that, even god cannot satisfy all human wants.’ with the satisfaction of one need , another want preferably of the high order is created. Thus, new wants emerge when the present wants are satisfied. All the wants cannot be satisfied at the same time. Wants are to be satisfied one after another continuously. Hence, motivation is also a continuous and an unending process.
Motivation is a psychological concept• Motivation is concerned with the psychological aspects of human beings. The level of satisfaction, contentment, etc., by using the same reward/ incentive vary from person to person. This is due to variation in a)aspirations ,b) attitudes,c)feelings, and d) perceptions of the individuals. Thus, motivation is reaction of the organs of the human body to the inducements/ incentives offered. The entire individual is motivated as we know, motivation is a psychological concept interacting with the total organs of an individuals . Further , each individual is an integrated and comprehensive system. The entire system of an individual reacts to the motivation. Thus , the entire individual is motivated.
Frustrated individual fails to be motivated• Some individuals are frustrated despite of the rewards due to wide gap between their aspirations and rewards. Some of the frustrated persons become mentally ill and these persons cannot be motivated.• Goals leads to motivation• Goals form a part of motivational process. Goal achievement results in the satisfaction of wants. Goals fulfillment leads to reduction of drives and fulfils deficiencies. Thus goal achievement ends the motivational process.• The self – concept as a unifying force• Self- concept is the life position of a person that he formulates about himself during his childhood. He thinks himself in the same way during his lifetime until and unless a major change takes place in the rest of the lifetime. Therefore those who have formulated a positive view about themselves during the childhood, will be motivated by themselves in the rest of the lifetime. And the vice verse is true in case of negative self- concept.
MOTIVATION - TYPE • THERE ARE TWO WAYS BY WHICH PEOPLE CAN BE MOTIVATED • MOTIVATION Positive Negative motivation motivation Or OrPull mechanism Push mechanism
Positive motivation or pull mechanism• People are said to be motivated positively when they are shown a reward and the way to achieve it. Such reward may be 1) financial or 2) non – financial. Monetary motivation may include a) different incentives, b) wage plans, 3) productive bonus schemes, etc. non- monetary motivation may include i) praise for the work, ii) participation in management, iii) social recognition, etc. monetary incentives provide the workers a better standard of life while non- monetary incentives satisfy the ego of a man. Positive motivation seeks to create an optimistic atmosphere in the enterprise. Positive motivation involves i) identifying employee potentialities, and ii) make him realize the possible result by achieving his potentialities.
Negative motivation or push mechanism• One can get the desired work done by installing fear in the minds of people. In this method of motivation, fear of consequences of doing something or not doing something keeps the workers in the desired direction . The method has several limitations. Fear creates frustration, a hostile state of mind and an unfavorable attitude towards the job which hinders efficiency and productivity. So the use of it should be kept to its minimum.