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6611

  1. 1. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‬ INTERNATION COMPUTER DRIVING LICENSE (ICDL) ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺸﻭﻗﻲ ﺸﺎﻫﻴﻥ‬ ashahen@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺮر اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫‪Information & Communication‬‬ ‫2‬
  3. 3. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻷول : اﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻷول : ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ وﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮق ﺑﻴﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ وﻳﺐ وﺷﺒﻜﺔ إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮل ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﻨﺺ اﻟﻔﺎﺋﻖ ‪HTTP‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮوﺗﻮآﻮل ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎت ‪FTP‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎوﻳﻦ اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺣﺪة ‪URL‬‬ ‫اﻻرﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎت اﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪Hyperlink‬‬ ‫ﻣﺰودو ﺧﺪﻣﺔ إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪ISP‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ وﻳﺐ ‪Web Sites‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻰ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮاض وﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺮآﺎت اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ‪Search Engine‬‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎآﺮ ‪Cookies‬‬ ‫آﺎش إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪Internet Cache‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻊ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ‪Protected Site‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻬﺎدة اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪Digital Certificate‬‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻟﺘﺸﻔﻴﺮ ؟‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮرة اﻟﺘﺠﻮل ﻓﻰ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ )اﻟﻔﻴﺮوﺳﺎت(‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﺨﺪاع ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺰﻋﺠﺔ ‪Spam‬‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪاع ‪Fraud‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪار اﻟﻨﺎر ‪Firewall‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ : اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮاض‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ وإﻏﻼق ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮاض‬ ‫أﻳﻘﻮﻧﺎت إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ إآﺴﺒﻠﻮرر‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ اﻟﺒﺪء ﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮاض‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫إﻇﻬﺎر وإﺧﻔﺎء ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ اﻷدوات‬ ‫إﻇﻬﺎر وإﺧﻔﺎء اﻟﺼﻮر ﻓﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ وﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺮض اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎت اﻟﺘﻰ ﺳﺒﻖ زﻳﺎرﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻷدوات‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺠﻞ اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺨﻰ ‪History Trail‬‬ ‫ﺣﺬف اﻟﺴﺠﻞ اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺨﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮاض ﺷﺒﻜﺔ وﻳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺟﻮع ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻒ واﻟﺘﻘﺪم ﻟﻸﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻓﻰ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻰ اﻟﻤﻔﻀﻼت أو اﻹﺷﺎرات اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ : اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﺤﺮآﺎت اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت واﻟﻌﺒﺎرات‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻧﻄﺎق اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺦ ﻧﺼﻮص ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺦ اﻟﺼﻮر ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ وﻳﺐ ﻓﻰ ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫3‬
  4. 4. ‫ﺟﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ : اﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ واﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺻﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎت اﻟﺘﻰ ﺗﺤﺘﻮى ﻋﻠﻰ إﻃﺎرات‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺎب اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ : اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻷول : ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ وﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء ﻋﻨﺎوﻳﻦ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺰاﻳﺎ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺁداب اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫وﺻﻒ اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎر‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ اﻹﻣﻼﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﺮام اﻟﺨﺼﻮﺻﻴﺔ واﻟﺴﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم اﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﺰﻋﺠﺔ ‪SPAM‬‬ ‫ﺿﺮورة اﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺪ اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ : اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ وإﻏﻼق ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮح اﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮاض‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ اﻷدوات‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ رﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻮارد‬ ‫أﻳﻘﻮﻧﺎت ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ورود رﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻘﺮاءﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻹﻋﺪادات‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫إﻇﻬﺎر وإﺧﻔﺎء ﺷﺮاﺋﻂ اﻷدوات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪Assistance‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ أوﻓﻴﺲ ‪Office Assistance‬‬ ‫ﺟﺪول اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت ‪Table of Content‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ : اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻣﻦ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺮوءة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﻘﺮوءة‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﻤﻠﻒ اﻟﻤﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫4‬
  5. 5. ‫اﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ وآﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻠﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﺧﻴﺎرات اﻟﺮد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬ ‫إدراج اﻷﺳﻤﺎء‬ ‫إرﺳﺎل ﻧﺴﺨﺔ آﺮﺑﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺴﺨﺔ اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪﻗﻴﻖ اﻹﻣﻼﺋﻰ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫إرﻓﺎق ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫إرﺳﺎل اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺄوﻟﻮﻳﺔ ﻗﺼﻮى أو أوﻟﻮﻳﺔ دﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺦ وﻧﻘﻞ وﺣﺬف اﻟﻨﺼﻮص‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻦ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫آﻴﻒ ﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺮﻳﺪك اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ : اﺳﺘﺨﺪام دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻮ دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪة ﻓﻰ دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﻮان ﺑﺮﻳﺪ إﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻰ ﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ دﻓﺘﺮ اﻟﻌﻨﺎوﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻮارد‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ : ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﺳﻢ اﻟﻤﺮﺳﻞ أو اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع أو اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﺠﻠﺪ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻠﺪ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻓﻰ ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺎدة رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺤﺬوﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﺬوﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ اﻟﻤﺤﺬوﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ إﻏﻼق أوﺗﻠﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺴﺎدس : اﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ واﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫5‬
  6. 6. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬ ‫6‬
  7. 7. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻭﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫7‬
  8. 8. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ.‬ ‫8‬
  9. 9. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻴﺏ ﻭﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ )‪ World Wide Web (WWW‬ﺟﺰﺀﺍ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ، ﻓﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪WWW‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫‪E-mail‬‬ ‫، ﻭﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ‬ ‫)‪File Transfer Protocol (FTP‬‬ ‫‪. Newsgroups‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ، ﻓﻬﻰ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫‪Netscape‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪Microsoft Internet Explorer‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪Web Browsers‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫،‬ ‫‪Hyperlinks‬‬ ‫، ﻭﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Navigator‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫9‬
  10. 10. ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻨﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﻕ ‪HTTP‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫)‪Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ‪ Web Browsers‬ﻟﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ‪ Web Pages‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ‪. Web Servers‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻖ ﰱ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺃﻯ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻣﺜﻞ :‬ ‫‪. http://www.yahoo.com‬‬ ‫01‬
  11. 11. ‫ﺒﺭﻭﺘﻭﻜﻭل ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ ‪FTP‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ )‪ File Transfer Protocol (FTP‬ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ .‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﳉﻠﺐ ‪ Download‬ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ، ﻻ ﳓﺘﺎﺝ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﻫﻮ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﱮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺒﺔ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻭﺟﻠﺒﻪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺐ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﳌﺘﺨﺼﺼﲔ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﳋﺎﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ .‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Cute FTP‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫‪ftp://ftp.microsoft.com‬‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺐ ﻧﺴﺨﻪ ﲡﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫11‬
  12. 12. ‫‪URL‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ )‪ Uniform Resource Locator (URL‬ﺍﺳﻢ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻭﻳﺐ .‬ ‫، ﻭﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﻢ‬ ‫‪FTP‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪HTTP‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫‪http://www.microsoft.com‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﻛﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻖ ﻟﻼﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﲟﻮﻗﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ .‬ ‫21‬
  13. 13. ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ ‪Hyperlink‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪Hyperlink‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﱮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺁﺧﺮﻯ ﺃﻭ ﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻭ ﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ،‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻜﺒﲑ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺼﺎﺻﺔ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺟﻠﺐ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ .‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺑﻠﻮﻥ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﲢﺘﻬﺎ ﺧﻂ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻐﲑ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺄﺧﺬ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ .‬ ‫31‬
  14. 14. ‫ﻤﺯﻭﺩﻭ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺇﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪ISP‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺰﻭﺩ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ )‪، Internet Service Provider (ISP‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﻣﺰﻭﺩ ﺍﳋﺪﻣﺔ ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺋﻚ ﻭﺻﻠﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻋﱪ ﺧﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻴﻔﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ .‬ ‫41‬
  15. 15. ‫ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻴﺏ ‪Web Sites‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﺎﺩﻡ ﻭﻳﺐ ‪ ، Web Server‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻯ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﻳﺐ ‪ URL‬ﻓﺮﻳﺪ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺘﺜﲎ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺳﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫‪ http://www.msn.com‬ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫‪Search Engine‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪Directories‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪keywords‬‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰱ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ .‬ ‫51‬
  16. 16. ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻰ ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ؟‬ ‫‪Microsoft Internet‬‬ ‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺓ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ، ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫، ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﰱ ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﺠﺪﺩﺓ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪Netscape Navigator‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪Explorer‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺕ .‬ ‫61‬
  17. 17. ‫ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ‪Search Engine‬‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻨﺸﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﱴ ﰎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ،‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰱ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ .‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ :‬ ‫‪http://www.yahoo.com‬‬ ‫‪www.msn.com‬‬ ‫‪www.excite.com‬‬ ‫‪www.go.com‬‬ ‫‪www.google.com‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺳﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪http://www.yahoo.com‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ‪ ICDL Courseware‬ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪. Search‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺄﻭﻝ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫71‬
  18. 18. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻜﺭ ‪Cookies‬‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﲜﻬﺎﺯﻙ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻛﺮ‬ ‫‪ ، Cookies‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﺴﺨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺩﺧﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺯﻳﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰱ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫81‬
  19. 19. ‫ﻜﺎﺵ ﺇﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ‪Internet Cache‬‬ ‫ﰱ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺰﻳﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻨﺴﺦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ )ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﲜﻬﺎﺯﻙ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫91‬
  20. 20. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ ‪Protected Site‬‬ ‫‪Username‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﶈﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﲑ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﲔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫، ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﻷﻯ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻄﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺘﲔ‬ ‫‪Password‬‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﻪ .‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﶈﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻔﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻮﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﳏﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ، ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻬﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ .‬ ‫02‬
  21. 21. ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ‪Digital Certificate‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺗﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻳﻔﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ، ﻭﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﲑ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻨﺢ ﻣﻮﺛﻘﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ :‬ ‫‪http://www.verisign.com‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻫﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺒﺎﺩﳍﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫12‬
  22. 22. ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﻴﺭ ؟‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﻔﺮﺓ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪Encryption‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﲎ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺔ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ، ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﻔﲑ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻷﺟﻬﺰﺓ‬ ‫‪ Hardware‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ، Software‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ‪. PGP‬‬ ‫‪. http://www.pgp.com‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ، ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ،‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ 821 ﺑﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ 23 ﺑﺖ .‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻔﲑ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﺗﺼﺮ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴﺎﺕ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﳍﺎ ﺍ‪‬ﺮﻣﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪back-doors‬‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﺑﻴﻮﻥ.‬ ‫22‬
  23. 23. ‫ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻭل ﻓﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ )ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺭﻭﺴﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﺋﻼ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺜﻞ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭ ﺣﱴ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺭﲟﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ ، ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﺪﻣﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ، ﻭﳚﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ .‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻓﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺰﳍﺎ .‬ ‫32‬
  24. 24. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻋﺠﺔ ‪Spam‬‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ ﰱ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ، ﻷﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ،‬ ‫‪Spam‬‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻨﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻟﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰱ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱃ ﻳﺘﻤﺮ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﺟﺪﺍ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻞ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻚ .‬ ‫42‬
  25. 25. ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺩﺍﻉ ‪Fraud‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺃﺑﺪﺍ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻻﺋﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻚ ‪ Credit Card‬ﻷﻯ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻯ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ، ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻐﲑ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﺔ ،‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﰱ ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ، ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱃ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻚ .‬ ‫52‬
  26. 26. ‫ﺠﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ‪Firewall‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﻭﻣﻌﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﳊﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﻋﱪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ،‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲤﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﻯ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻋﱪ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻯ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﺼﻴﺺ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﲎ ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻯ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺭﻯ .‬ ‫62‬
  27. 27. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫72‬
  28. 28. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫82‬
  29. 29. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻭﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫‪Internet Explorer‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Close‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ File‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻹﻏﻼﻕ ‪ Close‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ .‬ ‫92‬
  30. 30. ‫ﺃﻴﻘﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺇﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﺇﻜﺴﺒﻠﻭﺭﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Back‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﰎ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Forward‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﰎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪. Back‬‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Stop‬ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Refresh‬ﻳﻌﻴﺪ ﲢﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Home‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Search‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Favorites‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Media‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻗﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻂ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ History‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Mail‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺧﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Print‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Edit‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰱ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ .‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Discus‬ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ‪. Discussion Groups‬‬ ‫03‬
  31. 31. ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ ﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ‪ Home Page‬ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ :‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺑﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Tools‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Internet Options‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪. General‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪ Address‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪، Home Page‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Use Current‬ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ،‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Use Default‬ﳉﻌﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ‪ Blank‬ﳉﻌﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Apply‬ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻼﺕ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻓﻖ ‪ Ok‬ﻹﻏﻼﻕ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫13‬
  32. 32. ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ‬ ‫‪URL‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻯ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ‪ Enter‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﲔ ‪. Ctrl + N‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻪ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫‪Hyperlinks‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Open link in‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﰱ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫‪. New Window‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻌﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﻴﱮ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ .‬ ‫23‬
  33. 33. ‫ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺨﻔﺎﺀ ﺸﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰱ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺧﻔﺎﺀ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. View‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Toolbars‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﲜﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺻﺢ ، ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮﻩ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺨﺘﻔﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ .‬ ‫33‬
  34. 34. ‫ﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺇﺨﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺇﻛﺴﺒﻠﻮﺭﺭ ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﰱ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ .‬ ‫ﻭﻹﻟﻐﺎﺀ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ Tools‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪. Internet Options‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪ Advanced‬ﰱ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻎ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪. Show Pictures‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺘﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ، ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪Ok‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺃﻳﺔ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ‪.Show Picture‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫43‬
  35. 35. ‫ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺸﺭﻴﻁ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰱ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪ Title Bar‬ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﲝﻔﻆ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ .‬ ‫53‬
  36. 36. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻰ ‪History Trail‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫‪History‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ History‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺃﻯ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫63‬
  37. 37. ‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﳊﺬﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﳜﻰ ﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Tools‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Internet Option‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺧﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪. General‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Clear History‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ‪. History‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪. Ok‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫73‬
  38. 38. ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻷﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ ‫‪http://www.google.com‬‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﻓﺴﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﰒ ﻧﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ.‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﰱ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Shift‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ .‬ ‫83‬
  39. 39. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻟﻸﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ، ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ .‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪Back‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪ ، Forward‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Home‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫93‬
  40. 40. ‫ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﰱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺷﺮﺍﺀ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ، ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﺪﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﰱ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ‪ Submit‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫04‬
  41. 41. ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺔ ؟‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻗﺒﻮﻻ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﻳﻨﻮﻯ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﰱ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ، ﻭﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺟﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ .‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰱ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲡﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﰱ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫14‬
  42. 42. ‫ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ Favorites‬ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪. Add to Favorites‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ‪ Add Favorite‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪ Name‬ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳎﻠﺪ‬ ‫‪Create in‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻻﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪. New Folder‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Ok‬ﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪Favorites‬‬ ‫ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ .‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫‪Favorites‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻔﺮﻳﻌﻪ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ .‬ ‫24‬
  43. 43. ‫ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Organize Favorites‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪. Favorites‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﳎﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪. Create Folder‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻯ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳎﻠﺪ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ، ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Rename‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﻘﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻠﺪ ‪‬ﻠﺪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﰒ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Move to Folder‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪. Ok‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻯ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪. Delete‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ‪ Organize Favorites‬ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪. Close‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫34‬
  44. 44. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫44‬
  45. 45. ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫54‬
  46. 46. ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ‪‬ﺎ ، ﻭﻣﻦ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﺓ :‬ ‫‪Yahoo http://www.yahoo.com‬‬ ‫‪MSN http://www.msn.com‬‬ ‫‪Ask Jeeves http://www.ask.com‬‬ ‫‪HotBot http://www.hotbot.com‬‬ ‫‪Google http://www.google.com‬‬ ‫‪Lycos http://www.lycos.com‬‬ ‫64‬
  47. 47. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﰱ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ، ﻭﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﲝﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ‪‬ﺎ ، ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺜﻬﺎ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻳﺔ .‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺈﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰱ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺒﺎﺕ ﲣﺺ ﺍﻟﺮﺧﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﻮﻑ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ "‪ "ICDL Training‬ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰱ ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ، ﰒ ﻧﻀﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ .‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻭﺟﺪﻫﺎ ﰱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ، ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ،‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﳌﺎ ﳛﺘﻮﻳﻪ ، ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Next‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫74‬
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. ‫ﺘﻀﻴﻴﻕ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﳏﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﳏﺮﻙ‬ ‫"‪"ICDL Training‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺺ ﻣﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﻣﻌﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﲔ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻀﻴﻴﻖ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﳏﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺘﲔ ﺑﲔ ﻋﻼﻣﱴ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺺ‬ ‫)" "( .‬ ‫‪"ICDL" + Training‬‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻋﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ ICDL‬ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪. Training‬‬ ‫94‬
  50. 50. ‫ﻨﺴﺦ ﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﻟﺼﻘﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ، ﻭﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺐ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪. Copy‬‬ ‫‪Paste‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺼﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺼﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ‪ Edit‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻟﺼﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ .‬ ‫05‬
  51. 51. ‫ﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﻟﺼﻘﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻨﺪﺍﺕ ، ﻭﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪. Copy‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻟﺼﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻪ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Paste‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ‪. Edit‬‬ ‫15‬
  52. 52. ‫ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪Save as‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺃﻯ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Save‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ .‬ ‫25‬
  53. 53. ‫ﺤﻔﻅ ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻴﺏ ﻓﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﳊﻔﻆ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Save as‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ File‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Save in‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ Save as type‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ‪. Text File‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Save‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫35‬
  54. 54. ‫ﺠﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺟﻠﺒﻬﺎ ‪ Download‬ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺻﻮﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪Save‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ، ﻳﺘﻢ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫‪ ، Target as‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ، ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ، ﻭﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮ ﺣﱴ ﻳﻜﺘﻤﻞ ﺟﻠﺐ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ .‬ ‫45‬
  55. 55. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫55‬
  56. 56. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫• ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻭﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ.‬ ‫65‬
  57. 57. ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻨﺔ ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Print Preview‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. File‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪. Close‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫75‬
  58. 58. ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Page setup‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ File‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ، Size‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Source‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻮﺯ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺬﻳﻴﻞ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪ Header‬ﻭﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪. Footer‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩﻳﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪Portrait‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ‬ ‫‪Orientation‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪ Landscape‬ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳍﻮﺍﻣﺶ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ ﰱ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ‪. Margins‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Ok‬ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍﺕ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫85‬
  59. 59. ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪File‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Print‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺘﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪. Select Printer‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫‪All‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪Page Range‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Selection‬ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﳏﺪﺩﺓ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪. Pages‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪. Number of copies‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Print‬ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫95‬
  60. 60. ‫ﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺰﺃﻳﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ،‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ، ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺜﺒﺖ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ .‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Print‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. File‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ‪ Options‬ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻂ ﰱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻂ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ As laid out on screen‬ﻟﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﻰ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ ﰱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Only the selected frame‬ﻟﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻓﻘﻂ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ All Frames individually‬ﻟﺘﺘﻢ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪﻯ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Print‬ﻟﺘﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫06‬
  61. 61. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫16‬
  62. 62. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻭﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫26‬
  63. 63. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲞﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ.‬ ‫36‬
  64. 64. ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫‪user@domain.com‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﲑ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "‪ "user‬ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ، ﻭﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺭﻣﺰ @ ﺑﲔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ‪. Domain‬‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻰ "‪ "Domain‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺭﻣﺰ @ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﻄﺔ ).( .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻰ ﻟﻸﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻫﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ .‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ‬ ‫"‪".com‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫)‪Top Level Domain (TLD‬‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻰ ﰱ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻻ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪. .info ، .org ، .net‬‬ ‫46‬
  65. 65. ‫ﻤﺯﺍﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ :‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ : ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻮﺭﻯ ﻷﻯ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ : ﺗﻨﺨﻔﺾ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻛﺜﲑﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻯ ﻭﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻵﺧﺮ ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻫﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﻠﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﺮﻗﻪ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ : ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ، ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻼ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ .‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻜﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ : ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻓﻮﺭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻛﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﺒﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎ ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﰱ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺘﻠﻢ ، ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻼﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫56‬
  66. 66. ‫ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺇﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ :‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺻﻐﲑ ﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ‪ Subject‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ،‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﻜﻰ ﳛﺼﻞ ﺍﳌﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﻤﺎ ﲢﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻔﺘﺤﻬﺎ ، ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ ﺃﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ .‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﳐﺘﺼﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻯ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﳝﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ .‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﺍﻹﻤﻼﺌﻰ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺗﺪﻗﻴﻖ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﳍﺎ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﳏﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺧﻄﺎﺀ ﺇﻣﻼﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﻌﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻄﺒﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻟﺪﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﻭﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺷﺨﺺ ، ﻭﺇﺭﺳﺎﳍﺎ ﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﺮﺧﻴﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ، ﻭﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ‪ Confidential‬ﰱ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻴﻊ ﺳﺮﻳﺔ .‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻐﺘﺎﻅ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺣﺼﻮﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﻓﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ.‬ ‫66‬
  67. 67. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻋﺠﺔ ‪SPAM‬‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﺑﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ‬ ‫‪Spam‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺰﻋﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺋﻰ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ ﻗﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ، ﻭﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ، ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﻟﻜﻰ ﺗﺮﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﻭﻳﺞ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺭﲟﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ، ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳝﺘﻠﺊ ‪‬ﺎ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻧﺎ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ .‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺇﺟﺒﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫‪Popup Windows‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻋﺪﳝﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﲑ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻓﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺰﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺗﺼﻔﺢ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ .‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺣﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﳊﺠﺐ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻓﺰﺓ ، ﻭﳌﻨﻊ ﻭﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﺰﻋﺠﺔ .‬ ‫76‬
  68. 68. ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﺹ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻳﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﲑﻭﺳﺎﺕ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﻭﺗﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﲟﺠﺮﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﻬﺎ .‬ ‫86‬
  69. 69. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﺩ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺭﻓﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺮﺳﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺍ ﻓﻼ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻷﻯ ﺷﺨﺺ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﺤﺎﻝ ﺻﻔﺘﻪ .‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻳﺔ ﻣﺸﻔﺮﺓ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺰﻳﻴﻔﻬﺎ .‬ ‫96‬
  70. 70. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫07‬
  71. 71. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻪ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫17‬
  72. 72. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫27‬
  73. 73. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻭﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Start‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ‪. Programs‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪ Microsoft Outlook‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺘﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ﻧﻘﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺎ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻡ ‪ Exit‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪ ، File‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Close‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫37‬
  74. 74. ‫ﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫‪Outlook‬‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻢ ﻫﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ .‬ ‫47‬
  75. 75. ‫ﻟﻭﺡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻭﻫﻮ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳎﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺺ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻋﻴﺪ ،‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﰱ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫57‬
  76. 76. ‫ﺸﺭﻴﻁ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﰱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ، ﻭﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪ ﺍﶈﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ .‬ ‫67‬
  77. 77. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻭﺗﻠﻮﻙ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﱪ ﺇﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ، ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﳎﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ‪. Mail‬‬ ‫77‬
  78. 78. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﳎﻠﺪ‬ ‫‪Inbox‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﻟﻮﺡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫‪Mail‬‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﳎﻠﺪ‬ ‫‪. Mailbox‬‬ ‫87‬
  79. 79. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻘﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻮﺿﺢ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﺤﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱃ :‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﱂ ﺗﺘﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻣﺮﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﲤﺖ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻭﺻﻮﳍﺎ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ‪. Task‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ .‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻗﺪ ﰎ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﰱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻠﻬﺎ .‬ ‫97‬
  80. 80. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺭﺴﺎﺌل ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﺘﺢ ﳎﻠﺪ ‪ ، Inbox‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Send/Receive‬ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ .‬ ‫08‬
  81. 81. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ، ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﰱ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﰱ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ، ﻭﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰱ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻰ :‬ ‫‪ From‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﱏ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ .‬ ‫‪ To‬ﻳﻌﺮﺽ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ ﺍ

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