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Modular building – a resident-centric and multiform housing construction model?

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Presentation given in 5th Annual Symposium of Architectural Research: Architecture and resilience. (August 28-30, 2013 in Tampere, Finland)

Modular building – a resident-centric and multiform housing construction model?

The premise of this study is a hypothesis of modular construction that enables the development of resident-centric and multiform residential buildings and apartments. The study is related to research projects where the possibilities inherent in modular multi-storey construction are clarified. These possibilities enable the adding of versatility to the current residential construction typology.

The development potential of modular construction lies in the possibility it presents to shorten construction time and increase quality. According to popular misconception, modular construction is said to impose limitations on architectural design, leading to monotonous or 'traditional-only' residential buildings. Another alleged challenge to modular construction is the belief that it can poorly address the specifications of commissioning parties or users. The study examines the potential included in the industrial serial production of modules. Serial-customized modules may be used to create diverse apartments on the smaller scale and varying building types according to the surrounding environment on the larger scale.

The subject is approached by means of theoretical study and established architectural design. The aspects of resident-centric and multiform residential construction are handled for example from the viewpoint of apartments that are flexible in space arrangement and size. Different combinations of modules, terracing and the crossing of openings with modules enable rarely used mass solutions and apartment-specific outdoor areas in multi-story construction. Also, a porous relationship between private, semi-public and public spaces are examined on both building and city scales. Achieving highlighted goals is a prerequisite to modular construction's ability to meet the challenges of sustainable construction at ecological, economic, and social levels.

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Modular building – a resident-centric and multiform housing construction model?

  1. 1. PROJECT MANAGER SINI KOTILAINEN sini.kotilainen(at)tut.fi MODULARBUILDING A RESIDENT-CENTRIC AND MULTIFORM HOUSING CONSTRUCTION MODEL ?
  2. 2. CONCEL L S NEAPO OY ARCHITECTS HEDMAN & MATOMÄKI OY RAMBOLL FINLAND OY SUUNNITTELULINJA FINLAND OY RESPONSABLE LEADER: PROFESSOR MARKKU HEDMAN RESEARCHER, PROJECT MANAGER: SINI KOTILAINEN TUT/ DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MODULAR BUILDINGSTEEL CORE PANEL STRUCTURE:
  3. 3. THE STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE, UK TECNALIA, SPAIN HTA ARCHITECTS, UK NEAPO OY AST, SPAIN CONCEL L SMOD CONS TUT/ DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MODULAR BUILDINGSTEEL CORE PANEL STRUCTURE: RESPONSABLE LEADER: PROFESSOR MARKKU HEDMAN RESEARCHER, PROJECT MANAGER: SINI KOTILAINEN
  4. 4. MOD CONSMODULAKEA LAKEA OY MODULAR BUILDING CONCEL L S CLT WOOD STRUCTURE: RESPONSABLE LEADER: PROFESSOR MARKKU HEDMAN RESEARCHER, PROJECT MANAGER: SINI KOTILAINEN
  5. 5. MODULARBUILDING A RESIDENT-CENTRIC AND MULTIFORM HOUSING CONSTRUCTION MODEL ?
  6. 6. IN COUNTRIES WHERE ON-SITE BUILDING IS MORE COMMON, EVEN ELEMENT-BASED BUILDING IS SOMETIMES CALLED ”MODULAR CONSTRUCTION” NAMING IS INTERNATIONALLY VARIANT VOLUMETRIC MODULES MODULAR BUILDING
  7. 7. PICTURE: NEAPO Oy NOWADAYS, CONSTRUCTION WORK IS USUALLY BASED ON JOINING TOGETHER PRE-MANUFACTURED COMPONENTS
  8. 8. PICTURE: NEAPO Oy MODULAR BUILDING TAKES THE PRE-PREPARATION LEVEL FURTHER
  9. 9. PICTURE: NEAPO Oy ANDMAKESITPOSSIBLETOJOINTOGETHERENTIREREADY-MADE APARTMENTSOR PARTS OF APARTMENTS ON THE BUILDIG SITE
  10. 10. THEREVIEWSSHOWEVIDENCEOFDRIVERSTOWARDSANDAGAINSTMODULARBUILDING SUSTAINABILITY?
  11. 11. BUT WHAT ABOUT THE RESIDENTS?
  12. 12. RANNISTO (2013) TUT/ DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING INTERVIEW RESEARCH THELIMITEDPOSSIBILITIESANDTHEMONOTONYOFARCHITECTURAL DESIGNISSEENASTHEONEWEAKNESSOFMODULARCONSTRUCTION
  13. 13. WESHOULDALREADYDURINGTHEEARLYPHASEOFMODULARBUILDING CONSIDERHOWTHEPOSSIBILITIESOFMODULARBUILDINGCANBEUSEDTO MEETTHENEEDSOFRESIDENTSANDFUTUREPROSPECTSOFHOUSING
  14. 14. 8.0 m Room 13.0 m Room THE HYPOTHESIS IS MODULAR CONSTRUCTION THAT ENABLES THE CONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENT-CENTRIC AND MULTIFORM MULTI-STOREY BUILDING
  15. 15. PHASE 1METHOD: LITERATURE REVIEW A THE ADVANTAGES, CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES OF MODULAR CONSTRUCTION THE CONCEPTS OF MODULARITY AND MODULE FROM A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE CONNECTING MODULARITY TO THE CONTEXT OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION
  16. 16. PHASE 1METHOD: LITERATURE REVIEW AN ANALYSIS FOCUSING ON THE LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF DWELLING EXPLORING THE MEGA-TRENDS THAT WILL CHANGE THE FINNISH HOUSING REVIEW OF CHANGES IN, AND THE FUTURE OF, HOUSING B
  17. 17. PHASE 2 INVESTIGATIONS USING ONE EXAMPLE MODULAR SYSTEM METHOD:”RESEARCH BY DESIGN” HOW MODULAR BUILDING CAN MEET THE FUTURE NEEDS OF HOUSING? ( (
  18. 18. K PH APUM O D UULI M H W C S VH K K TPK ALK K PH K PH TPK E ALK E SIV UASUNTO/ E W C K H H S E APUM O D UULI 2 x APUM O D UULI LARGEPRODUCTIONOFSIMILARSIZEDMODULESCANPOSSIBLYCREATECOST SAVINGSFOREXAMPLE INDIVERSEHOUSINGDEVELOPMENT EXAMPLE MODULAR SYSTEM
  19. 19. OPENINGS ENTRANCE 54,3 m2 SERVICED PART AREA BUILDING SERVICES IN STAIRWELL SERIAL PRODUCTION - SERIAL CUSTOMIZATION SERIALPRODUCTIONCANALSOBEIMPLEMENTEDASSERIALCUSTOMIZATION: SOMEPROPERTIESSTAYTHESAME...
  20. 20. O H K M H K PH E O H K .SA A REK E K M H S K PH S T PKM H E K PHV H/ VAR. M H K PH O H K M H K PH E E K ES V H/ VAR. K PH E M H O H O H ALK. K PH E K AUKOTUS MÄÄRITELTY SISÄÄNTULOALUE 54,3 m2 ... BUTSOMEOFTHEPROPERTIESDIFFERFROMONEMODULETOTHENEXT
  21. 21. STEEL CORE PANELS STEEL CORE PANEL MODULES MODULAR BUILDING MODULARSYSTEMWASGENERATEDINCONCELLS-PROJECTFORSTEEL COREPANELMODULESANDFORFINNISHRESIDENTIALMARKET
  22. 22. MODULAR SYSTEM4,5 m x 6,5 m 26,3 m2
  23. 23. 4,5 m x 8,275 m 36,9 m2 MODULAR SYSTEM
  24. 24. 6,5 m x 6,5 m 38,8 m2 MODULAR SYSTEM
  25. 25. 6,5 m x 9 m 54,3 m2 MODULAR SYSTEM
  26. 26. APUMODUULI AM AM inner width 1500 mm MODULAR SYSTEM
  27. 27. CHALLENGE OF CHANGING LIFESTYLES, DAILY MOBILITY, THE SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS, FAMILYS, POPULATION STRUCTURE, TIME MANAGEMENT, TYPES OF LIVING... MANYCHANGESINOURSOCIETYHIGHLIGHTSTHEIMPORTANCEOF FLEXIBLE APARTMENTSANDTHEADAPTABILITYOFSPACES
  28. 28. FLEXIBILITY AND INDIVIDUALIZATION OF THE APARTMENTS TECHNICAL CONVERTIBILITY MODIFIABILITY MULTIPURPOSE SPACES “NEUTRAL ROOMS” LOFT SOLUTIONS: LARGER HEIGHT OF A MODULE WHAT WAS INVESTIGATED?
  29. 29. INFILLSUPPORT (BASE BUILDING) URBAN TISSUE CITY STRUCTURE OPENBUILDINGAIMSTHATRESIDENTSCANDETERMINEANDMODIFYTHEIROWN APARTMENTWITHOUTAFFECTINGTHEBIGGERSCALE,THEFRAMEOFTHEBUILDING
  30. 30. S V H/ VAR. K PH E Y HDE N A V OIMEN TILAN RATKAISU S V H/ VAR. K PH E ETÄTY Ö TSTO. SPATIAL ARCHETYPE: DIVISIBLE SPACE ASTHEMODULESARESELF-SUPPORTING, NONEEDFORLOAD-BEARING PARTITIONWALLSINSIDEMODULES-RESIDENTCANBELEFTINCHARGE
  31. 31. INSPIRATION Töölöläisasunnon konsepti Arkkitehtuuri- ja muotoilutoimisto Talli SPATIAL ARCHETYPE: THE SPACE STRUCTURE BASED ON ROOM CELLS FAMILYAPARTMENTSUSUALLYHAVESTIFFMODULEFRAMESASPARTITION WALLSWITHINTHEM-RESIDENTSCANNOTCHANGETHEMODULEFRAMES
  32. 32. 5m T PK EK PH PA RV IMA HDOL L ISUUS ALK./ VAR säilytys- kalusteet INCREASING THE HEIGHT OF A ROOM WOULD ALLOW MANY FLEXIBLE AND MULTI USABLE SPACE SOLUTIONS IN APARTMENTS
  33. 33. PA RV IMA HDOL L ISUUS O H K PH E K 2 MH/ M H PA RV IMA HDOL L ISUUS 5m INCREASING THE HEIGHT OF A ROOM WOULD ALLOW MANY FLEXIBLE AND MULTI USABLE SPACE SOLUTIONS IN APARTMENTS
  34. 34. Vainio ym. 2012, 22. 1960 0 500 000 1 000 000 1 500 000 2 000 000 2 500 000 3 000 000 1980 20001970 1990 2010 20251965 1985 2005 20201975 1995 2015 2030 LIVING ALONE 2 ADULT FAMILIES FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN IN FUTURE, HOUSING STOCK WILL CONTINUE TO CHANGE LARGELY VIA THE DIFFERENTIATING HOUSEHOLD-DWELLING UNITS
  35. 35. WHAT WAS INVESTIGATED?
  36. 36. EK PH S K PH M HO H SIV UA S/ M H K E V H V H S K PH M HO H W C K E V H V H/ VAR. M H M H E T PK K PH K PH M H O H K V H/ VAR E +   HM AM AM
  37. 37. Commuters share (%) of employed by municipality 8,4-21,5 21,6-30,2 30,3-40,6 40,7-57,2 57,23-90,0 Employment Statistics 2009 THE REALIZATION OF CONTRADICTING HOUSING WISHES:COMMUTING HAS ITS PROBLEMS IN TERMS OF FINANCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Placement for housing pro duction 2012-2030 < 1 1,0-2,5 2,5-4,5 > 4,5 VTT 2012
  38. 38. FUNCTIONAL POSSIBILITIES? A SENSE OF BELONGING BETWEEN THE PLACE AND THE RESIDENT? THE POSSIBILITY TO PERSONALIZE SPACE? RESTORATIVE ENVIRONMENTS? HOW HOUSING EXTERIORS INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF HOME? USABILITY? TERRITORIES? THE APPEAL OF URBAN LIVING PLAYS A MAJOR PART IN COMPACTNESS OF THE URBAN STRUCTURE AND REDUCING THE EMISSIONS OF TRAFFIC
  39. 39. MODUULI MODUULI THE APARTMENT-SPECIFIC OUTDOOR AREA AS AN ADDED PART OR ZONE DEEP RELIEF-LIKE STRUCTURE: HORIZONTAL AND/OR VERTICAL POCKES OF MODULES TERRACING THE BUILDING MASS COMBINATIONS OF A POCKET BETWEEN MODULES AND YARD STAIRS SHARED TERRACES WHAT WAS INVESTIGATED?
  40. 40. K PH S K PH M H O H M H W C KE V H V H S K PH M H O H M H W C K E V H V H M H M H O H K E K PH K PH T PK E V H K O H M H PA RILLIN EN KRS ? + TE
  41. 41. M H K O H K PH E LIITERI T PK E K PHLIITERI O H E A UL A K M H HM AM AM
  42. 42. HM AM AM M H K O H K PH E LIITERI SIV UA S./ M H E K PHLIITERI O H E A UL A K M H AN APARTMENT-SPECIFIC OUTDOOR AREA CONNECTING THE DIFFERENT WINGS/SIDES OF THE APARTMENT
  43. 43. HM AM AM O H E A UL A K M H M H K PH ELIITERI SIV UA S./ M H M H K O H K PH E LIITERI AN APARTMENT-SPECIFIC OUTDOOR AREA CONNECTING THE DIFFERENT WINGS/SIDES OF THE APARTMENT
  44. 44. K PH E T PK T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH AUKI YLÖS JA ALAS TE TE TE
  45. 45. WHAT WAS INVESTIGATED? INTERESTING OPPORTUNITIES IN URBAN CITY-SCALE
  46. 46. MASS SOLUTIONS FOR MODULAR BUILDING MASS IN A VERTICAL AND HORISONTAL SECTION LARGE OPENINGS UNDERNEATH THE BUILDING MASS VARYING ROOFTOP LEVELS LARGE OPENINGS IN THE BUILDING MASS ATRIUM BUILDINGS, LIGHT SHAFTS COURTYARDS YARDS PARTIALLY SURROUNDED BY THE BUILDING WEAVE -LIKE BLOCKS WHAT WAS INVESTIGATED?
  47. 47. O H K PHK E M H E M H M H K O H E O H K HH/ VAR K PH E K V H M H W C S LIITERI LIITERI LIITERI LIITERI O H K PH K E M H M HM H K HH/ VAR K O H O H K PH K E M H LIITERI LIITERI LIITERI LIITERI K PH K K O H S K E K PH O H S M H K HH/ VAR/ V H K E O H M H K HH/ VAR/ V H O H O H K PHK PH M HM H K PHK PH M HM H saareke K saareke saareke K saareke O H EE E E TE O H K PH K E M H V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH T PK SK PH M H O H M H W C K E K HH/ V H V H S K PHM H O H M H W C K E K HH/ V H V H O H K PH K E M H V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö EK PH T PK TE H E K PH K K K PH O H M H K E K PHE T PK K KT PK E K PH T PK E K PH K PH V H/ VAR M H T PK E
  48. 48. V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH V H/ VAR/ ALK./ T Y Ö E K PH O H E A UL A K W C K PH A UL A E M H M H M H O H K K PH M H S VAR/ V H W C K PH A UL A E M HM H M H O H K K PH M H S VAR/ V H 1- 2 M H S K PH E K O H 1- 2 M H S K PH E K O H 1- 2 M H S K PH E K O H 1- 2 M H K PH E K O H 1- 2 M H S K O H K PH K O H KAHDEN ASUNNON JAKAMA AULA KAHDEN ASUNNON JAKAMA AULA T PK E K PH K PHE T PK O H K M H K PH O H K K PH K K M H O H M H O H E E E E K PH K PH A L K M H TE
  49. 49. K PH E T PK T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH T PK E K PH AUKI YLÖS JA ALAS E T PK K PH K PH E K V H/ K HH SOPPI SOPPI K PHE K PH E K PH EK PHE T ST O T ST O T ST O T ST O K PH K saareke K PH M H M H V H/ VAR V H/ VAR M H M H E E E E K HH K HH K saareke K PH M H V H/ VAR M H E E K HH E T PK K PH E T PK K PH K PH S K PH M H O H M H W C KE V H V H S K PH M H O H M H W C K E V H V H M H M H O H K E K PH K PH T PK E V H K O H M H
  50. 50. TRANSDISCIPLINARY DISCIPLINARY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH CREATIVE PRACTICE Adapted from Dunin-Woyseth and Nilsson 2008. STUDIESMOVESINTHEAREAWHERECREATIVEPRACTICEANDTRANSDISCIPLINARITY OVERLAP:METHODCREATESOPPORTUNITIESANDISABIGCHALLENGE
  51. 51. THERESEARCHRESULTS? “INFORMATION” TO STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING STUDIES AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL POINT OF VIEW IN MODULAR CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
  52. 52. PROJECT MANAGER SINI KOTILAINEN sini.kotilainen(at)tut.fi 040 849 0427 MODULARBUILDING A RESIDENT-CENTRIC AND MULTIFORM HOUSING CONSTRUCTION MODEL ?

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