Dr. Satish Kumar Kotha
(Dental surgeon & Implantologist)
This profession deals with the inspection and
treatment of teeth, gums and other parts of
the oral cavity. A dentist especially takes care
of problems affecting the teeth. Common
procedures are removal, correction and
replacement of decayed, damaged or lost
With an increasing awareness of oral health
the introduction of new fields like….
Dental Implants : A dental implant is an
artificial tooth root that is surgically anchored
into your bone to hold a replacement tooth or
bridge in place.
Periodontics : care of gums and the diseases
that might afflict them
Orthodontics : straightening and aligning
teeth and jaws have all enhanced the scope in
Tooth decay is a common disorder, second only to
the common cold. It usually occurs in children
and young adults but can affect any person. Tooth
decay is a common cause of tooth loss in younger
Bacteria are normally found in your mouth. These
bacteria change foods -- especially sugar and
starch -- into acids. Bacteria, acid, food pieces,
and saliva combine in the mouth to form a sticky
substance called plaque. Plaque sticks to the
teeth. It is most common on the back molars, just
above the gum line on all teeth, and at the edges
Gingivitis ("inflammation of the gum tissue")
is a non-destructive periodontal disease.
It is The most common form of gingivitis, and
the most common form of periodontal disease
overall, is in response to
bacterial biofilms (also called plaque)
adherent to tooth surfaces.
In the absence of treatment, gingivitis may
progress to periodontitis, which is a
destructive form of periodontal disease
A wisdom tooth, is usual known
Wisdom teeth usually appear between the
ages of 16 and 25.
Most adults have four wisdom teeth, but it is
possible to have fewer or more, in which case
the extras are called supernumerary teeth.
Wisdom teeth commonly affect other teeth as
they develop, becoming impacted or "coming
in sideways." They are often extracted when
Root canal, is a sequence of treatment for
the pulp of a tooth which results in the
elimination of infection and protecting the
tooth from future microbial invasion.
This set of procedures is commonly referred
to as a Root canal Treatment(RCT).
Root canals and their
associated pulpchamber are the physical
hollows within a tooth that are naturally
inhabited by nerve tissue, blood vessels and
other cellular entities.
Halitosis, colloquially called bad breath, is
a symptom where a noticeably unpleasant
odor is present on the exhaled breath.
Concern about halitosis is estimated to be the
third most frequent reason for people to
seek dental care, following dental
caries (tooth decay) and periodontal
disease (gum disease),and about 20% of the
general population are reported to suffer from
it to some degree.
The most common cause of bad breath is
the food you eat. Garlic, onions, some kinds
of fish, and diets rich in fat and meat can all
result in halitosis.
When these foods are digested, volatile
substances or chemicals are absorbed into
your bloodstream and are carried to your
lungs where they are exhaled in your breath.
Because there is no flow of saliva during sleep,
putrefaction (decomposition or rotting) of saliva
and debris in the mouth can lead to bad breath in
Smoking , alcohol, dentures, mouth breathing…..
periodontal or gum disease that causes teeth to
become loose, thereby creating bad breath
chronic lung or sinus infections
mouth infections such as thrush (candidiasis)
systemic diseases such as diabetes, liver disease,
or kidney disorders
not brushing or flossing regularly
This treatment corrects the irregularities of
your teeth. Teeth in irregular position lead to
an undesirable appearance, and smile.
To correct such problems, one has to go
through this treatment. Wires and brackets
help to move teeth from their current position
to the correct position.
Orthodontic treatment helps in improving the
oral health condition and facial bone
Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a
chronic, complex, irreversible, highly potent
pre-cancerous condition characterized by
epithelial inflammatory reaction and
progressive fibrosis of the submucosal
As the disease progresses, the jaws become
rigid to the point that the sufferer is unable to
open his mouth. The condition is linked to oral
Having good oral hygiene is important as we use our mouth many
times in our daily life. Most importantly we all would all like to
have clean white teeth and fresh breath.
So how can one maintain good oral hygiene?
Brushing regularly: Brushing removes leftover food particles from
between teeth, thus helping prevent tooth decay. Brush twice a
day and most importantly before you go to sleep.
Good diet: This is most important for healthy gums and teeth.
Foods rich in calcium and iron are good for strength and stability,
and drinking water is to be observed too. Avoid sugary foods and
candy, and junk should be a no-no. Moderate your intake of coffee
and wine, as staining of teeth is likely to occur with too much
consumption of these.
Avoid Tobacco: This is mainly due to smoking,
and apart from its hazardous side effects, tobacco
and tar in the smoke stain the teeth and make
your breath stink. Mouth cancer can also occur
due to the cancerous elements found in smoke.
Floss regularly: Though not common practice to
a lot of people, flossing removes food particles
that may be lodged between teeth. These
particles decay and cause plaque if left
unchecked. Floss daily if you can, and ask your
dentist for what type of floss to use, and in some
cases, how to go about it.
Regular visits to the dentist: This is
important as your dentist can keep progress
of your overall oral health, and advice
appropriately should a particular situation
occur. Visit your dentist for every 6 months.
Replace tooth brushes: Toothbrushes tend
to wear out after some time, and should be
replaced every 2 months. A worn out one is
not effective in cleaning your teeth, and
should be discarded.
Proper brushing takes at least two - three
minutes —To properly brush your teeth, use
short, gentle strokes, paying extra attention to
the gumline, hard-to-reach back teeth and areas
around fillings, crowns or other restoration.
Concentrate on thoroughly cleaning each section
Clean the outer surfaces of your upper teeth, then
your lower teeth
Clean the inner surfaces of your upper teeth, then
your lower teeth
Clean the chewing surfaces
For fresher breath, be sure to brush your tongue,
Tilt the brush at a 45°
angle against the
gumline and sweep or
roll the brush away
from the gumline.
Gently brush the
outside, inside and
chewing surface of
each tooth using short
Gently brush your
tongue to remove
bacteria and freshen
A dental implant is a "root like" device,
usually made of titanium, used to support
restorations that resemble a tooth or group of
teeth to replace missing teeth.
Dental implants will fuse with bone; Dental
implants can be used to support a number of
dental prostheses, including crowns,implant-
supported bridges or dentures.They can also
be used as anchorage for orthodontic tooth