Success in Afghanistan


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  • Success in Afghanistan

    1. 1. SUCCESS IN AFGHANISTAN: The Untold Story Prof. William E. Kosar Afghanistan Economic Governance & Private Sector Strengthening
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES اهداف <ul><li>Country Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Law </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Prospects </li></ul>
    3. 4. Country Facts <ul><li>One of the world’s most impoverished countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP has doubled since overthrow of Taliban </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slowly recovering from decades of war, oppression & more recently, a devastating drought. </li></ul><ul><li>Landlocked country in Central Asia about the size of Manitoba </li></ul><ul><li>Population of approximately 30 million people; slightly less than Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Several different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>2 official languages—Dari & Pashtu—most bilingual </li></ul>
    4. 5. Constitution <ul><li>No law should be &quot;contrary to Islam” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shari 'a is the default law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State is obliged to create a prosperous & progressive society based on social justice, protection of human dignity, protection of human rights, realization of democracy & to ensure national unity & equality among all ethnic groups & tribes </li></ul><ul><li>State shall abide by the UN Charter, international treaties, international conventions that Afghanistan signed & the Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul>
    5. 6. Structure of Government <ul><li>3 Branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive—President Hamid Karzai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(elected 7.12.2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. National Assembly (elected 19.12.2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wolesi Jirga (Lower House) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meshrano Jirga (Upper House) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Judiciary—Supreme Court—9 Judges </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Parliamentary Groups <ul><li>MPs can establish themselves as groups according to shared opinions & affinities </li></ul><ul><li>Need a minimum of 21 MPs to form group </li></ul><ul><li>Can only belong to 1 group </li></ul><ul><li>Nascent political parties? </li></ul><ul><li>The concept is based on the European practice of allowing many small parties in legislatures to come together to give some order to proceedings </li></ul>
    7. 8. Parliamentary Groups <ul><li>Purpose is to facilitate efficient parliamentary operation </li></ul><ul><li>requiring them to have charters providing for democratic internal functioning </li></ul><ul><li>building links between the groups of the 2 houses </li></ul><ul><li>aid their further transformation into political parties by establishing offices outside parliament </li></ul>
    8. 9. Parliamentary Groups <ul><li>No group may be formed for the purpose of representing local, professional, linguistic or private interests, or for reasons of religious sectarianism or tribalism </li></ul><ul><li>A female member who had been thinking of forming an all-women’s parliamentary group feared that this provision & similar constitutional restrictions would not allow it </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot advocate violence or racial superiority </li></ul><ul><li>Should be representation of shared “interests” </li></ul>
    9. 10. Key Elements of Rule of Law <ul><li>Procedural regularity (due process) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy of law </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility of legal institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive fairness of law </li></ul>
    10. 11. Definition of Rule of Law <ul><li>Lots of academic disagreement but certain concepts universally accepted: </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Law Governs The Government </li></ul><ul><li>Law Must Be Fairly & Consistently Applied </li></ul><ul><li>Law Is Transparent & Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Application Of The Law Is Efficient & Timely (Due Process) </li></ul><ul><li>Property Rights Are Protected </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Are Protected </li></ul><ul><li>The Law Is Capable Of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Judiciary </li></ul>
    11. 12. Challenges <ul><li>Numerous challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>security sector reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reducing narcotics production & trafficking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promoting human rights & gender equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are mutually reinforcing & must be addressed simultaneously </li></ul>
    12. 13. Challenges <ul><li>Public awareness in the provinces on the rights of citizens & obligations of Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television & radio ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative strengthening to WJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building in line ministries—MOJ, AGO, MOF, MOWA, MRRD, MoCI, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal aid to vulnerable groups </li></ul>
    13. 14. Current Security Situation <ul><li>Security in Kabul & rest of country deteriorating </li></ul><ul><li>BBIED on rise—about 4/wk in Kabul last fall </li></ul><ul><li>More likely with “Spring Offensive” </li></ul><ul><li>Military convoys </li></ul><ul><li>Curfew: 2300—0530 </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on movement for internationals </li></ul><ul><li>Certain areas “off limits ” </li></ul>
    15. 17. Prospects <ul><li>Privatization process just getting underway </li></ul><ul><li>Reform of tax laws, Criminal & Civil Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Reform of commercial laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to encouraging both domestic & int’l investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 key laws will be passed by Afghan New Years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 more by September 1, 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taqnin stubborn—tied to $100M loan from ADB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal reforms continue </li></ul>
    16. 20. 10 CDCs in District 7 grouping 250 houses each Community improvement works in informal settlements
    17. 21. Men and Women’s Shuras for CDC 1, District 7 20-30 selected members deliberating on property issues
    18. 24. What is Canada doing that is not widely reported? <ul><li>There already is a “Marshall Plan” for Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>CIDA—over $1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>IDLO--CIDA </li></ul><ul><li>SAT—involved with ANDS & MRRD </li></ul><ul><li>PRT </li></ul><ul><li>Other Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>Afghan-Canadians </li></ul><ul><li>We are winning “Hearts & Minds” </li></ul>
    19. 25. What do I do in Kabul? <ul><li>Legal Advisor to Da Afghanistan Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for drafting 3 new financial laws: </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiable Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Secured Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Mortgages </li></ul>
    20. 26. Prospects <ul><li>Approximately 75% of citizens report their sense of personal security has remained the same or improved </li></ul><ul><li>The security problems, it appears, are localized mostly along the Pakistan border, not general </li></ul><ul><li>No one wants the return of the Taliban </li></ul>
    21. 33. خلاصه Summary <ul><li>Security situation deteriorating rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms continue </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity is continuing but slowly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Afghans are stubborn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citizens don’t want return of Taliban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taliban infiltrating Kabul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic issues? </li></ul></ul>
    22. 34. Faces of Kabul
    23. 35. اگر کدام سئوالی داشته باشید؟ Questions?