2006 - 11th Grade

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Art Apprecation. College Course,

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2006 - 11th Grade

  1. 1. Christianity and the Formation of Europe Presentation by: Courtney Arnt
  2. 2. • Christianity was one of the many religions in the late Roman Empire. • It became one of the most popular religion of this time. • It was also the most well organized religion of this time.
  3. 3. • Religion was tolerated based on the fact that it brought it an increasing number of wealthy and influential people. • Christians were often persecuted by mobs without reason. • Many people saw Churches as “the dwelling places for the gods.”
  4. 4. Architecture of the Churches <ul><li>• In these buildings there usually was a long, rectangular hallway, these were called basilicas . </li></ul><ul><li>• An apse is the curved section of the building. Not all buildings included this. </li></ul><ul><li>• The nave is the upward center opening of the building, used to let light shine through. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>• The upward extension is called the elerestory. </li></ul><ul><li>• A transept is an extension in the building to create a lengthwise section, perpendicular to the nave. </li></ul><ul><li>• The arm of the walkway, directly in front of the church that served as an entry porch is call a narthex . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Byzantium <ul><li>• Byzantium was an actual territory ruled from Constantinople varied greatly over the centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>• At first Byzantium was the entire Roman Empire, but by 1453, it was a much reduced area. </li></ul><ul><li>• Byzantium was Christian. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hagia Sophia <ul><li>• This was a great masterpiece from the early Byzantine. </li></ul><ul><li>• Favored the East Central plan. (Style of the architecture.) </li></ul><ul><li>• This is symbolical for “from earth, into the vault of Heaven.” </li></ul><ul><li>• This work was mostly square with a central dome. </li></ul>
  8. 8. San Vitale <ul><li>• This is decorated in glittering mosiacs. </li></ul><ul><li>• This includes portrayals of the Emperor Justinian and the Empress Theodora. </li></ul><ul><li>• Mosiacs continued as a favored Byzantine technique. </li></ul><ul><li>• Resulted in masterpieces such as the interior of Santa Maria la Nova. </li></ul><ul><li>• Pantokrator is greek for “Ruler of all.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>• Byzantine artists moved away from the naturalism and realism of classical Greece and Rome, to a more flattened, abstract style. </li></ul><ul><li>• Byzantine artists wanted to show “complex religious doctrines” and beliefs instead of scenes from everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>• One example of this is in “Icon with the Cruxifiction” it’s said that they wanted to portray Jesus as merely sleeping on the cross, since to many, he never really died. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Middle Ages <ul><li>• The “Middle Ages” was the name historians gave to the time period in Europe between the defeat of the last Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>• The Middle Ages took place in the 15 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>• To historians this was a time of darkness and ignorance.” </li></ul><ul><li>• Today the Middle Ages are seen as complex and fascinating. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Early Middle Ages <ul><li>• Kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages included many descendants of migratory tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>• Romans called them “barbarians.” </li></ul><ul><li>• It was these “barbarians” that caused the ultimate collapse in the empire near the end of the 15 th century . </li></ul><ul><li>• By year 600 migrations were over. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sutton Hoo <ul><li>• Sutton Hoo was an island of Britain, North of London. </li></ul><ul><li>• An grave of and unknown 7 th century king was found here. </li></ul><ul><li>• Objects found in the burial were gold and enamel, which were typical of “animal style prevalent.” </li></ul><ul><li>• Animal style images were also accompanied by interlace in most cases. </li></ul><ul><li>• Interlace were patterns formed by ribbons and bands interwoven. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Christian Scripture <ul><li>• Christian Scripture were one of the most important forms of art during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>• Each copy of Scripture had to be hand written since the printing press was not yet invented. </li></ul><ul><li>• The only literate part of the population during this time were Monks, who copied texts and illuminated them as well. </li></ul><ul><li>• Illuminating is not only writing out the text, but illustrating is and decorating it as well </li></ul>
  14. 14. Carolingian <ul><li>• Carolingian was an art form that began to take root during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>• This art form was named after the Emperor Charlemagne, who controlled Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>• Charlemagne was called “holy” for being a Christian king. </li></ul><ul><li>• He has his own place of worship built after the architecture of the San Vitale. </li></ul><ul><li>• He was crowned by the Pope instead of the people </li></ul>

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