aRea NAVigation ANP?RNAV? What is RNAV? P-RNAV? (aRea NAVigation) B-RB-RNAV? RNP? PBN?
RNAV ICAO definition:• Area Navigation is a method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these.
Conventional navigation:Aircraft fly over NAVAIDS such as NDBs and VORs
aRea NAVigation (RNAV): Aircraft fly desired path
• The aircraft position is calculated by the RNAV system using inputs from one or more of the following: e.g. DME/DME (Distance Measuring Equipment), VOR/DME, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) or an aircraft on-board autonomous navigational system e.g. IRS/INS (Inertial Reference System/Inertial Navigation System).
RNAV applications:Basic-RNAV: (RNP 5) Mandatory as the primary means of navigation in all ECAC en-route airspacePrecision-RNAV: (RNP 1) Is the navigation specification that is required for RNAV procedures in Terminal Airspace within ECAC.RNAV Approach: (RNP <0.3) (Not approved for ACT Airlines) the navigation specification for RNAV approach procedures using GNSS in ECAC
What is B-RNAV?• Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) is the forerunner of the RNAV programme. It was introduced to enable capacity gains to be achieved through modifications to the en- route structure. It requires aircraft conformance to a track-keeping accuracy of ± 5NM for at least 95% of flight time (RNP 5) to ensure that the capacity gains are achieved whilst meeting the required safety targets.• B-RNAV can be achieved using inputs from VOR/DME, DME/DME or GPS.• B-RNAV requirements became mandatory in European airspace on 23 April 1998 on the entire ATS route network above FL 95.
What does B-RNAV offer?Improved management in the flow of trafficMore efficient use of available airspaceReduction in flight distances resulting in fuel savingsReduction in the number of ground navigation facilities.
Where has B-RNAV been implemented? B-RNAV has been implemented throughout the entire ATS Route Network to all IFR flights. In many cases B-RNAV has also been implemented on certain SIDs and STARs provided that the B- RNAV portion of the route is above MSA/Minimum Radar Vectoring Altitude and based on an convential Nav aids fix.
What happens after B-RNAV implementation?• The route network is undergoing a series of modifications to increase the flow of air traffic and to reduce bottlenecks.• As a result of this, there is a growing pressure to make use of RNAV capabilities in other phases of flight.• B-RNAV is not suitable for many aspects of departure, arrival or approach and the JAA, together with EUROCONTROL and the member States, has been working hard to develop additional standards that will enable P-RNAV-based departures, arrivals and approaches.
What is Precision-RNAV? (P-RNAV)P-RNAV is the aircraft and operator approval requirementthat is introduced for RNAV procedures in Terminal Airspace belowMSA and in the future for the European en-route network
What is Precision-RNAV? (P-RNAV)• P-RNAV approval includes navigation data integrity requirements and flight crew procedures.• P-RNAV defines European RNAV operations which satisfy a required track-keeping accuracy of ±1 NM for at least 95% of the flight time (RNP 1).
What does P-RNAV offer?• P-RNAV (RNP-1) offers the ability to use RNAV functionality in all phases of flight in Terminal Airspace (below MSA) except final approach and missed approach. In the future it will replace the B- RNAV (RNP-5) on the European en-route network.• Increased capacity; Shorter, more direct routes with simple connections to the en-route structure.• By-pass densely populated areas, SIDs/STARs can be designed to accommodate different environmental requirements for night and day operations (avoiding noise sensitive areas)• Reducing the need for radar vectors and hence the workload for both the pilot and the controller. Fewer radar vectors also means less uncertainty on the flight deck with regard to the anticipated tactical route and the distance to go.
These actual traffic plots at a major airport demonstrate theefficiencies that can be realized when a RNAV design is implemented.Track miles can be significantly reduced through reducedvectoring, saving time, fuel, and emissions. Additionally, convectiveweather, restricted airspace, and noise-sensitive areas can be avoidedusing either designed procedures or dynamic rerouting
P-RNAV Operator approval requirementsAirworthiness requirements Equipment Manufacturer statement Operational approval by the State of Registry. The navigation database should be obtained from an approved supplier. Operators must have a method in place to assure data integrity for P-RNAV procedures Operator should check to ensure the True to Magnetic conversion table, held in FMS is in date. Out of date conversion tables may give inaccurate headings leading to unacceptable track errors (NDB app in heading mode)
P-RNAV Operational requirementsSOPs for normal and non RNAV contingenciesProcedure available for incident reportingCrew trainingMEL account for P-RNAV operations
What is Required Navigation Performance (RNP)? RNP definition: RNP is an RNAV operation with on-boardnavigation containment, Monitoring and Alerting (EICAS: UNABLE RNP) A critical component of RNP is : – the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation performance (ANP), and – to identify for the pilot whether the operational requirement is or is not being met during an operation
What is PBN?• Performance Based Navigation (American combination of RNAV and RNP specifications)
Where and How do I find RNP/ANP?• The CDU is used for flight plan and procedure selection and to display the RNP for the active route segment and the current navigation performance ( ANP). (POS REF page 2)
• RNP default values are displayed for diffrent phases of flight if GPS is available – App 0.3NM – Terminal area 0.5NM – Takeoff 1NM – En-route 4NM – Ocean 12NM• Annunciation to the flight crew occurs when the ANP exceeds RNP.• On the 747-400, an EICAS message UNABLE RNP is displayed.
FOOD FOR THOUGHT: What would you do in case of an UNABLE RNP EICAS message during:• P-RNAV STAR/SID procedure?• You could ask for Radar Vectors and inform ATC, check terrain on ND because you could be below MSA !• Non-ILS VNAV/LNAV approach (VOR)?• Verify position with raw data and you could continue on raw data to the minimums because it has no RNP alerting requirement (no time for QRH)
QRH UNABLE RNP Please note that the Non-ILS VNAV/LNAV approach has no RNP alerting requirement
Non-ILS Instrument approaches General according to the B744 Flight Crew Training Manual page 5-29 to 5-32 VNAV is the preferred method for non ILS approaches Automatic flight is the preferred method of flying non-ILS approaches A manual FMC entry of 0.3 RNP is required if not automatically provided. During LOC-only based approaches applicable raw data must be monitored throughout the approach Other approaches raw data is recommended or not required if RNP/ANP is displayed on the applicable FMC position reference page, (SOP’s may overrule this statement)
How to check raw data on non ILS approaches? (According to the B744 FCTM page 5-29 to 5-32) Checking raw data for correct navigation before commencing the approach may be accomplished by: pushing the POS switch on the EFIS control panel displaying the VOR and/or ADF pointers on the map display
MAP Displays and Raw Data (according to the B744 FCTM page 5-29 to 5-32)The map mode should be used to the maximum extentpracticable.The map display provides a plan view of theapproach, including final approach and missed approachrouting.The map increases crew awareness of progress and positionduring the approach.The map is particularly useful when the inbound course doesnot align with runway centerline and allows the pilot toclearly determine the type of alignment maneuver required.The map can be used to integrate weather radarreturns, terrain or Traffic Information within the approach
Example MAP displays and raw data9 Oct 2000 Flight Instrumets Part 3 ND V 29
Flying P-RNAV general Approval must be obtained, see AOC (RNP 1) Crew must be trained and qualified FMC navigation data base must be current Aircraft position has been entered correctly Compare FMC flightplan data with the charts particulary below MSA Waypoint sequence, distance and track correct identification of fly-by or fly-over waypoint ATC “Direct To” clearance is Crew Terrain responsibility Creation of new waypoints in the P-RNAV system is prohibited
Fly-by versus Fly-over waypointHow do you recognise the difference between Fly-by and Fly-overwaypoint on the map?