Business letters.


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Business letters.

  1. 1. QIS College OF Engineering and technology 2014 Business letters. 2nd –Mid mini project K. Chandra Sekher 1st –M.B.A-13491E0037
  2. 2. A Study on Business letters Mini Project Report in Managerial Communications Submitted to JNTU, Kakinada in Partial Fulfilment for the Award of the Degree of “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” Submitted By Koppula. Chandra sekher (Reg. No. 13491E0037). DEPARTMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution and Accredited by NBA (Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada and Approved by AICTE) Vengamukkapalem, Pondur Road ONGOLE –523 272 . FEB-2013
  3. 3. INDEX: S. No Contents Page No’s 01 Abstract 03 02 Key wards 03 03 Introduction 04 04 Definition 04 05 Need for the study 04 06 Scope of the study 04 07 Methodology 04 08 Objectives 05 09 Review of literature 05 10 Essentials of an effective business letters 06 11 General principles of letter writing 07,08,09,10 12 General components/elements of letter writing 11,12 13 Modules of business letter 13,14 Conclusion 15 13 References
  4. 4. Business letters Abstract: Purpose – Shareholders, investors and potential employees, all attach special importance to understanding a company through its annual report, the status of which has evolved over the years: from providing information for the adepts of competitive intelligence, it now provides information available to all stakeholders in the company. But one aspect has not changed: the keynote message of the president that prefaces the annual report. The present article indicates current practice in the matter in the case. Design/methodology/approach – We have made these companies the subject of a systematic and detailed computer-assisted analysis. Findings – Among the main conclusions to be noted are: a varied range of rhetorical cosmetics by way of embellishment, and attitudes either of prudence or optimism on the part of company heads; a type of discourse open to several levels of interpretation: from a literal level to a level allowing the reader to interpret the wider spirit and intention of the document . Originality/value – In view of the time devoted to the preparation and fine-tuning of a presidential letter, we feel justified in writing a modest letter of recommendations for the attention of the president at the end of this contribution. Resource:  Key words: formal letters, informal letters, enquiry letters, principles of letter writing,
  5. 5. Introduction: A business letter is usually a letter from one company to another, or between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter depends on the relationship between the parties concerned. Business letters can have many types of contents, for example to request direct information or action from another party, to order supplies from a supplier, to point out a mistake by the letter's recipient, to reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong, or to convey goodwill. A business letter is sometimes useful because it produces a permanent written record, and may be taken more seriously by the recipient than other forms of communication. Definition: . A formal letter is a letter you might write to a person in business or to an organization. It might be a letter asking for information, a letter expressing an opinion, or perhaps a letter of complaint. A formal letter is usually written on business letterhead. Your writing for this type letter should have a formal rather than a casual tone. A personal business letter is written to conduct personal business. This might include thanking someone you know for helping with a charity project. Personal business letters are keyed on plain paper instead of letterhead. Therefore, the writer’s return address must be included in the letter. Since the writer of the letter also prepares the letter, reference initials are not used. The return address is keyed directly beneath the writer’s name in the closing lines. Need for the Study: To become successful in any Endeavour, one should master the skill and art of expressing oneself clearly and precisely through written message. One's excellence in writing skill determines the chances of influencing people, winning friends and gaining business. On the other hand poor writing means failure. Inability to express his intellect and wisdom takes away much of his credit as an intelligent and Wiseman. Scope of the Study: Well written and well executed message nol only helps the other person to understand the purpose of conversation but also enhances the writer's image as well as organs’ image. Methodology: o This data collected from electronic sources collected from the electronic sources i.e., from the Google and the related websites and also Class subject materials. o
  6. 6. o o Objectives:  To know that be complete, letter written in formal language, used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties.  To Evaluate Examine the persons who are more sensitive and profound thinkers can write with greater depth and breadth.  To Study Writing skill requires tremendous practice and persistent efforts to master the art of writing clearly, correctly, concisely and creatively. Review of literature:   General Format Indentation Formats They are used for different purposes; like placing orders, making inquiries’, making credit request, requesting claims and adjustment, to apologize for a wrong or simply to convey goodwill. Even today, they are very useful because it produces a permanent record, they are confidential, formal and delivers persuasive, well-considered messages.Style of letter depends on the relationship between the parties concerned. Purpose and Functions of a Business Letter: (IMPORTANCE) • Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business transactions. They provide convenient and inexpensive means of communi. Without personal contacts, furnish evidences of transactions and help in creating good impression and goodwill. 1. Record and Reference - (permanent record, ready reference substitutes sharpest memory. 2. Evidence of Contracts - (a letter signed is an authentic proof, fully recognized by the courts of law) 3. Public Relations - (built goodwill among clients and creditors, create positive image, friendliness, actas silent ambassadors of the company) 4. Business in Remote - (can reach even very remote places) 5. Propagate the existence of the Organization : • Letters make the people to remember the organization. Forever. Ex: Greeting cards, thanks letters, invitations etc. strengthens the external environment. • To co-ordinate the activities of Large People/Departments/Units: • Letters are efficient means to enter into new markets: Globalization formulated avenues to new and unexplored markets. Types of Letters: 1. Personal letters (friends and relations)
  7. 7. 2. Social letters (the group includes invitations and answers to invitations for lunch, dinner, supper etc. These letters are strictly formal) 3. Official/Business letters: Inquiry - answer to inquiries, orders and their execution, sales letters and circulars, agency letters, complaints-claims and adjustments; collection-settlement of accounts, credits status inquiry references, bank correspondences, insurance correspondence, import and export correspondence, application letters, calling for a post, calling for interviews, appointment letters and termination orders. Essentials of an Effective Business letter: 1. Promptness: Promptness creates good and blasting impression, sometimes, a back reference has to after to different departments or has to get the consent of the higher officers. When it is knows that the reply the letter requires time, the correspondent should atleast lake it a point to acknowledge the letter received and intimate time requires to send a reply. 2. Knowledge of the Subject: The knowledge of the past correspondence, better understanding of letter, the needs and requirements of sender of the letter and the knowledge of the firm's policies can prove valuable aids to the correspondent for d rafting an apt reply. 3. Appropriateness: A letter writer should vary tone arid language of the letter according to the need and the occasion: Psychology of the reader, the use of technical terms, are imp. Unnecessary use of phrases and words must be strictly avoided, simplicity in writing is imp. 4. Accuracy, Completeness and Clearness: Facts, figures and statements, quotations must be very accurately mentioned.Accuracy and completeness together and help in avoiding mistakes.Letters should be accurate, complete and clear, or else it might result in unnecessary exchange of letters leading to delay and create frustration and adverse affects. 5. Courtesy: Courtesy is considerate and sympathetic behaviour, a friendly attitude.Impatience, irritation, criticism and unfriendly tone, a fighting style should be kept out of our letters.
  8. 8. If you don't make a friend, you will atleast avoid making any enemy, if your letter is courteous. 6. Tact: Matters of delay in execution of order, refusing complaint and credit, requesting for early payments or adjustments, always requires tactful handling. 7. Persuasion: It requires making positive suggestions and convince him how and why is to be advantage. Even disagreeable things can be get done with the help of conviction, which is achieved only through art of persuasion. Everyone is primarily interested in himself. Hence, Persuasion requires an appeal to the reader's interests, economy, financial gain, savings, pride of possession, social prestige, self esteem and security etc. 8. Salesmanship: Every outgoing letter is a traveler, it is a salesman. Every letter is a sales letter and it should have the requisite of salesmanship. It is silent but not dum. It helps to make the reputation of the firm. 9. The positive and Pleasant approach: A businessman will have many occasions when he has to refuse, say, no, regret, disagree, complain or say sorry to say this in plain words and a straight forward style is not difficult. • A negative beginning irritates the reader. • A positive approach convinces the reader of the helplessness of the writer or his genuine difficulties etc. 10. Faulty and consciousness 11. The you attitude. 12. Pleasant impression. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LETTER-WRITING: Every business letter-writer has to consider these principles to formulate an effective letter: 1. • • • • Clarity: The purpose is to put across the idea to the reader and not to set a puzzle for it. To be sure of what you mean and then to say it in plain terms. There should be only one possible meaning and this should be clear to be reader. Logical sequence. " crediting unnecessary words/terms. 2. • Simplicity: Achieved by using simple and familiar words
  9. 9. • • Use short sentences, use short paragraphs Prefer the active to passive voice. 3. Brevity: • The writer should not be brief at the cost of clarity and courtesy. • Brevity can be obtained by vvriling unnecessary details and cutting out unnecessary words. 4. Sincerity: • Sincerity of purpose counts a lot in human relations and business dealings. • Frankness and authenticly. • Attn on assumptions and its disclosure. • Refined language plays an important role in business. • The writer should not take shelter behind backneyed expressions that are used indiscriminately. Ex: Assuring you of our best co-operation. Marriage invitation - friends, relatives etc. 5. Courtesy: Ensure courtesy with firmness, reduces negative feelings, make a angry person to a friendly, suppress the short temper of a peson, reduce negative response and brings positive response. 6. Positive Tone: • A letter may sound, cordial, friendly, cold, preemptory (authoritative) or even captious (fault finding) or contentions. • • Attn on reader's point of view. • Polite and definite. • Avoid pompous (outward show) language. • Avoid communication gap. 7. The you Attitude: • Means that the reader is the most important person for the writer. • Letter should an understanding of his problems and difficulties and should be written from his point of view. 8. • • Define the purpose: Every letter has a definite purpose to achieve. Expectation - precise. 9. Language:
  10. 10. • • • Must be simple and direct, avoid long and complex sentences Delete high sounding violability which are not common and also rare Edit unnecessary words without missing its meanings. 10. Standards in Writing: Quality can be improved througha. using quality paper, pen and printers, b. avoiding corrections, overwriting. c. using suitable and attaining format d. neat and attractive messages and folding of the letter e. avoid substandard languages. 11. Informal and friendly attitude: • Latest trends in letter writing is the principle of adoptive informal way of expressing views. • Friendly culture is today's principle of business writing. • Same is applicable between subordinate and superior, sellor and customer. 12. • • • Highlight the essential points: Underline or printed in bold letters. Mention in brief the same message before closing remarks or in the last paragraphs. Repetition - wherever possible. 13. Tactful and sincere: • It is not always easy and simple to write reply in convincing and effective wav. • Ex: information on profits, revenue or expenses. • Intelligent presentation of the information. • Express the fault or problem or facts genuinely, but ensure relations may not get spoiled. 14. Free from mistakes: • Human error to a reasonable extend is accepted. • Spelling mistakes must be avoided, (weak-weak, cheap-cheap weather-whether, laxmi-lakshimi) • Mis-spellings may give wrong meanings Madam - Madum Quean - Queen. • Grammar mistakes • Vague expressions 15. Write a short letter:
  11. 11. • Normally the receiver/sender is a busy executives, he is interested only in the sub/business, but not on the language skills. • If the letter is very long, the receiver pospone reading the letter or reading selective lines or selective paragraphs. 16. Autonomy to the writer: • If sufficient free is given to the writer, he can use his professional skills. • Many times, the stone/typist, is better than the superior in framing and wording a letter. • Reasonable freedom is to be allowed to the actual person in-charge of drafting letter. • A business letter is a formal letter and in several cases, it acts as a legal document. • Different parts of a letter have different, but definite functions to perform. ex: Date, letterhead, signature has different duties to perform. GENERAL COMPONENTS/ELEMENTS (Para) OF A BUSINESS LETTERS The Head-address/Heading or letter Ex. Head: • This is the name and address of the sender. Usually its place is top center to the right of the sheet or paper. • The letter head contains short description of the business, and also includes the telephone numbers, then telex numbers, and the telegraphic address, if any, on the left hand side, below the name and address. • Some letter heads include the addresses of the ITO/Regd. Office/administrative office in detail. • Proper care in printing the letter head (colour size ) Date: • The date should always be written with the name of the month and the number of the date. Ex: wrong 10-03-2002, right 10th March 2002. • In the modern style the stand and are avoided (10th, 2nd) 1st) • Do not write abbreviations for name of month, because it confuses the reader and reader can not grasp the abbreviations quickly. • It is advisable to the writer to write actual data, unless it is essential, like typing letter in advance, a letter should not be ANTE date or POST date. 3. Reference: (Internal reference)
  12. 12. • This is usually written to the left of the paper, in the same line as the date. • It indicates the file number, the dept to which the file has to go, the number of the letter and the year. • Correct ref will help to dispatch to the right persons to take action intime. • Reference facilitates link to previous letters. 4. The inside address: • Consists of the name and address of the person or company to whom, the letter is to be sent. • Address has to be written in as great detail as on the envelops, for it, may sometimes used as the outside address; Ex: in a window envelope. • When writing to a company, M/s should be written only if the name of the company contains a personal name. Ex: Wrong M/s. National Rayon Co.Ltd., Right National Rayon Co.Ltd. • When writing to an individual, both or and esquire should not be written. • The place of the inside address determines the margin of the body of the letter. • While writing inside address, the following points should be noted; Each part of address is to be written in sepaiate line. Name of the town is to be written in capital letters, if necessary underline it, pin is to be mentioned separately. 5. Salutation: • It is greeting to the receiver of the letter. • The commonest forms used are Dear Sir and Dear Madam. • Only Sir or Madam makes the letter very formal. • In Govt, correspondence, only Sir or Madam in preferred. 6. The Caption Line: • Caption line is usually placed below the salutation. • It gives in a nutshell what is contained in the main common of the letter. • The caption line is usually made distinct by placing words: RE; REF; • Sometimes the caption line is heavily underlined and placed before the salutation. 7. The body of a letter: • a. b. c. Most important part and divided into three partsThe opening or the introductory paragraph The main communication to be made, mav be subdivided into paragraphs. The closing paragraphs, which is short and something of a formality.
  13. 13. • A business letter should usually deal with only one topic. Otherwise it becomes difficult to file the letter. • Other steps: a. proper indication for continuation pages, b. avoid giving side headings, c. avoid writing points in the form of a list, d. avoid big paragraphs e. make it as natural as possible. 8. The Complimentary close; • It is a form of saying good-bye. • It comes to the right of the letter below its body. Ex: Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely, Yours truly. •While writing the complimentary close, the Y has to be capital and there should be no aposprophs in the word Yours. 9. The Signature:  A letter should contain signature of the writer.  A letter without a signature is not a letter in the eye or law, because it does not make a person responsible for the contents of the letter. • Signature is a free hand written name with pen on the line or space left for the purpose. • Mr/Mrs is not written before signature. • Can use FASCIMILE signature also. 10.Enclosure: • This word is written to the left side of the paper, and below the signature. It is marked either as one or end. • It indicates that some thing more than letter is attached. • It is very easy for the xeceiver to check the list give under End: with the set of papers he received. 11. Identification initials: • A business letter will be dictated to the Steno, who types it. • To make it convenient, for admn. Reference, both the typist and the dictator of the letter may their initials. • This may be marked at close to left margin below the signature line.
  14. 14. • It becomes easy to trace a mistake if where is any, when the initials are given. 12.Copies to or Copy Notation or Co or carbon copy: • This is a part of the letter which comes in the left hand corner below the word enclosures. • This is normally mentioned as C.C. with the names and addresses of the persons to whom copies of the letters have been sent. 13. PS or Post Script: • PS comes from the latin word-post scriptum, and means what ever has been written afterwards. • The ps is written at the bottom of the page. • No nalutation or complimentary close is required. • Useful to rectify faults. Module of Business letter:
  15. 15. Conclusion: It is concluded that a good business letter and memos are discussed. A good business letter is one which maintains conformity and standards. It is characterized by clear content, a tone of goodwill, and correct form. Whereas Memos is a brief document of a page in length used for day to day exchange of information for internal and inter office communication among units of same Organization. References:  Bhatia, C. , Business Communication, Ane Books India, Ane’s Student Edition, 2008, PP 243 - 350  Locker, K and Kaczmarek, S., Business Communication - Building Critical Skills, Tata McGraw Hill, 3th edition, 2007, PP 128 - 190