QIS College OF Engineering
2nd –Mid mini project
K. Chandra Sekher
A Study on
Mini Project Report in Managerial Communications Submitted to JNTU, Kakinada in
Partial Fulfilment for the Award of the Degree of
“MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION”
Koppula. Chandra sekher
(Reg. No. 13491E0037).
DEPARTMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution and Accredited by NBA
(Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada and Approved by AICTE)
Vengamukkapalem, Pondur Road
ONGOLE –523 272 .
Need for the study
Scope of the study
Review of literature
Essentials of an effective business letters
General principles of letter writing
General components/elements of letter writing
Modules of business letter
Shareholders, investors and potential employees, all attach special importance to
understanding a company through its annual report, the status of which has evolved over the
years: from providing information for the adepts of competitive intelligence, it now
provides information available to all stakeholders in the company. But one aspect has not
changed: the keynote message of the president that prefaces the annual report. The present
article indicates current practice in the matter in the case.
We have made these companies the subject of a systematic and detailed computer-assisted
Among the main conclusions to be noted are: a varied range of rhetorical cosmetics by way
of embellishment, and attitudes either of prudence or optimism on the part of company
heads; a type of discourse open to several levels of interpretation: from a literal level to a
level allowing the reader to interpret the wider spirit and intention of the document .
In view of the time devoted to the preparation and fine-tuning of a presidential letter, we
feel justified in writing a modest letter of recommendations for the attention of the president
at the end of this contribution.
Key words: formal letters, informal letters, enquiry letters, principles of letter writing,
A business letter is usually a letter from one company to another, or between such
organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of
letter depends on the relationship between the parties concerned. Business letters can have
many types of contents, for example to request direct information or action from another
party, to order supplies from a supplier, to point out a mistake by the letter's recipient, to
reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong, or to convey goodwill. A business
letter is sometimes useful because it produces a permanent written record, and may be taken
more seriously by the recipient than other forms of communication.
. A formal letter is a letter you might write to a person in business or to an organization. It
might be a letter asking for information, a letter expressing an opinion, or perhaps a letter of
complaint. A formal letter is usually written on business letterhead. Your writing for this
type letter should have a formal rather than a casual tone.
A personal business letter is written to conduct personal business. This might include
thanking someone you know for helping with a charity project. Personal business letters are
keyed on plain paper instead of letterhead. Therefore, the writer’s return address must be
included in the letter. Since the writer of the letter also prepares the letter, reference initials
are not used. The return address is keyed directly beneath the writer’s name in the closing
Need for the Study:
To become successful in any Endeavour, one should master the skill and art of expressing
oneself clearly and precisely through written message. One's excellence in writing skill
determines the chances of influencing people, winning friends and gaining business. On the
other hand poor writing means failure. Inability to express his intellect and wisdom takes
away much of his credit as an intelligent and Wiseman.
Scope of the Study:
Well written and well executed message nol only helps the other person to understand the
purpose of conversation but also enhances the writer's image as well as organs’ image.
This data collected from electronic sources collected from the electronic sources i.e.,
from the Google and the related websites and also Class subject materials.
To know that be complete, letter written in formal language, used when writing from
one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and
their customers, clients and other external parties.
To Evaluate Examine the persons who are more sensitive and profound thinkers can
write with greater depth and breadth.
To Study Writing skill requires tremendous practice and persistent efforts to master the
art of writing clearly, correctly, concisely and creatively.
Review of literature:
They are used for different purposes; like placing orders, making inquiries’, making credit
request, requesting claims and adjustment, to apologize for a wrong or simply to convey
goodwill. Even today, they are very useful because it produces a permanent record, they
are confidential, formal and delivers persuasive, well-considered messages.Style of letter
depends on the relationship between the parties concerned.
Purpose and Functions of a Business Letter: (IMPORTANCE)
Business letters are highly useful in introducing trade relations and promoting business
They provide convenient and inexpensive means of communi. Without personal contacts,
furnish evidences of transactions and help in creating good impression and goodwill.
1. Record and Reference - (permanent record, ready reference substitutes sharpest memory.
2. Evidence of Contracts - (a letter signed is an authentic proof, fully recognized by the
courts of law)
3. Public Relations - (built goodwill among clients and creditors, create positive image,
friendliness, actas silent ambassadors of the company)
4. Business in Remote - (can reach even very remote places)
5. Propagate the existence of the Organization :
Letters make the people to remember the organization. Forever. Ex: Greeting cards,
thanks letters, invitations etc. strengthens the external environment.
• To co-ordinate the activities of Large People/Departments/Units:
• Letters are efficient means to enter into new markets:
Globalization formulated avenues to new and unexplored markets. Types of Letters:
1. Personal letters (friends and relations)
2. Social letters (the group includes invitations and answers to invitations for lunch, dinner,
supper etc. These letters are strictly formal)
3. Official/Business letters:
Inquiry - answer to inquiries, orders and their execution, sales letters and circulars, agency
letters, complaints-claims and adjustments; collection-settlement of accounts, credits status
inquiry references, bank correspondences, insurance correspondence, import and export
correspondence, application letters, calling for a post, calling for interviews, appointment
letters and termination orders.
Essentials of an Effective Business letter:
Promptness creates good and blasting impression, sometimes, a back reference has to after to
different departments or has to get the consent of the higher officers. When it is knows that
the reply the letter requires time, the correspondent should atleast lake it a point to
acknowledge the letter received and intimate time requires to send a reply.
Knowledge of the Subject:
The knowledge of the past correspondence, better understanding of letter, the needs and
requirements of sender of the letter and the knowledge of the firm's policies can prove
valuable aids to the correspondent for d rafting an apt reply.
A letter writer should vary tone arid language of the letter according to the need and the
Psychology of the reader, the use of technical terms, are imp. Unnecessary use of phrases
and words must be strictly avoided, simplicity in writing is imp.
Accuracy, Completeness and Clearness:
Facts, figures and statements, quotations must be very accurately mentioned.Accuracy
and completeness together and help in avoiding mistakes.Letters should be accurate,
complete and clear, or else it might result in unnecessary exchange of letters leading to delay
and create frustration and adverse affects.
Courtesy is considerate and sympathetic behaviour, a friendly attitude.Impatience, irritation,
criticism and unfriendly tone, a fighting style should be kept out of our letters.
If you don't make a friend, you will atleast avoid making any enemy, if your letter is
Matters of delay in execution of order, refusing complaint and credit, requesting for early
payments or adjustments, always requires tactful handling.
It requires making positive suggestions and convince him how and why is to be advantage.
Even disagreeable things can be get done with the help of conviction, which is achieved only
through art of persuasion.
Everyone is primarily interested in himself.
Hence, Persuasion requires an appeal
to the reader's interests, economy, financial gain, savings, pride of possession, social
prestige, self esteem and security etc.
Every outgoing letter is a traveler, it is a salesman. Every letter is a sales letter and it should
have the requisite of salesmanship.
It is silent but not dum. It helps to make the reputation of the firm.
The positive and Pleasant approach:
A businessman will have many occasions when he has to refuse, say, no, regret, disagree,
complain or say sorry to say this in plain words and a straight forward style is not difficult.
• A negative beginning irritates the reader.
• A positive approach convinces the reader of the helplessness of the writer or his genuine
10. Faulty and consciousness
The you attitude.
12. Pleasant impression.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LETTER-WRITING:
Every business letter-writer has to consider these principles to formulate an effective letter:
The purpose is to put across the idea to the reader and not to set a puzzle for it.
To be sure of what you mean and then to say it in plain terms.
There should be only one possible meaning and this should be clear to be reader.
Logical sequence. " crediting unnecessary words/terms.
Achieved by using simple and familiar words
Use short sentences, use short paragraphs
Prefer the active to passive voice.
The writer should not be brief at the cost of clarity and courtesy.
Brevity can be obtained by vvriling unnecessary details and cutting out unnecessary
Sincerity of purpose counts a lot in human relations and business dealings.
Frankness and authenticly.
Attn on assumptions and its disclosure.
Refined language plays an important role in business.
The writer should not take shelter behind backneyed expressions that are used
Ex: Assuring you of our best co-operation.
Marriage invitation - friends, relatives etc.
Ensure courtesy with firmness, reduces negative feelings, make a angry person to a friendly,
suppress the short temper of a peson, reduce negative response and brings positive response.
6. Positive Tone:
A letter may sound, cordial, friendly, cold, preemptory (authoritative) or even captious
(fault finding) or contentions.
• Attn on reader's point of view.
Polite and definite.
Avoid pompous (outward show) language.
Avoid communication gap.
7. The you Attitude:
Means that the reader is the most important person for the writer.
Letter should an understanding of his problems and difficulties and should be written
from his point of view.
Define the purpose:
Every letter has a definite purpose to achieve.
Expectation - precise.
Must be simple and direct, avoid long and complex sentences
Delete high sounding violability which are not common and also rare
Edit unnecessary words without missing its meanings.
10. Standards in Writing:
Quality can be improved througha.
using quality paper, pen and printers,
b. avoiding corrections, overwriting.
using suitable and attaining format
d. neat and attractive messages and folding of the letter
avoid substandard languages.
11. Informal and friendly attitude:
Latest trends in letter writing is the principle of adoptive informal way of expressing
Friendly culture is today's principle of business writing.
Same is applicable between subordinate and superior, sellor and customer.
Highlight the essential points:
Underline or printed in bold letters.
Mention in brief the same message before closing remarks or in the last paragraphs.
Repetition - wherever possible.
13. Tactful and sincere:
It is not always easy and simple to write reply in convincing and effective wav.
• Ex: information on profits, revenue or expenses.
• Intelligent presentation of the information.
• Express the fault or problem or facts genuinely, but ensure relations may not get spoiled.
14. Free from mistakes:
• Human error to a reasonable extend is accepted.
• Spelling mistakes must be avoided,
(weak-weak, cheap-cheap weather-whether, laxmi-lakshimi)
Mis-spellings may give wrong meanings Madam - Madum Quean - Queen.
• Grammar mistakes
• Vague expressions
15. Write a short letter:
Normally the receiver/sender is a busy executives, he is interested only in the
sub/business, but not on the language skills.
If the letter is very long, the receiver pospone reading the letter or reading selective
lines or selective paragraphs.
16. Autonomy to the writer:
If sufficient free is given to the writer, he can use his professional skills.
Many times, the stone/typist, is better than the superior in framing and wording a letter.
Reasonable freedom is to be allowed to the actual person in-charge of drafting letter.
A business letter is a formal letter and in several cases, it acts as a legal document.
Different parts of a letter have different, but definite functions to perform.
ex: Date, letterhead, signature has different duties to perform.
GENERAL COMPONENTS/ELEMENTS (Para) OF A BUSINESS
The Head-address/Heading or letter Ex. Head:
This is the name and address of the sender. Usually its place is top center to the right of
the sheet or paper.
The letter head contains short description of the business, and also includes the
telephone numbers, then telex numbers, and the telegraphic address, if any, on the left hand
side, below the name and address.
Some letter heads include the addresses of the ITO/Regd. Office/administrative office
Proper care in printing the letter head (colour size )
The date should always be written with the name of the month and the number of the
Ex: wrong 10-03-2002, right 10th March 2002.
In the modern style the stand and are avoided (10th, 2nd) 1st)
Do not write abbreviations for name of month, because it confuses the reader and
reader can not grasp the abbreviations quickly.
It is advisable to the writer to write actual data, unless it is essential, like typing letter
in advance, a letter should not be ANTE date or POST date.
Reference: (Internal reference)
This is usually written to the left of the paper, in the same line as the date.
It indicates the file number, the dept to which the file has to go, the number of the letter
and the year.
Correct ref will help to dispatch to the right persons to take action intime.
Reference facilitates link to previous letters.
The inside address:
Consists of the name and address of the person or company to whom, the letter is to be
Address has to be written in as great detail as on the envelops, for it, may sometimes
used as the outside address;
Ex: in a window envelope.
When writing to a company, M/s should be written only if the name of the company
contains a personal name.
Ex: Wrong M/s. National Rayon Co.Ltd., Right National Rayon Co.Ltd.
• When writing to an individual, both or and esquire should not be written.
• The place of the inside address determines the margin of the body of the letter.
While writing inside address, the following points should be noted;
Each part of address is to be written in sepaiate line. Name of the town is to be written in
capital letters, if necessary underline it, pin is to be mentioned separately.
• It is greeting to the receiver of the letter.
• The commonest forms used are Dear Sir and Dear Madam.
• Only Sir or Madam makes the letter very formal.
• In Govt, correspondence, only Sir or Madam in preferred.
The Caption Line:
• Caption line is usually placed below the salutation.
• It gives in a nutshell what is contained in the main common of the letter.
• The caption line is usually made distinct by placing words: RE; REF;
• Sometimes the caption line is heavily underlined and placed before the salutation.
The body of a letter:
Most important part and divided into three partsThe opening or the introductory paragraph
The main communication to be made, mav be subdivided into paragraphs.
The closing paragraphs, which is short and something of a formality.
• A business letter should usually deal with only one topic. Otherwise it becomes difficult to
file the letter.
• Other steps:
proper indication for continuation pages,
b. avoid giving side headings,
avoid writing points in the form of a list,
d. avoid big paragraphs
make it as natural as possible.
The Complimentary close;
• It is a form of saying good-bye.
• It comes to the right of the letter below its body. Ex: Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely,
•While writing the complimentary close, the Y has to be capital and there should be no
aposprophs in the word Yours.
A letter should contain signature of the writer.
A letter without a signature is not a letter in the eye or law, because it does not make a
person responsible for the contents of the letter.
Signature is a free hand written name with pen on the line or space left for the purpose.
Mr/Mrs is not written before signature.
Can use FASCIMILE signature also.
This word is written to the left side of the paper, and below the signature. It is marked
either as one or end.
It indicates that some thing more than letter is attached.
It is very easy for the xeceiver to check the list give under End: with the set of papers
11. Identification initials:
A business letter will be dictated to the Steno, who types it.
To make it convenient, for admn. Reference, both the typist and the dictator of the
letter may their initials.
This may be marked at close to left margin below the signature line.
It becomes easy to trace a mistake if where is any, when the initials are given.
12.Copies to or Copy Notation or Co or carbon copy:
This is a part of the letter which comes in the left hand corner below the word
This is normally mentioned as C.C. with the names and addresses of the persons to
whom copies of the letters have been sent.
13. PS or Post Script:
• PS comes from the latin word-post scriptum, and means what ever has been written
• The ps is written at the bottom of the page.
• No nalutation or complimentary close is required.
Useful to rectify faults.
Module of Business letter:
It is concluded that a good business letter and memos are discussed. A good business letter is
one which maintains conformity and standards. It is characterized by clear content, a tone of
goodwill, and correct form. Whereas Memos is a brief document of a page in length used for
day to day exchange of information for internal and inter office communication among units
of same Organization.
Bhatia, C. , Business Communication, Ane Books India, Ane’s Student
Edition, 2008, PP 243 - 350
Locker, K and Kaczmarek, S., Business Communication - Building
Critical Skills, Tata McGraw Hill, 3th edition, 2007, PP 128 - 190