1
A Study on
Values
A Mini Project Report in Management theory and organization behaviour
Submitted to JNTU,
Kakinada in P...
2
CONTENT
S.NO PARTICULARS PAGE NO
1. Abstract 3
2 Introduction 3
3 Keywords 3
4 Definition 3
5 Need to study 3
6 Scope of...
3
Abstract:
Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual
conflict ...
4
Like attitudes, values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behaviour. Values are conviction
and a fram...
5
Values and behaviour:
Behaviour of people is influenced by the values which they hold, particular in terms of those stim...
6
organised directed, controlled, and entrusted to individuals willing to become employee through a more or
less permanent...
7
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A study o7

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A study o7

  1. 1. 1 A Study on Values A Mini Project Report in Management theory and organization behaviour Submitted to JNTU, Kakinada in Partial Fulfilment for the Award of the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Submitted By Anusha Gopisetty (Reg. No. 13491E0007). DEPARTMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution and Accredited by NBA (Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada and Approved by AICTE) Vengamukkapalem, Pondur Road ONGOLE –523 272.
  2. 2. 2 CONTENT S.NO PARTICULARS PAGE NO 1. Abstract 3 2 Introduction 3 3 Keywords 3 4 Definition 3 5 Need to study 3 6 Scope of study 3 7 Objectives 3 8 Methodology 3 9 Review of literature 3 10 Values 3-5 11 Conclusion 6 12 Reference 6
  3. 3. 3 Abstract: Persons have different value preferences. Neuroimaging studies where value-based decisions in actual conflict situations were investigated suggest an important role of prefrontal and cingulated brain regions. General preferences, however, reflect a super ordinate moral concept independent of actual situations as proposed in psychological and socioeconomic research. Here, the specific brain response would be influenced by abstract value systems and moral concepts. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying such responses are largely unknown. Introduction: Like attitudes, values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behaviour. Values are conviction and a framework of philosophy of an individual on the basis if which he judges what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, ethical or unethical. Rokeach, a noted socio-psychologist, has defined values as “global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a variety of situation”. Keywords: Values; organization; behaviour Definition: According to the ROKEACH values are “A specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end state of existence)” Need to study: We need to study values education learn more about values like good manners and to learn how to respect to others values can only be taught. Humans are not born with an innate sense of right and wrong. This sense must be carefully taught through values education. Scope of study: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a forced-choice paradigm on word pairs representing abstract values, we show that the brain handles such decisions depending on the person's super ordinate moral concept. Persons with a predominant collectivistic (altruistic) value system Objectives:  To know about definition of values.  To know about characteristics of values.  To know about types of values.  To know about values and behaviour.  To know about factors in value formation. Methodology:  The project is descriptive & exploratory but constructive in nature.  The secondary data is collected through books, journals, magazines  The primary data is collected through descriptive with acumination expect. Review of literature:
  4. 4. 4 Like attitudes, values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behaviour. Values are conviction and a framework of philosophy of an individual on the basis if which he judges what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable, ethical or unethical. Rokeach, a noted socio-psychologist, has defined values as “global beliefs that guide actions and judgements across a variety of situation”. Values: According to the ROKEACH values are “A specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct (or end state of existence)” Characteristics of values:  Values are obstructing terms.  They determine the mode of individual behaviour.  Values emerge out of societal value system.  They are mode permanent and stable.  They are developed an over a period of time.  Values are differ from individual to individual  These are different for nation. Religion, occupation, family structure cast and time etc...  Values are also varying from to society to society.  Values contain system orientation.  It is good oriented concept.  These are necessary to survive in the society. Types of values: Values are obstructs. They represent a description of psychological state of individual. Various types of values are described below.  Theoretical: these are developed out of an attempt to discover truth by using critical and nation approach  Economic values: these are emerging out of national human interest of satisfaction with material rewords. They emphasise on seeking practical and immediate and benefit with monitory benefits.  Aesthetic values: it emerges out of psychological contentment. They are expressed in terms of innovative aspects.  Social values: these values are represents love and affection, belongingness and being values relate to welfare, convinced and sympathy of the society.  Political values: these values are when individuals believe that power and influence of controlling the society their self respect.  Religious values: Religious values emphasise on unity, integrity, non material aspects as important to lead peaceful life these are irrespective of the society.  Reactive values: these are basic to any individual. They relate to the satisfaction biological desires  Tribalistic values: these values arise out of traditions and customs of the society.  Egocentric values: aggression, selfish and individualistic approach represent egocentric values. They are related to satisfaction of one’s esteem, recognition and power
  5. 5. 5 Values and behaviour: Behaviour of people is influenced by the values which they hold, particular in terms of those stimuli which have some values orientations. In the organisational context, understanding the influence of individual value systems on their behaviour is important. Values influence the behaviour of individuals in the following manner.  Values influence an individual perception about the problems he faces and consequently the decisions he makes to overcome those problems. Even value system of top management influence choice of organisational and strategies adopted to achieve those goals.  Value influence the way in which an individual looks at other individual and groups of individuals, that is interpersonal relationship values become the basis of such interpersonal interactions.  Individual judge’s organisational success as well as its achievement on the basis of their value systems. Thus for some individuals organisational success may be in the form of high-profit earning irrespective of the means adopted whereas, this may be a means thing for other individuals. Factors in value formation: Values of people have their roots in numerous aspects of contemporary society. In particular, there are five sources of values formation in any society. These are value-formatting, activities of various social institutions, values of an organisation, peers and colleagues in the organisation, work and career, and professionalization and professional code of conduct. Let us see how each of these affects ethical behaviour.  Value-forming institutions: The life and development of a society are both based upon and produce values. Therefore, there can be various institutions in the society which inculcate source of values for persons and organisation. Family, school, state, and religion. Value of system is constructed over a life time of experience in which the value shaping influences of these institutions predominate.  Organisation values: A part from value forming institutions of the society. Organisations, where the individuals work also shape their values though in a lesser degree. An organisation has its own values which are reflected in the form of Collective values of individuals who join it. However, since various organisational processes are designed mostly by managers at comparatively higher levels, organisational value are more in tune with the values of these managers.  Peers and career: An individual gets clue of behaviours from his peers and colleagues. He develops and applied beliefs attitudes and values derived from the group of peers and colleagues with whom he is associated. An individual in a work group tends to conform to the groups norms as long as he values the friendship and approval of his associates or fears the possibility that they will cut him from rights, privileges, and benefits they can offer.  Work and career: Work consists of the tasks or responsibilities associated with a particular job or position in an organisation. Essentially, work is human energy directed at the achievement of a desired end. In organisation this work is
  6. 6. 6 organised directed, controlled, and entrusted to individuals willing to become employee through a more or less permanent association with the organisation. An individual’s experience over a period of time constitutes his career.  Professional codes: Professional codes are an increasing source of ethical norms for managers in business organisations. There are three of codes available in an organisation. First in the so-called company creeds or philosophies which usually cover those basic philosophies and behaviours that govern the business. Most of the companies have such sets. Conclusion: Finally I concluded that values are very different to the organization. Values are also having some characteristics, and factors in value formation. Values are different types these are Theoretical, economic values, and aesthetic values, and social values, political values, and religious values, reactive values, tribalistic values, egocentric values are explained above and also explained factors , values and behaviours. Reference: 1. William, Tripathy: “MGMT (including instructor recourses)”, Cengage Learning, New Delhi, 2013 2 Dr.P.Subba Rao and Prof. N.Sambasiva Rao:”Management and Organizational Behaviour - (Text and Cases)”, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai 3 Griffin, Moorhead: “Managing Organisational Behaviour”, Cengage Learning, New Delhi.2013
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