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Chapter 06 ffi

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Chapter 06 ffi

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 6 — Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment
  2. 2. Describe the purpose of personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 1 6–2
  3. 3. Describe characteristics of each type of personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 2 6–3
  4. 4. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes three basic components. 6–4
  5. 5. Personal protective equipment is designed to meet two purposes. 6–5
  6. 6. 6–6 Structural fire fighting protective clothing must meet NFPA® 1971.
  7. 7. 6–7 Altering protective clothing may endanger lives and have other effects.
  8. 8. DISCUSSION QUESTION Why is it important to NEVER alter PPC components? 6–8
  9. 9. Personal protective equipment has several design benefits and limitations. 6–9
  10. 10. Helmets must be worn correctly to properly protect and identify firefighters. 6–10
  11. 11. Eye protection devices are required by NFPA® 1500 and come in many varieties. 6–11
  12. 12. Protective hoods provide a continuous layer of protection between coat and helmet. 6–12
  13. 13. REVIEW QUESTION What is the purpose of personal protective equipment? 6–13
  14. 14. Protective coats are required by NFPA® 1971 to have three layers, which provide limited protection. a. Outer shell b. Moisture barrier c. Thermal barrier 6–14
  15. 15. WARNING! All layers of the protective coat must be in place during any fire fighting operation. Failure to wear the entire coat and liner system during a fire may expose you to severe heat resulting in serious injury or death. 6–15
  16. 16. NFPA® 1971 requires several design features for protective coats. 6–16 Reflective trim Wristlets Collars Drag Rescue Device (DRD) Closure system
  17. 17. Additional PPC protects firefighters from a variety of hazards. 6–17 (Cont.)
  18. 18. Additional PPC protects firefighters from a variety of hazards. 6–18
  19. 19. Personal alert safety systems (PASS) aid in rescuing firefighters. 6–19 CourtesyofJamesNilo
  20. 20. Wildland PPC follows specifications found in NFPA® 1977. 6–20
  21. 21. Wildland PPC allows more movement but less protection than structural PPC. 6–21 (Cont.)
  22. 22. Wildland PPC allows more movement but less protection than structural PPC. 6–22
  23. 23. Do not wear underclothing made of synthetic materials. 6–23
  24. 24. REVIEW QUESTION Why are there differences in the characteristics of structural fire fighting protective clothing and wildland personal protective clothing? 6–24
  25. 25. WARNING! Wildland personal protective clothing is not designed, certified, or intended for interior structural fire fighting. 6–25
  26. 26. Roadway operations clothing is designed to increase firefighter visibility. 6–26
  27. 27. Emergency medical protective clothing helps prevent transmission of diseases. 6–27
  28. 28. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–28 (Cont.)
  29. 29. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–29 (Cont.) CourtesyofIowaFireServiceTrainingBureau
  30. 30. Special protective clothing can be used for other emergency incidents. 6–30
  31. 31. Station/Work uniforms serve two functions for firefighters. 6–31
  32. 32. Station/Work uniforms must meet requirements of NFPA® 1975. 6–32
  33. 33. Summarize guidelines for the care of personal protective clothing. Learning Objective 3 6–33
  34. 34. Care of personal protective equipment is a matter of safety. 6–34
  35. 35. Inspect PPC frequently and for several types of damage and/or contamination. 6–35 Inspection findings determine cleaning method used
  36. 36. NFPA® 1851 defines four types of PPE cleaning. 6–36
  37. 37. WARNING! • Do not wash contaminated protective clothing in washing machines used for other garments or items. • Do not take contaminated protective clothing into the living or sleeping quarters of the fire station or your residence. • PPE should not be stored where it can come in contact with vehicle exhausts. • PPE that is carried in personal vehicles should be placed in closable garment bags intended for that purpose. 6–37
  38. 38. PPC must be repaired immediately by qualified personnel. 6–38
  39. 39. REVIEW QUESTION What are some basic guidelines for the care of personal protective clothing? 6–39
  40. 40. Explain the safety considerations for personal protective equipment. Learning Objective 4 6–40
  41. 41. PPE both protects and isolates firefighters from hazards. 6–41
  42. 42. Remember several specific safety considerations regarding PPE. 6–42 (Cont.)
  43. 43. Remember several specific safety considerations regarding PPE. 6–43
  44. 44. REVIEW QUESTION What safety considerations do firefighters need to keep in mind when using personal protective equipment? 6–44
  45. 45. Identify respiratory hazards. Learning Objective 5 6–45
  46. 46. Appropriate protection is the most effective respiratory protection. 6–46
  47. 47. Respiratory hazards often occur in situations immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). 6–47
  48. 48. Oxygen deficiency occurs most often (but not only) in areas of combustion.
  49. 49. Elevated temperatures can lead to superheated air. 6–49
  50. 50. Particulate contaminants come from many sources and pose serious health risks. 6–50
  51. 51. Gases and vapor enter the body in several ways and are very dangerous. 6–51 Gase s Vapors
  52. 52. A variety of harmful gases and vapors can be formed by combustion. 6–52 Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Chloride Sulfur Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Sulfide Nitrous gases Ammonia Phosgene Formaldehyde
  53. 53. Nonfire incidents can also produce dangerous gases and vapors. 6–53 Keep distance Wear SCBA
  54. 54. Airborne pathogens are disease- causing microorganisms suspended in air. 6–54
  55. 55. REVIEW QUESTION What common respiratory hazards do firefighters face? 6–55
  56. 56. Identify types of respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 6 6–56
  57. 57. Respiratory protection equipment is divided into two main categories. 6–57 Provides breathable air Filters particulates only
  58. 58. ASRs are divided into further categories. 6–58
  59. 59. Supplied air respirators (SARs) are used only in specific conditions. 6–59
  60. 60. Open-circuit SCBAs are far more common than closed-circuit SCBA. 6–60
  61. 61. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–61 (Cont.)
  62. 62. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–62 (Cont.)
  63. 63. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–63 (Cont.)
  64. 64. Open-circuit SCBA consists of four basic components. 6–64
  65. 65. Fit testing and other regulations apply to facepiece assemblies. 6–65
  66. 66. Additional components of SCBA provide safety features. 6–66 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  67. 67. Air-purifying respirators (APRs) contain single use filters for airborne particulates. 6–67
  68. 68. APRs are used only in specific instances involving particulates. 6–68
  69. 69. APRs have limitations and must be closely monitored. 6–69
  70. 70. REVIEW QUESTION How do atmosphere-supplying respirators differ from air-purifying respirators? 6–70
  71. 71. Describe the limitations of respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 7 6–71
  72. 72. Explain methods for storing respiratory protection equipment. Learning Objective 8 6–72
  73. 73. Respiratory protection has both wearer and equipment limitations. 6–73 Offset by training, medical exams and proper fit testing.Offset by training, medical exams and proper fit testing. (Cont.)
  74. 74. Respiratory protection has both wearer and equipment limitations. 6–74 Controlled by inspection, care, maintenance, training.Controlled by inspection, care, maintenance, training.
  75. 75. NFPA® Safety Alert High temperature environments can result in thermal degradation or melting of SCBA facepiece lenses. RESULTS: •Elimination of protection meant for the user’s respiratory system •Exposure to products of combustion and superheated air 6–75
  76. 76. REVIEW QUESTION What are some of the limitations of respiratory protection equipment? 6–76
  77. 77. SCBA is stored according to local SOPs, but should be able to be quickly and easily donned. 6–77
  78. 78. REVIEW QUESTION What should respiratory equipment be protected from during storage? 6–78
  79. 79. Describe general donning and doffing considerations for protective breathing apparatus. Learning Objective 9 6–79
  80. 80. Follow these general considerations when donning SCBA. 6–80
  81. 81. SCBA can be donned in several ways. 6–81 CourtesyofKennethBaum (Cont.)
  82. 82. Caution! Never connect the regulator and breathe cylinder air when seated in the apparatus. This activity will deplete your air supply before you arrive at the incident. 6–82
  83. 83. SCBA can be donned in several ways. 6–83 CourtesyofRonBogardus
  84. 84. Be aware of two important differences among SCBA facepieces. 6–84
  85. 85. Follow these general consideration when donning SCBA facepieces. 6–85
  86. 86. Follow these general considerations when doffing SCBA facepieces. 6–86 (Cont.)
  87. 87. Follow these general considerations when doffing SCBA facepieces. 6–87
  88. 88. REVIEW QUESTION What general considerations need to be taken when donning and doffing protective breathing apparatus? 6–88
  89. 89. Summarize general considerations for protective breathing apparatus inspections and care. Learning Objective 10 6–89
  90. 90. Several factors determine how frequently SCBA is inspected. 6–90
  91. 91. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–91 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  92. 92. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–92 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  93. 93. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–93 (Cont.) CourtesyofKennethBaum
  94. 94. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–94 (Cont.)
  95. 95. SCBA must be inspected regularly, and damage reported immediately. 6–95
  96. 96. Proper care for SCBA means cleaning and sanitizing after each use. 6–96 (Cont.)
  97. 97. Proper care for SCBA means cleaning and sanitizing after each use. 6–97
  98. 98. REVIEW QUESTION What are the general inspection and care considerations for protective breathing apparatus? 6–98
  99. 99. Trained and qualified personnel perform annual inspection and maintenance. 6–99 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  100. 100. Frequency of SCBA air cylinder hydrostatic testing varies by material. 6–100 CourtesyofKennethBaum Stamp or label provides testing dates Material Steel/aluminum Hoop-wrapped aluminum Fully wrapped fiberglass Fully wrapped KevlarTM Fully wrapped carbon fiber
  101. 101. Summarize safety precautions for refilling SCBA cylinders. Learning Objective 11 6–101
  102. 102. Explain procedures for replacing SCBA cylinders. Learning Objective 12 6–102
  103. 103. Three sources can be used to refill SCBA air cylinders. 6–103 CourtesyofJamesNilo CourtesyofBrandonWagoner
  104. 104. Follow these general guidelines and precautions for all fill systems. 6–104
  105. 105. Refilling unshielded cylinders while donned is prohibited, but RIC/RITs are granted exceptions. 6–105 CourtesyofKennethBaum
  106. 106. Stationary fill systems use cascade system or fill direct from compressor. 6–106
  107. 107. Follow these safety precautions when using stationary fill stations. 6–107
  108. 108. Mobile fill stations are used at emergency incidents. 6–108 CourtesyofJamesNilo
  109. 109. Firefighting breathing air replenishment system (FBARS) are used in highrise buildings. 6–109 CourtesyofBrandonWagoner
  110. 110. REVIEW QUESTION What kinds of safety precautions should be taken when refilling SCBA cylinders? 6–110
  111. 111. Replace SCBA cylinders only in specific circumstances. 6–111
  112. 112. REVIEW QUESTION What methods can you use to replace an SCBA cylinder? 6–112
  113. 113. Explain safety precautions for SCBA use. Learning Objective 13 6–113
  114. 114. Describe nonemergency and emergency exit indicators. Learning Objective 14 6–114
  115. 115. Describe nonemergency exit techniques. Learning Objective 15 6–115
  116. 116. Several safety precautions must be considered when using SCBA. 6–116 (Cont.)
  117. 117. Several safety precautions must be considered when using SCBA. 6–117
  118. 118. REVIEW QUESTION What are the safety precautions taken when using an SCBA? 6–118
  119. 119. Exit procedures help you make rapid exits from many type incidents. 6–119
  120. 120. Nonemergency exit indicators are the most common. 6–120
  121. 121. Emergency exit indicators signal life threatening situations. 6–121
  122. 122. REVIEW QUESTION What are common emergency and nonemergency exit indicators a firefighter may encounter during an incident? 6–122
  123. 123. IC monitors potential hazards but you should monitor your oxygen levels. 6–123
  124. 124. Nonemergency exit techniques are based on Incident Command Systems (ICS) and NFPA® 1500. 6–124 (Cont.)
  125. 125. Nonemergency exit techniques are based on Incident Command Systems (ICS) and NFPA® 1500. 6–125
  126. 126. REVIEW QUESTION What are some nonemergency exit techniques firefighters can use? 6–126
  127. 127. • Your PPE will protect you from hazards and minimize the risk of injury or fatality if properly worn, cleaned, and maintained. • Respiratory equipment can protect you from toxic gases and vapors, particulates, and disease, but only if properly used, inspected, cleaned, and maintained. Summary 6–127
  128. 128. • Knowing how to select the type of respiratory equipment that is appropriate, as well as manage your air supply, are also important. Summary 6–128
  129. 129. Demonstrate the method for donning structural personal protective clothing for use at an emergency. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-1. Learning Objective 16 6–129
  130. 130. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the over-the-head method of donning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-2. Learning Objective 17 6–130
  131. 131. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the coat method of donning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-3. Learning Objective 18 6–131
  132. 132. With structural personal protective clothing in place, demonstrate the method for donning an SCBA while seated. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-4. Learning Objective 19 6–132
  133. 133. Doff personal protective equipment, including respiratory protection, and prepare for reuse. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-5. Learning Objective 20 6–133
  134. 134. Demonstrate the steps for inspecting an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-6 Learning Objective 21 6–134
  135. 135. Demonstrate the steps for cleaning an SCBA. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-7. Learning Objective 22 6–135
  136. 136. Demonstrate the method for filling an SCBA cylinder from a cascade system, wearing appropriate PPE, including eye and ear protection. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-8. Learning Objective 23 6–136
  137. 137. Demonstrate the method for filling an SCBA cylinder from a compressor/ purifier system, wearing appropriate PPE, including eye and ear protection. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-9. Learning Objective 24 6–137
  138. 138. Demonstrate the one-person method for replacing an SCBA cylinder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-10. Learning Objective 25 6–138
  139. 139. Demonstrate the two-person method for replacing an SCBA cylinder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 6-I-11. Learning Objective 26 6–139

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