Birth of new nations in the Americas and achanging of the old order in Europe and Asia from the middle 18th-19th centuries
The 18th century is best described as a century where political practices became questioned and changed by the will of the people, new technologies emerged that brought economic and global power, and the formation of colonial empires and new nations.
Period of increased literacy led people to read papers, articles/pamphlets arguing for the change in how they were governed especially by monarchs. Popular sovereignty—power residing in the PEOPLE Push for unregulated commerce (a backdrop to the manipulative control of mercantilist economics) as a means to produce more growth and more benefits for everyone Free trade: domestic and international trade free of tariffs, quotas, and fees. Free markets—unregulated markets Free labor—wage-paying labor
NATIONALISM and the concept of the NATION-STATE—the need to form new nations with powerful economic and political relationships led to members of a shared community to unite based on a common heritage. DEMOCRACY—members of a nation pick their representatives through suffrage to govern them. FRANCE and GREAT BRITAIN became the first nations to really embrace the new Enlightenment thinking but it would spread. IRONICALLY, these new ideas applied as male-oriented ideas while women were still denied rights such as citizenship, land ownership, and equal treatment under the law.
Mid- 18th century: cities like Philadelphia, NY, Boston, and Charleston grew due to economic prosperity (on the back of slave labor and the oppression of the Native populaces as well). ◦ Native peoples first attempted to fight the British by allying themselves with the French, who had a history of being slightly friendlier to the Natives…the ensuing French and Indian War (Seven Years War) led to Canada becoming a British property and a huge recession in British economy.
George III of Hanover—king of England and Parliament mutually agreed that the North American colonists of England should help pay for Britain’s war debts through taxation and taxed they were! Also, George III and Parliament wanted to curb the illegal tactics that merchants were using to evade Britain’s mercantilist policies! Colonists were upset and went from boycotting goods to open warfare in 1775. Inspired by the philosophy of John Locke, Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence arguing for the creation of the United States for liberty…though liberty only meant white men who owned land…Women, Blacks, Natives, and Non-landholding whites (poor whites/yeoman farmers) were left out as participants of liberty!
Women such as Abigail Adams argued that they contributed to the Revolutionary cause and as such should have greater equality in marriage such as property rights. With help from the French and determination, the Patriot army under George Washington succeeded. First Constitution-based republic under Articles of Confederation…too loosely structured, no strong central government, no common monetary currency, etc. led to recession and near-rebellion by farmer Daniel Shays and 999 others! After the rebellion was squashed, a new Constitution (1783) was drafted that made for the United States to become a republic—a form of democracy where power and rule would rest with representatives of the people. Some unresolved issues remained that threatened the lifeblood of the new USA such as the unresolved political issue of slavery and the continuance of women’s inequality.
The FRENCH REVOLUTION NAPOLEON Bonaparte… The events following the French Revolution are considered by historians as the start of modern European history The French were inspired in part by the newly-minted Americans. French men and women called for liberty too!
Much discontent had spread regarding tax paying and tithes to church officials while the nobles and clergy literary paid no taxes. IRONY: Louis XVI (16th) spent huge sums of money in support of American rebels which led to overloading the nation’s debt. Louis XVI convened the Estates-General: First Estate—Clergy, Second Estate—Aristocracy/Nobles, and Third Estate— Everyone else…Members of the Third Estate refused to pay more as it insisted that the other estates needed to pay more taxes and the Third Estate argued that they WERE THE NATION
The populace also had issues with prisoner mistreatment at the Bastille and on July 14, 1789, a Parisian crowd stormed the Bastille prison and the war (French Revolution) begins. Women demanded more rights such as to bear arms, divorce, holding property in marriage, be educated, and have public careers but stopped short of demanding for equal rights for both sexes. Early 1793, Louis XVI was executed, France became a republic, and France extended the war to some of its European neighbors. Moreover, a Reign of Terror took place for a few years (until 1793) where nearly 40000 French people lost their lives to the guillotine.
After the ending of the Reign of Terror, a coup d’état from a Frenchmen from the island of Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte took over and declared himself an emperor and set out to create a global empire for himself between 1799- 1815. Defeated the Mamluks of Egypt, a part of the Ottoman Empire Portugal, Spain, and Russia especially offered stiff resistance. Britain also fought on behalf of Spain and Portugal (Peninsular War 1808-1813). He extended his empire from Spain, to Austria and parts of what would be northeastern Germany (Prussia). Russia in the winter (General Winter) proved disastrous for Napoleon as he retreated and ultimately his troops were defeated. He was exiled, but soon he went back into action and this time, he met his match in the town of Waterloo in Belgium as British, Russian, Austrian, and Prussian crushed Napoleon’s French force…this time he faced armed exile in the isle of Elba. While Napoleon was permanently exiled, an agreement developed among the victorious nations to restore things the “way they used to be before all this Enlightenment nonsense.” France reestablished its monarchy for a while…Britain and Russia’s monarchies agreed to cooperation to preventing any future attempts by any one European power at trying to dominate Europe.
In the late 18th centuries Native peoples in South America and in the Caribbean began rebelling against the Spanish and Portuguese. Haiti—slaves tired of French rule revolted successfully after a bloody war that involved British and Spanish forces as well. Unfortunate side effect: The new country (as of 1804) fell into a vicious cycle of environmental degradation of soil erosion and soil depletion that led to poverty that continues to this day. Brazil—was in control by Portugal….During Napoleon’s wars, the Portuguese monarchy exiled itself to Brazil. When Napoleon ultimately lost, the restored monarchy had the crown prince return to Brazil to keep things going BUT the colonists there weren’t too happy about that so he declared Brazil an independent empire with a constitutional monarchy that lasted until the late 19th century. Rich landowners began depleting the forests to establish slave-ran coffee and sugar cane farms…To this day, Brazilian rain forest is an endangered ecological entity…Most of our breathable oxygen comes from the Brazilian rain forest.
During the time Napoleon occupied Spain, the Spanish monarchy spent many years under house arrest leaving the colonies of Argentina, Venezuela, and Mexico to have self-rule without an emperor…but when Napoleon was defeated, these colonies’ elite citizens, especially in Mexico resented a return to Spanish rule and began to offer resistance. Father Miguel Hidalgo and Father Jose Morelos—two priests who started an insurrection against the Spanish in Mexico though the revolt would be lost. When Spain went through some governmental anarchy in 1820, Mexican generals proclaimed Mexico an independent republic.
fought Spanish armies in colonies throughout South America. He spread Enlightenment ideas of democracy throughout South America. His leadership led to the creation of the nations of Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia (which included modern-day Panama at the time).
So, what’shappening inAfrica duringthis time ofglobalnation-building?
Though many Africans and Europeans were profiting from the African slave trade many began to engage in a fierce debate about the practice. ◦ Some European and American revolutionaries argued that free “wage” labor was MORE productive and the institution abolished. Quakers—Protestant Christian denomination who abhorred slavery Denmark abolished slave trade in 1803, Great Britain (1807), USA (“1808”) in theory but… Up until the 1860s, slavers continued to buy and ship captives illegally. The British government made efforts to stop these slavers and slaves liberated were sent either to Sierra Leone and Liberia Europeans and Africans continued to do other trading business despite the slave trade’s “decline.” Sugar, palm oils, peanuts, and vegetable oils to lubricate machinery (helped spur on the Industrial Revolution). ◦ Those African kingdoms that ended their involvement in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade faced sharp economic decline as they could no longer supply the income to buy European goods Ironically, some of these kingdoms began strengthening the practice of slavery within their borders!
Industrial Revolution hits Europe and North America—Why did not China or other places in the Pacific world experience a similar phenomena at this time considering the cultural advances in science that took place?
Culture of working harder and for longer developed with the Europeans and Americans… People made $ and began to enjoy products formally enjoyed only by the rich. Large supplies of coal and iron available! Application of technological advancement for mass production of goods. International economic relationships between countries in Europe and North America that involved slave labor that produced food and clothing goods for the Europeans and the production of manufactured goods desired by the Americans and beyond.
It did not foster experimental science of the kind that led to the technological advances that took place in Britain for instance (steam engine). Also, that nation had a stronger focus on maintaining an agrarian culture Lastly, its leaders did not support overseas expansion and trade that helped create the Trans-Atlantic revolution in commerce.
Urban living was harsh and unsanitary Men, women, and children worked long hours and some of the most unsafe conditions and women and children were mentally and in some cases physically and probably sexually abused on the job as well. Soon anti-technology protestors, the Luddites, began a reign of vandalism in factories to the point that many became some of London’s most wanted criminals with awards offered for their capturing or death! For those who could not make it financially or faced nutritional trouble, they emigrated to the U.S. such as the Irish who endured the potato famine of 1645-1849.
Wanted Poster with anAward Offered forinformation or captureof any Luddites.
The charismatic Egyptian leader Muhammad Ali made reforms in Education and Agriculture…a STEM pioneer as he established medical schools and engineering schools. ◦ He also made it possible to irrigate the desert areas of the Nile to allow for the growth of multiple crops. ◦ His modernizing reforms did have some critics such as the agrarian peasants who saw little profit from their hard work of planting more crops. ◦ The ruling sultans of the Ottoman empire feared Ali and his advancements as did European powers who enjoyed business with the sultans of the Ottoman empire…Thus Ali faced some pressure from European powers when it seemed that he was about to advance his European (French)- trained armies into the heart of some of the Ottoman Empire’s most prized territories. ◦ The sultans Selim III and Mahmud II saw an advantage to having armies with European influences (training). ◦ Moreover, the Ottomans began to become very Eurocentric in their relations—a costly mistake by the time of their involvement in World War I.
India faced nearly two centuries of Since the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty took domination from Britain and its over in 1644, China experienced some prosperity and territorial expansion. military/financed East India Co. Imposed a Eurocentric-theme slant Gained territory like Taiwan, to the learning of India’s cultures Population boom, but soon caused Environmental issues such as soil especially with regard to Hinduism erosion and deforestation to meet and Islam and the ancient food and fuel needs. language of Sanskrit. OPIUM, A medical drug and aphrodisiac become an exporter of its own An illegal trade in the drug took cotton to meet the demands of place pitting China and Britain against one another. and industrializing Britain. China did not match the military India’s own attempts at might of Britain’s navy and eventually the British gained Hong advancement slowed as the nation Kong and the right to engage in and its people forced to live out opium trade their existence for the will of the Never became a formal colony of Britain! British. India China