Chapter 5                                         Tourism Policy and                                           Organizatio...
Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter,  you should be able to:  – Define tourism policy and list the reasons...
Introduction• Dictionary of Hospitality, Travel, and  Tourism definition of tourism policy:  – Plans, strategy, and action...
Stakeholder Input• Number of stakeholders  – Government:    • Land use, zoning, waste management,      transportation, cit...
Vision, Mission, Sustainability• Someone or a group develops a  vision and mission  – Example: Mexico World Bank    Develo...
Asset Evaluation• Examine and inventory existing and  potential assets of a destination  – Includes infrastructure to attr...
Tourism Policy Goals• Set after circumstances are assessed  and SWOT analysis is performed  – Edward Inskeep:    • Policie...
Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)                                          Figure 5–1 • A Framework                          ...
Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)                            Figure 5–2 • Tourism Policy Stakeholders   It’s Tourism: Concept...
Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples of policy goals:  – Improve material and nonmaterial well-    being of communitie...
Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples of policy characteristics:  – Concerned with equality of experiences  – Has socia...
Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples:  – Leggoland, CA:    • Those against it worried about increased      congestion,...
Impact Analysis• Assesses impact of potential  development from key points of view  – Perspectives of access, transportati...
Government & Organizations• After WWII:  – Governments realized tourism could be    a catalyst for economic development   ...
Government & Orgs. (cont’d.)• National Tourism Policy Act of 1981  – Redefined national interest in tourism    • Created t...
Policy Instruments• Bill Bramwell, government instruments:  – Encouragement:     • Information, education, and general per...
OTTI• Office of Travel and Tourism  Industries  – Travel Industry Association and Tourism    Industries/International Trad...
OTTI (cont’d.)• Primary functions:  – Management of statistical system  – Design and administration of    international pr...
Security• Department of Homeland Security,  Customs and Border Protection  – Issues travel news, travel alerts, advice• Vi...
Security (cont’d.)• Visitor facilitation:   – Aims to improve experience of gaining     access to and arriving in the U.S....
Security (cont’d.)• VWP is important for the economy  because it(s):  – Stimulates business by facilitating    access of f...
Security (cont’d.)• Americans with Disabilities Act of  1990:  – Addresses access for people with    disabilities througho...
Security (cont’d.)• Objective of policies:  – Mobilize the industry to respond to    concerns about traveler safety and   ...
Security (cont’d.)• Policies in technology are used for  several different reasons  – Smart Cards and electronic ticketing...
Research and Statistics• Objective is to develop a reliable  economic analysis system  – Uses uniform public and private s...
Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Tourism satellite accounts (TSAs)  – Measure travelers’ purchases of    different produ...
Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Travel and Tourism Research  Association (TTRA)  – Network of over 800 travel and touri...
Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Travel research is important because  it can help identify:  – Problems and causes  – T...
Education and Training• Vital in the industry:  – Increases awareness of travel and    tourism’s contribution to job creat...
Education and Training (cont’d.)• Tourism employment characteristics:  – Seasonality: visitor demand is not    spread even...
Education and Training (cont’d.) • Learning organizations   – Dedicated to continuous improvement of     the service proce...
Environment• Environmental policies:  – Preserve natural, historic, and cultural    resources  – Expand urban and rural ec...
Transportation Infrastructure• Includes facilities, roads, bridges,  equipment, and organizations that  make transportatio...
Transportation (cont’d.)• Highway travel:  – Congestion is the major issue  – Diverging viewpoints still exist about    so...
International Organizations• United Nations World Tourism  Organization (UNWTO) mission:  – Develop tourism as a force for...
International Orgs. (cont’d.)• UNWTO regional activities:  – Regional support    • Representatives in each region of the w...
International Orgs. (cont’d.)• UNWTO ethical issues:  – Adoption of the Global Code of Ethics    • Right to tourism and fr...
International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Labor Organization  (ILO)  – UN specialized agency  – Promotes social justice...
International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Air Transport Association  – Unites about 280 airlines  – Regarded as the glo...
International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Civil Aviation  Organization  – Goal is to secure international    cooperatio...
Regional International Orgs.• Organization for Economic Co-  operation and Development (OECD)  – Assists governments in ec...
Regional Orgs. (cont’d.)• Pacific Asia Travel Association  (PATA)  – Nonprofit travel trade association  – Mission is to s...
Regional Orgs. (cont’d.)• Caribbean Tourism Organization  (CTO)  – Provides leadership for tourism    organizations in the...
National Level Orgs.• Travel Industry Association (TIA)  – Nonprofit association  – Leader in promoting and facilitating  ...
National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)  – Establish safety rulemaking    • Developed a comm...
National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• National Transportation Safety Board  – Independent federal agency  – Charged by Congress ...
National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• Tourism Industries (TI)  – Fosters an environment that encourages    and allows the indust...
State & Regional Level Orgs.• Domestic travel promotion is the  foremost objective  – Increasingly focus on promoting    d...
State & Regional Orgs. (cont’d.)  Figure 5–3 • The Organization of a National or State Tourism Department     It’s Tourism...
City or Local Level Orgs.• Differ widely in format and structure  – Funded completely by local    governments  – Public–pr...
City or Local Orgs. (cont’d.)• Convention and visitors bureaus (CVBs)  – Nonprofit organizations     • Represents interest...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Pp5

691 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
691
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pp5

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Tourism Policy and OrganizationsIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  2. 2. Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Define tourism policy and list the reasons for tourism policy in a development context – Explain the purpose of tourism policy in its main areas of concern – Recall current issues and events in the main areas of concern of tourism policy – Describe the roles of tourism organizations It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  3. 3. Introduction• Dictionary of Hospitality, Travel, and Tourism definition of tourism policy: – Plans, strategy, and actions of a decision-making body calculated to achieve identified, specific goals related to tourism• Provides a framework for development – Establishes goals and guidelines for how goals should be met It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  4. 4. Stakeholder Input• Number of stakeholders – Government: • Land use, zoning, waste management, transportation, city planning offices, etc. – Tourism industries: • Transport, lodging, restaurants, destination management, attractions, and events – Others: • Social, cultural, and environmental groups; residents; and tourists It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  5. 5. Vision, Mission, Sustainability• Someone or a group develops a vision and mission – Example: Mexico World Bank Development funding for infrastructure • Planned as a national policy for tourism development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  6. 6. Asset Evaluation• Examine and inventory existing and potential assets of a destination – Includes infrastructure to attractions and entertainment, climate, and natural beauty • Elements that lend themselves to sustainable development are assessed and prioritized for policy enactment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  7. 7. Tourism Policy Goals• Set after circumstances are assessed and SWOT analysis is performed – Edward Inskeep: • Policies evolve from surveys and analyses of present tourism development patterns and infrastructure, tourist attractions and activities, and the tourist markets It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  8. 8. Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.) Figure 5–1 • A Framework Model for Tourism Policy It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  9. 9. Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.) Figure 5–2 • Tourism Policy Stakeholders It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  10. 10. Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples of policy goals: – Improve material and nonmaterial well- being of communities – Preserve intergenerational and intragenerational equity – Protect biological diversity and maintain ecological systems – Ensure cultural integrity and social cohesion of communities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  11. 11. Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples of policy characteristics: – Concerned with equality of experiences – Has social equity and community involvement – Operates within the limits of the resource – Maintains full range of recreational, educational, and cultural opportunities – Based on activities or designs that reflect the character of a region It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  12. 12. Tourism Policy Goals (cont’d.)• Examples: – Leggoland, CA: • Those against it worried about increased congestion, noise, pollution, etc. • In the end, it provided economy enhancement and a contributor of tax revenues – Disneyland, CA: • Multilayered subsystem • Slew of motels, some more seedy than others It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  13. 13. Impact Analysis• Assesses impact of potential development from key points of view – Perspectives of access, transportation, infrastructure, social and cultural, employment, and environmental • Forecasting models predict the extent of impacts • If all parts fall into place and are agreed on by stakeholders, then the policy can be enacted It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  14. 14. Government & Organizations• After WWII: – Governments realized tourism could be a catalyst for economic development • Badly needed foreign exchange – Europe developed tourism quickly – In 1961, the International Travel Act founded the U.S. Travel Service (USTS) • Encouraged travel to U.S. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  15. 15. Government & Orgs. (cont’d.)• National Tourism Policy Act of 1981 – Redefined national interest in tourism • Created the U.S. Travel and Tourism Administration (USTTA) – Purpose was to promote tourism and emphasize benefits • Stimulate economic, social, and political activities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  16. 16. Policy Instruments• Bill Bramwell, government instruments: – Encouragement: • Information, education, and general persuasion – Financial incentives: • Alter prices – Expenditures: • On actions by government or state agencies – Regulations: • Prohibit or require particular courses of action It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  17. 17. OTTI• Office of Travel and Tourism Industries – Travel Industry Association and Tourism Industries/International Trade Administration partnership – Fulfills federal role of expanding tourism business opportunities • Employment and economic growth It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  18. 18. OTTI (cont’d.)• Primary functions: – Management of statistical system – Design and administration of international promotion program and export activities – Development and management of tourism policy, strategy, and advocacy – Technical assistance for expanding key export and assisting in domestic economic development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  19. 19. Security• Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection – Issues travel news, travel alerts, advice• Visitors from visa waiver countries: – Apply for authorization through ESTA • Trusted Traveler programs provide expedited travel for preapproved, low-risk travelers • Difficult for non–Visa Waiver Program countries to obtain a visa It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  20. 20. Security (cont’d.)• Visitor facilitation: – Aims to improve experience of gaining access to and arriving in the U.S. by: • Reducing barriers to entry • Continuing and expanding the Visa Waver Program (VWP) – Provides access for international visitors from 34 low-risk countries • Improving customer services at international ports of entry It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  21. 21. Security (cont’d.)• VWP is important for the economy because it(s): – Stimulates business by facilitating access of foreign visitors – Keeps U.S. competitive in international travel market – Reciprocal nature, member countries are required to drop visa requirements among each other It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  22. 22. Security (cont’d.)• Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: – Addresses access for people with disabilities throughout aspects of life • Travel industry was significantly affected • Great strides were made in reducing physical barriers that inhibit or prevent delivery of services to traveling public with disabilities – Transportation – Public accommodations It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  23. 23. Security (cont’d.)• Objective of policies: – Mobilize the industry to respond to concerns about traveler safety and security • Community partnerships • Disaster preparedness programs – Perceived threats significantly impact the number of arrivals at destination cities • September 11th safeguards It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  24. 24. Security (cont’d.)• Policies in technology are used for several different reasons – Smart Cards and electronic ticketing – Automated Highway System – Airline Innovations – Electronic Information Kiosks – Intelligent Transportation Systems – CARS-511 (Condition Acquisition and Reporting System) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  25. 25. Research and Statistics• Objective is to develop a reliable economic analysis system – Uses uniform public and private sector data collection and reporting methods – Measuring travel and tourism industry is very difficult • Economic activity of tourism is not easily identifiable • Many different sectors selling different products It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  26. 26. Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) – Measure travelers’ purchases of different products and services • Clearly separates major components – U.S. travel companies are expected to make positive economic impacts on the U.S. economy through overseas operations • Consistency and compatibility is crucial It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  27. 27. Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA) – Network of over 800 travel and tourism research and marketing professionals • Advocate standards, quality research, and marketing information • Recognized source for providing current data It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  28. 28. Research and Statistics (cont’d.)• Travel research is important because it can help identify: – Problems and causes – Trends or market changes – New markets, products, and services – Aids in sales promotion – Inefficient operational methods, reducing waste It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  29. 29. Education and Training• Vital in the industry: – Increases awareness of travel and tourism’s contribution to job creation – Improves public and private sector coordination of education and training initiatives • Enhances career and employment opportunities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  30. 30. Education and Training (cont’d.)• Tourism employment characteristics: – Seasonality: visitor demand is not spread evenly throughout the year – Labor intensity: it takes more employees per customer to deliver the product or service – Higher employment growth: as compared to the total economy, because of an increasing number of people It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  31. 31. Education and Training (cont’d.) • Learning organizations – Dedicated to continuous improvement of the service process to obtain excellence • Begins at recruitment, continues through actual service delivery to evaluation and improvement • Includes training standards, certification, opportunities to support enrollment of school-to-work programs and career paths It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  32. 32. Environment• Environmental policies: – Preserve natural, historic, and cultural resources – Expand urban and rural economic development opportunities • Balanced development has a direct impact on quality of life of residents, local economies, and visitors’ experiences It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  33. 33. Transportation Infrastructure• Includes facilities, roads, bridges, equipment, and organizations that make transportation functional and available – Dramatic increase over the past century – Tourism policy ensures appropriate funding It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  34. 34. Transportation (cont’d.)• Highway travel: – Congestion is the major issue – Diverging viewpoints still exist about solutions • Expansion or improvement of public transportation system • Policy makers must consider several alternatives, weigh their benefits, costs, and adaptability It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  35. 35. International Organizations• United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) mission: – Develop tourism as a force for fostering international peace, respect for human rights, economic prosperity, job creation, and international trade – Provide incentives for protecting the environment and cultural heritage It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  36. 36. International Orgs. (cont’d.)• UNWTO regional activities: – Regional support • Representatives in each region of the world – Regional promotion projects • Special projects that promote tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  37. 37. International Orgs. (cont’d.)• UNWTO ethical issues: – Adoption of the Global Code of Ethics • Right to tourism and freedom of tourism movements, tourism’s contribution to mutual understanding and respect, and tourism as a sustainable development factor – Statement on Prevention of Organized Sex • Task Force to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  38. 38. International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Labor Organization (ILO) – UN specialized agency – Promotes social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights – Formulates labor standards and sets minimum standards of basic labor rights – Assists member countries by means of technical cooperation activities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  39. 39. International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Air Transport Association – Unites about 280 airlines – Regarded as the global organization for international air carriers – Coordinates transportation of passengers, freight, and mail in its global airline network – Ensures airlines operate in a safe, secure, reliable, efficient, and economical manner It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  40. 40. International Orgs. (cont’d.)• International Civil Aviation Organization – Goal is to secure international cooperation • Unify regulations, standards, and procedures regarding civil aviation matters – Global aviation security strategy • Response and long-term safeguard against possible terrorist activities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  41. 41. Regional International Orgs.• Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) – Assists governments in economic, social, and governance challenges of globalized economy – The only global forum for discussion and coordination of tourism policies and actions among industrialized countries It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  42. 42. Regional Orgs. (cont’d.)• Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) – Nonprofit travel trade association – Mission is to serve government tourist offices, hotels, airlines, and travel companies throughout Pacific Asia region • Enhance growth, value, and quality of Pacific Asia travel and tourism for the benefit of its membership It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  43. 43. Regional Orgs. (cont’d.)• Caribbean Tourism Organization (CTO) – Provides leadership for tourism organizations in the Caribbean region • Promotes sustainable tourism for economic and social benefits• European Travel Commission (ETC) – Responsible for the worldwide promotion overseas of Europe as a tourist destination It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  44. 44. National Level Orgs.• Travel Industry Association (TIA) – Nonprofit association – Leader in promoting and facilitating increased travel to and within the U.S. – Aims to protect from governmental initiatives that would impede travel – Key areas: government affairs, marketing and research It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  45. 45. National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) – Establish safety rulemaking • Developed a common civil-military system of air navigation and air traffic control• Department of Transportation (DOT) – Combined federal transportation responsibilities • Ensures national transportation system is accessible, safe, and convenient It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  46. 46. National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• National Transportation Safety Board – Independent federal agency – Charged by Congress with investigating every U.S. civilian aviation accident – Maintains a database of accidents and serves as a “court of appeals” It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  47. 47. National Level Orgs. (cont’d.)• Tourism Industries (TI) – Fosters an environment that encourages and allows the industry to generate revenues and jobs through tourism exports – Organized in three groups: • Deputy Assistant Secretary • Tourism Development Group • Tourism Policy Council It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  48. 48. State & Regional Level Orgs.• Domestic travel promotion is the foremost objective – Increasingly focus on promoting destinations through websites – Main objective of regional tourism organizations (RTOs) is to attract tourists to their specific geographic region It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  49. 49. State & Regional Orgs. (cont’d.) Figure 5–3 • The Organization of a National or State Tourism Department It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  50. 50. City or Local Level Orgs.• Differ widely in format and structure – Funded completely by local governments – Public–private partnerships• Chambers of commerce – Provide forums for the discussion of general business topics including tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  51. 51. City or Local Orgs. (cont’d.)• Convention and visitors bureaus (CVBs) – Nonprofit organizations • Represents interests of a city or urban area in solicitation and attraction of tourists – Acts like a liaison – Many belong to International Association of Convention and Visitors Bureaus (IACVB) • Mission is to enhance professionalism, effectiveness, and image of destination management organizations It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]

×