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Writing the Methodology Chapter of a Qualitative Study

This presentation is about how to write the methodology chapter of a qualitative study

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Writing the Methodology Chapter of a Qualitative Study

  1. 1. Conducting Qualitative Research Philip Adu, Ph.D. Methodology Expert National Center for Academic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE) The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Writing the Methodology Chapter
  2. 2. Surviving in a Class with the “Most Difficult of Professors” IT IS AVAILABLE ON Amazon Barnes and Noble Xulon Press This is a tangible and practical guide that can be used by any student to improve the way in which they learn, and handle challenges that are faced when dealing with difficult courses and professors.
  3. 3. Basic Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Making observations Test theory Qualitative Research Making observations Develop theory
  4. 4. Writing Your Chapter 3 (Things to Think About) Data Problem PurposeQuestion
  5. 5. Writing Your Chapter 3 (Chapter 3 is all about...) What (Decisions/Actions/Goals) What decisions and actions you have taken Why (Rationale) Why you took those decisions and actions How (Process/implementation) How you implemented the decisions
  6. 6. Main Components of Chapter 3 1. Research question 2. Research design 3. Researcher’s background, beliefs, and biases 4. Population, participants, and sampling technique 5. Procedure 6. Data processing 7. Quality assurance
  7. 7. 1. Research Question • State your research question(s) • Provide an argument supporting the need to address the research questions How does mental health stigma influence help seeking behaviors among teens with mental health problems? Features of a qualitative research question  Open-ended  Exploratory
  8. 8. 2. Research Design • State specific qualitative approach for your study • What the approach is all about • Why you think the approach is the most appropriate • Considering: • Purpose of the study (characteristics of the research question(s)) • Kind of data • Data source(s) • State specific philosophical paradigm associated to the research design and informing your study
  9. 9. 2. Research Design (Creswell, 2013; Yilmaz, 2013) 1. Phenomenological approach 2. Grounded theory approach 3. Narrative approach 4. Case study 5. Ethnography Five Main Qualitative Research Approaches
  10. 10. State specific philosophical paradigm informing your study (Creswell, 2013, p 36-37) • Describe your philosophical paradigm • Meaning • Ontological stance (nature of reality) • Epistemological Stance (nature of knowledge) • Axiological stance (nature of value) • Present how the paradigm informs the research design (discussing the consistency between the paradigm informs and research design) 2. Research Design
  11. 11. Philosophical Assumptions Related to a Qualitative Research Philosophical Assumptions Ontology (Reality) Epistemology (Knowledge) Axiology (Value) Meaning Multiple realities; Subjectivity of reality; Socially constructed reality Close interaction between the knower and the known Value and beliefs influence actions taken (Creswell, 2013; Yilmaz, 2013) 2. Research Design
  12. 12. State specific paradigm and philosophical assumptions informing your study Philosophical Assumptions Ontological stance (“Nature of reality”) Epistemological Stance (“How reality is known”) Axiological stance ( “Role of values”) PhilosophicalParadigm Transformative Active involvement of participants in the study in constructing realities Active participants’ involvement in arriving at the results (realities) Consideration of participants’ beliefs and values during the construction of realities Social constructivism Participants and researcher develop multiple realities through interaction Co-creation of reality between participants and researcher Beliefs and values are socially constructed Pragmatism “Reality is what is useful, is practical, and “work”” Reality is known through multiple approaches Conversation between participants and researcher about Beliefs and values (Creswell, 2013, p 36-37)
  13. 13. State specific paradigm and philosophical assumptions informing your study Philosophical Assumptions Ontological stance (“Nature of reality”) Epistemological Stance (“How reality is known”) Axiological stance ( “Role of values”) PhilosophicalParadigm Transformative Active involvement of participants in the study in constructing realities Active participants’ involvement in arriving at the results (realities) Consideration of participants’ beliefs and values during the construction of realities Social constructivism Participants and researcher develop multiple realities through interaction Co-creation of reality between participants and researcher Beliefs and values are socially constructed Pragmatism “Reality is what is useful, is practical, and “work”” Reality is known through multiple approaches Conversation between participants and researcher about Beliefs and values (Creswell, 2013, p 36-37)
  14. 14. State specific paradigm and philosophical assumptions informing your study Philosophical Assumptions Ontological stance (“Nature of reality”) Epistemological Stance (“How reality is known”) Axiological stance ( “Role of values”) PhilosophicalParadigm Transformative Active involvement of participants in the study in constructing realities Active participants’ involvement in arriving at the results (realities) Consideration of participants’ beliefs and values during the construction of realities Social constructivism Participants and researcher develop multiple realities through interaction Co-creation of reality between participants and researcher Beliefs and values are socially constructed Pragmatism “Reality is what is useful, is practical, and “work”” Reality is known through multiple approaches Conversation between participants and researcher about Beliefs and values (Creswell, 2013, p 36-37)
  15. 15. State specific paradigm and philosophical assumptions informing your study Philosophical Assumptions Ontological stance (“Nature of reality”) Epistemological Stance (“How reality is known”) Axiological stance ( “Role of values”) PhilosophicalParadigm Transformative Active involvement of participants in the study in constructing realities Active participants’ involvement in arriving at the results (realities) Consideration of participants’ beliefs and values during the construction of realities Social constructivism Participants and researcher develop multiple realities through interaction Co-creation of reality between participants and researcher Beliefs and values are socially constructed Pragmatism “Reality is what is useful, is practical, and “work”” Reality is known through multiple approaches Conversation between participants and researcher about Beliefs and values (Creswell, 2013, p 36-37)
  16. 16. 3. Researcher’s Background, Beliefs, and Biases • Address the following questions • What do you want your readers to know about you? • What are your background and experience? • What are your beliefs and biases related to what you are studying? • Essence: To help them better understand actions and findings of your study
  17. 17. 3. Researcher’s Background, Beliefs, and Biases • Background • Beliefs • Biases Participants • Background • Beliefs • Biases Researcher • Background • Beliefs • Biases Audience
  18. 18. 3. Researcher’s Background, Beliefs, and Biases Researcher’s background, beliefs, and biases Participants’ multiple perspectives THINGS TO THINK ABOUT • Being aware of your values (i.e. background, beliefs, and biases) • Making your values known • Getting know your participants and building trust • Distinguishing your views from the views of participants • Paying attention to context, participants’ background, and beliefs Collecting participants’ realities and experiences, and capturing how context and their background influence their realities and experiences Analyzing their realities and experiences to develop themes which represent data collected and address the research question(s)
  19. 19. 4. Population, Participants, and Sampling Technique • Describe: • Population or community you are studying (i.e. presenting the context/setting) • Participants you are focusing • Why they are most appropriate source of data • Sampling technique and why it is appropriate for your study • Number of participants and it is adequate
  20. 20. Qualitative Sampling Techniques Sampling Technique Meaning Intensity sampling Appropriate if you plan to explore different components of a case, phenomenon, situation, and/or behavior with varied intensity Homogeneous sampling Focusing on participants who have similar experiences, beliefs, and/or background Criterion sampling Selecting participants who meet specified criteria. Snowball sampling Recruit participants based on the recommendation of initial participant(s) sampled Random purposive sampling Randomly sampling participants who have been purposively sampled (Jacobs, 2013)
  21. 21. Number of Participants for a Qualitative Study • It depends on: 1. Research approach chosen 2. Recommendations made by qualitative researchers 3. Homogeneity of participants’ background 4. Accessibility of participants 5. Attainability of saturation 6. Availability of time and resources 7. Adequacy of the potential data to address the research question(s) (Baker & Edwards, 2012).
  22. 22. 5. Procedure • Step-by-step process of collecting data • Describing where and how you collected the data • The kind of data collected • Who you interacted with and for how long • Specific actions you took • What participants did in the study
  23. 23. Qualitative Data Collection • Data collection strategies: • Observation • Participants observation • In-depth interviews • Document collection/analysis • Focus groups • Characteristics of data: • Audio • Text • Visual/artifact (Yilmaz, 2013) 5. Procedure
  24. 24. 6. Data processing • Describing how demographic information was analyzed • Describing the data analysis process – how the research questions were addressed
  25. 25. 7. Quality Assurance • Credibility (Do the data and findings truly reflect participants’ experience?) • Accuracy of data and findings • Direct connection between findings and data collected • Rich context and in-depth description • Triangulation – using more then one data source • Transferability (Can the findings be transferred to similar context?) • Clearly describing the context • Detailing research assumptions the inform the study • Dependability (Would we arrive at similar results if the procedures are followed?) • Clearly presenting step-by-step data collection and analysis process • Presenting the paradigm that informed the study • Describing researcher's role, bias, and background (Trochim, 2006; Yilmaz, 2013)
  26. 26. Ncade.me@thechicagoschool.edu Philip Adu, Ph.D. Methodology Expert National Center for Academic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE)
  27. 27. References Adu, P. (2014). Qualitative Analysis: Coding and Categorizing. The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/qualitative- analysiscoding-and-categorizing-ncade-webinar Baker, S. E., & Edwards, R. (2012). How many qualitative interviews is enough? Southampton, UK: National Center For Research Methods. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (3rd). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Jacobs, R. M. (2013, March 20). Educational research: Sampling a population. website: www83.homepage.villanova.edu/richard.jacobs/.../lessons/sampling.ppt Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. London: Sage Trochim, W. M. (2006, October 20). Qualitative validity. Retrieved from Research methods knowledge base website: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualval.php Yilmaz, K. (2013). Comparison of quantitative and qualitative research traditions: Epistemological, theoretical, and methodological differences. European Journal of Education, 48(2), 311-325.

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