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Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews

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Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews

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Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews

  1. 1. Philip Adu, Ph.D. Methodology Expert National Center for Academic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE) The Chicago School Of Professional Psychology padu@thechicagoschool.edu @drphilipadu Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews
  2. 2. 1. Basic understanding of content analysis 2. Types of content analysis 3. Characteristics of qualitative content analysis 4. Content analysis steps 5. Ensuring dependability and credibility 6. Demonstration: Conducting content analysis using NVivo Outline
  3. 3. Basic Understanding of Content Analysis Source: Adu, P. (2017, February 24). Understanding Qualitative Content Analysis. Retrieved August 05, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/understanding-qualitative-content-analysis
  4. 4. Basic Understanding of Content Analysis Systematic process  Ensuring reliability (dependability) and credibility Making meaning  Meaning construction  By a researcher or a group of researchers Qualitative data (normally text) Reduce data to abstract descriptions  The findings represent the data  The findings address the research question (Schreier, 2012)
  5. 5. Basic Understanding of Content Analysis Spectrum of Making Meaning Constructing meaning  More standardized  Less effort  Less time  Context free  Background free  More objectivity  Less standardized  More effort  More time  Context bound  Background influence  More subjectivity Quantifying data Qualifying data (Schreier, 2012)
  6. 6. Types of Content Analysis Quantitative Content Analysis Qualitative Content Analysis Purpose Developing themes based on how many times relevant information occur in the data (frequency-based purpose) Developing themes to capture the underlying meanings of data portions (latent meaning- based purpose) Process  Identifying relevant data  Coding and tallying easily recognized evidence found in the data  Statistically analyzing the quantified codes to address the research question(s)  Identifying relevant data  Coding by examining the text including the context and background  Generating themes to represent the underlying meanings of data  Using the themes to address the research question(s) Product Reliable and context-free results Credible and context-bound results (Schreier, 2012)
  7. 7. When using the same kind of data, qualitative content analysis is more time- consuming than quantitative content analysis • True • False Poll 1
  8. 8. Characteristics of Qualitative Content Analysis Systematic process Data reduction Underlying meaning • Informed by hermeneutic phenomenology • Interpretation of the text taking into consideration: • Intent • Context • Audience Code frame – includes categories and themes initially generated • They are used to code relevant information in the data (Schreier, 2012)
  9. 9. Qualitative content analysis provides context-free results • True • False Poll 2
  10. 10. Conducting Comprehensive Literature Review: Qualitative Content Analysis Steps Pre-Content Analysis Stage: 1. Determine which aspect of the studies you plan to analyze • This should be informed by the research question(s) • It could be: Methodology (see: Hanson et al., 2005); Findings (see; Zainuddin & Halili, 2016) 2. Decide on specific characteristics of the research reports you plan to document • Example: Year of publication, type of research design, and data collection strategies used 3. Create an Excel spreadsheet containing characteristics of each study 4. Develop a code frame • It could be based on existing theory, model, studies or a sampled study
  11. 11. Conducting Comprehensive Literature Review: Content Analysis Steps Content Analysis Stage (Using NVivo): 1. Upload the data into NVivo 2. Create a container (Case Node) for each research article 3. Import the excel spread sheet with the article characteristics 4. Check whether the connection between the case nodes and the characteristics worked 5. Create nodes for the code frame 6. Drop significant information into their respective nodes 7. Categorize the codes Resource: Adu, P. (2017, September 18). Conducting a Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Literature Reviews: Using NVivo. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/conducting-a-qualitative-content-analysis-for-systematic-literature-reviews-using-nvivo
  12. 12. Ensuring Dependability and Credibility Dependability: (Would we arrive at similar results if the procedures are followed?)  Clearly presenting step-by-step data collection and analysis process  https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/writing-the- methodology-chapter-of-a-qualitative-study See slide 29 Credibility: (Do the data and findings truly reflect relevant information found in the articles?)  Accuracy of data and findings  Direct connection between findings and data collected  Rich context and in-depth description  https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/writing-the- methodology-chapter-of-a-qualitative-study See slide 29
  13. 13. Free Trial: http://www.qsrinternational.com/trial-nvivo Student version: • For Windows: http://www.qsrinternational.com/products/nvivo/pro/education/new/nvivo11prostulic ense12mon • For Mac: http://www.qsrinternational.com/products/nvivo/mac/education/new/nvivoformacstu lic12mon Full License • For Windows: http://www.qsrinternational.com/nvivo-product/nvivo11-for-windows • For Mac: http://www.qsrinternational.com/product/nvivo-mac Access to NVivo Software
  14. 14. NVivo Coding Process and Terms Nodes  Containers Nodes 1. Identify relevant information 2. Put it into a node (new or existing node) 3. Label the new node 23 References Each node contains the number of relevant information coded. They are called Node References (Code Frequencies) Node With Nvivo, we CODE relevant information and put them in their respective NODES
  15. 15. NVivo Coding Process and Terms Nodes  Containers 1. Identify relevant information 2. Put it into a node (new or existing node) 3. Label the new node 1. Label node 2. Describe node 3. Write memo (reflections) For each new node, you are expected to: Nodes
  16. 16. NVivo Coding Process and Terms Nodes  Containers Parent node Child node Child node Theme Category Sub-category 1. Identify relevant information 2. Put it into a node (new or existing node) 3. Label the new node 1. Label node 2. Describe node 3. Write memo (reflections) For each new node, you are expected to: Kinds of nodes Nodes
  17. 17. NVivo Coding Process and Terms Node Node Node Parent node Child node Child node Theme Category Sub-category Kinds of nodes Parent node Category/Theme Are Grouped into+ Node Node Parent node Category/Theme Are Grouped into+ Node
  18. 18. Organizing Cases and Characteristics (Connecting article’s features to respective their research articles) Case nodesResearch Article = Case create Research Article =Case
  19. 19. Organizing Cases and Characteristics (Connecting article’s features to respective their research articles) Attributes (Article’s features, e.g. Year of publication and research method used) Values (groupings) Year of Publication 1998 2014 2003 Research Method Quantitative Method Qualitative Method
  20. 20. Organizing Cases and Characteristics (Connecting article’s features to respective their research articles) Case nodesResearch Article = Case create Attributes (Article’s features, e.g. Year of publication and research method used) Values (groupings) Research Article =Case Year of Publication 1998 2014 2003 Research Method Quantitative Method Qualitative Method
  21. 21. References • Hanson, W. E., Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Petska, K. S., & Creswell, D. J. (2005). Mixed methods research designs in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2(55), 224-235. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.224 • Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. • Zainuddin, Z., & Halili, S. H. (2016). Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3), 313-340.
  22. 22. Philip Adu, PhD. Methodology Expert National Center forAcademic & Dissertation Excellence (NCADE)The Chicago School of Professional Psychology Ncade.me@thechicagoschool.edu You could reach me at padu@thechicagoschool.edu and @drphilipadu on twitter. To cite this document,copy the following: Adu, P. (2017, September 18). Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews. Retrieved September 18, 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/kontorphilip/qualitative-content-analysis-for-systematic-reviews
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Qualitative Content Analysis for Systematic Reviews

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