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American Women in WW2

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American Women in WW2

  1. 1. American Women in World War 2 2 American Women in World War February 27, 2013 Agenda• “Rosie the Riveter”• WASP (featuring Konley Kelley, CAF)• Nurses (featuring Andy Tubbs)• USO• Homefront/volunteerism• Concluding Thoughts• Your stories• Pictures with “Rosie”
  2. 2. American Women in World War 2Origin of “Rosie the Riveter”Credit Frances Perkins, the nation’sfourth Secretary of Labor (and the firstwoman to serve in a President’s Cabinet)with the birth of “Rosie the Riveter.”Secretary Perkins resisted the ideafloated in the Roosevelt Administrationof drafting American women to serve inthe military in WW2.She believed that women would serve the war effort better(and get a foothold in “non-traditional” jobs) if they could enterthe civilian workforce in greatly expanded numbers and domany of the jobs left behind by men who went overseas tofight. During the war, millions of American women went towork in factories, many of whom produced aircraft, armoredvehicles, munitions and war supplies.This is their story….
  3. 3. American Women in World War 2American Women in World War 2 3
  4. 4. American Women in World War 2Your host “Rosie the Riveter”
  5. 5. American Women in World War 2What was going on in the world beforeWW2?
  6. 6. American Women in World War 2What was it like tobe a woman beforethe war? Artist: Norman Rockwell
  7. 7. American Women in World War 2Setting the stage – World War II begins December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor War in Europe begins September 1, 1939
  8. 8. American Women in World War 2Recruitment Posters J. Howard Miller 1943 Poster
  9. 9. American Women in World War 2Introducing“Rosie” Artist: Norman Rockwell
  10. 10. American Women in World War 2 Willow Run Plant: Ford Motor Company Willow Run produced one B-24 per hour during peak productionPilots slept on 1,300 cots waiting forthe B-24s to roll off the assembly line. And hey – a good number of thepilots were female. We’ll hear moreabout that later.
  11. 11. American Women in World War 2Rosie sure learned a lot..…. Bucker: a person who uses bucking bar on the other side of the metal to smooth out the rivets. Riveter: a gun used to shoot rivets through the metal and fasten it together or the person who uses the tool. 11
  12. 12. American Women in World War 2 12
  13. 13. American Women in World War 2Quitten time…..
  14. 14. American Women in World War 2Rosie with the CAFB-29/B-24Squadron
  15. 15. American Women in World War 2Signing inside “FIFI”
  16. 16. American Women in World War 2Post War
  17. 17. American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots W.A.S.P. 17
  18. 18. American Women in World War 2Konley Kelley, CAF B-29 Superfortress C-45 B-24Expeditor Liberator 88 year-old James Clark B-29 Bombardier 500th BG/20th Air Force back in his seat 66 years later www.cafb29b24.org
  19. 19. American Women in World War 2Setting the stage July, 1937 Amelia Earhart disappears over the Pacific 19
  20. 20. American Women in World War 2Two amazing women Jackie Cochran Nancy Harkness Love
  21. 21. American Women in World War 2Jackie Cochran “Speed Queen”
  22. 22. American Women in World War 2Nancy Harkness Love
  23. 23. American Women in World War 2Civilian Pilot Training ProgramJune, 1939 U.S. Government establishes the Civilian PilotTraining Program. The program provides pilot training acrossthe country and allows for one woman to be trained for everyten men.
  24. 24. American Women in World War 21942 - Two ideas take flightThe demand for male combat pilots and warplanes left the AirTransport Command with a shortage of experienced pilots toferry planes from factory to point of embarkation. ATCofficers remember Nancy Harkness Love’s proposal and hiredher to recruit 25 of the most qualified women in the countryto ferry military aircraft. These pilots were called theWomen’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS)General Henry “Hap” Arnold, CommandingGeneral of the Army Air Forces approvesa program to train a large group of womento serve as ferrying pilots. The training schoolIs placed under the direction of Jackie Cochran.It is called the Army Air Forces Women’s FlyingTraining Detachment (WFTD) 24
  25. 25. American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)On August 5, 1943, the WAFS and the WFTD were mergedand renamed the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP).Jackie Cochran was appointed Director and Nancy HarknessLove was named WASP Executive with the Air TransportCommand Ferrying Division.
  26. 26. American Women in World War 2WASP Uniform
  27. 27. American Women in World War 2WASP Cornelia Fort Scene from TORA! TORA! TORA! (1970) 27
  28. 28. American Women in World War 2WASP facts• WASP served in the Army Air Forces from September 1942 to December, 1944.• WASP pilots were stationed at 120 Army Air bases in the United States and near most major aircraft factories.• WASP flew 78 different aircraft in the Army Air Corps including the B-29.• WASP flew 60 million total miles of operational flights.• Flying duties included ferrying, engineering tests, demonstration, check pilot, safety pilot, administrative, flight instructor, target towing for anti- aircraft, target towing for aerial gunner practice, tracking, searchlight missions, simulated strafing and radio-controlled flights.• WASP earned $150.00 per month while in training and $250.00 per month after graduation. They paid for their own food, uniforms and lodging.
  29. 29. American Women in World War 2WASP disbandedUnfortunately the WASP were hired under Civil Service. Jackie Cochranand General Arnold had intended the women pilots to be made part ofthe military but the need for pilots was so great and the road tomilitarization too slow – requiring an act of Congress.By the time the bill was put beforeCongress in late 1944, the need forpilots had lessened. Men wereneeded in the infantry. Male pilotshad no desire to join this branchof service. A move to disbandthe WASP took hold. The WASPmilitarization bill was defeated by19 votes in the House ofRepresentatives.The WASP were deactivated on December 20, 1944.
  30. 30. American Women in World War 2WASP Bee Haydu
  31. 31. American Women in World War 2WASP receive Veteran status President Jimmy Carter signs the The G.I. Bill Improvement Act of 1977, granting the WASP full military status for their service on November 23, 1977 July 1, 2009, President Barack Obama signs a bill to award a Congressional Gold Medal to the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP).  WASP / Congressional Gold Medal
  32. 32. American Women in World War 2WASP Dora Dougherty and “Ladybird” Dora Dougherty Dorothea "Didi" Moorman with Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets 32
  33. 33. American Women in World War 2Dora Dougherty Strother Debbie Travis King, Barry Vincent, David Oliver, Dora Dougherty Strother, Tracy Toth, and “FIFI” Dora Dougherty Strother and Debbie Travis King
  34. 34. American Women in World War 2 Debbie Travis King 3rd woman in history to qualify to pilot a B-29 Superfortress September 17, 2012 First B-29 pilot in the CAFDebbie Travis King and Tracy Tothin their WASP commemorative uniforms
  35. 35. American Women in World War 2Like Father, like DaughterTom Travis and Debbie Travis King
  36. 36. American Women in World War 2National Museum of WASP, Sweetwater, TX http://waspmuseum.org/ 36
  37. 37. American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) Exhibit atTWU Blagg-Huey Library, Denton, Texas http://www.twu.edu/library/wasp.asp 37
  38. 38. American Women in World War 2Nurses in WW2 38
  39. 39. American Women in World War 2 Setting the Stage Prior to WW2, 1,000 nurses filled the ranks of the Army Nurse Corps. Roughly 700 nurses were in the Navy Nurse Corps. By the end of WW2, there were over 54,000 Army Nurse Corps and 11,000 Navy Nurse Corps – all were women. Nurses in WW2 served in every theater of combat and closer to the front lines than ever before in field hospitals, hospital ships, hospital trains, and as flight nurses aboard medical planes. Flight nurseNurseat fieldhospital Hospital Ship Dinard in the English Channel
  40. 40. American Women in World War 2Captain Lucille Rosedale Tubbs USAF (retired)Presented by her son, Andy Tubbs
  41. 41. American Women in World War 2VJ Day Famous KissVJ Day in Times Square isa photograph by AlfredEisenstaedt that portraysan American sailor kissinga nurse on Victory overJapan Day (VJ Day) inTime Square, New York onAugust 14, 1945
  42. 42. American Women in World War 2Women in the USO Six U.S.O. Girls wear bomber crew jackets belonging to the 90th Bomb Group, a.k.a. “Jolly Rogers,” under a 42 B-24 bomber.
  43. 43. American Women in World War 2 USO history The national United Service Organization (USO) was formed on April 17, 1941. It was created to serve the religious, spiritual, and educational needs of the men and women in the armed forces. USO clubs were to be financed by the public through voluntary contributions. Bob Hope The USO truly made history when it came to entertaining the troops. From 1941 to 1947, USO Camp Shows presented an amazing 428,521 performances. Over 7,000 entertainers, "brave soldiers in greasepaint" traveled overseas, from the biggest movie stars to unknown vaudevillians. By the end of the WW2, more than 1.5 million volunteers had worked on behalf of the USO.Marlene Dietrich
  44. 44. American Women in World War 2Andrews Sisters The Andrews Sisters “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy of Company B” 44
  45. 45. American Women in World War 2HomefrontThree million women served as RedCross volunteers. Millions of womenworked for the Civilian Defense as air-raid wardens, fire watchersmessengers, drivers, auxiliary police. Women volunteers also devoted hours to scanning the sky with binoculars, looking out for enemy planes Paula Prentiss, John Wayne IN HARMS WAY (1965)
  46. 46. American Women in World War 2Concluding Thoughts from “Rosie”Phew…that was a journey. American women in WW2 were an awesome bunch.There is so much more you can research. That internet thing has all the good stuff.Time to hear from YOU. Would any of you like to share your story about a Rosie,WASP, Nurse, or a family member on the homefront during the war?Thanks Andy, Kon and the LeCroy Center for their hospitality.I has been delightful visiting with you! Get your picture with “Rosie” after the presentation

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