Just coming out of the Great Depression .. The economy reached bottom in the winter of 1932–33; then came four years of very rapid growth until 1937, when the Recession of 1937 brought back 1934 levels of unemployment.  The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 2, 1945), called so after the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941. China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany (see Sino-German cooperation ), the Soviet Union (see Soviet Volunteer Group ) and the United States (see American Volunteer Group ). Spanish Civil War: 17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939 between the Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish republic, and the Nationalists , a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco . The Nationalists prevailed and Franco would rule Spain for the next 36 years. The rebel coup was supported by a number of conservative groups including the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right , [nb 3] monarchists such as the religious conservative Carlists , and the Fascist Falange . [nb 4]  The coup was supported by military units in Morocco , Pamplona , Burgos , Valladolid , Cádiz , Cordova , and Seville . However, barracks in important cities such as Madrid , Barcelona , Valencia , Bilbao and Málaga did not join in the rebellion. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The rebels, led by General Franco, then embarked upon a war of attrition against the established government for the control of the country. The rebel forces received support from Nazi Germany , the Kingdom of Italy , and neighboring Portugal , while the Soviet Union and Mexico intervened in support of the "loyalist," or Republican, side. All the world was as war with the exception of the US. Until that very day at Pearl Harbor
Working was not new to women. Women have always worked , especially minority and lower-class women. However, the cultural division of labor by sex ideally placed white middle-class women in the home and men in the workforce. Also, because of high unemployment during the Depression, most people were against women working because they saw it as women taking jobs from unemployed men. It’s important to mention that before the United States entered World War II, several companies already had contracts with the government to produce war equipment for the Allies. Almost overnight the United States entered the war and war production had to increase dramatically in a short amount of time. Auto factories were converted to build airplanes, shipyards were expanded, and new factories were built, and all these facilities needed workers. At first companies did not think that there would be a labor shortage so they did not take the idea of hiring women seriously. Eventually, women were needed because companies were signing large, lucrative contracts with the government just as all the men were leaving for the service. Even Henry Ford did not want to hire women based principal. Boy did we show them what we could do when it came down to it… (Work on this)
The United States was not prepared for war, much less a war on two fronts. Translation:having to fight a two-front war means-- splitting their forces between the European theatre against Nazi Germany and the Pacific War against Japan. Japan too was fighting in both Asia and the Pacific. WW2 (Axis: japan, italy, Germany vs Allied(THE rest of the world) At the outset of WW2, the US army ranked 17 th in the world in size and combat power. The US Navy was mostly sailing WWI-era battleswagons and just a few aircraft carriers. Air power numbered roughly 1,700 combat aircraft (that number would grow to over 200,000 by the end of the war). Most fighter and bombers were inferior to the aircraft of the German Luftwaffe or the Empire of Japan.
Magazines and posters played a key role in the effort to recruit women for the wartime workforce. My sister went to work for the In 1942, Pittsburgh artist J. Howard Miller was hired by the Westinghouse Company’s War Production Coordinating Committee to create a series of posters for the war effort. One of these posters became the famous “We Can Do It!” image — an image that in later years would also become “Rosie the Riveter,” though not intended at its creation. Miller based his “We Can Do It!” poster on a United Press photograph taken of Michigan factory worker Geraldine Doyle. Its intent was to help recruit women to join the work force. At the time of the poster’s release the name “Rosie” was not associated with the image. The poster – one of many in Miller’s Westinghouse series – was not initially seen much beyond one Midwest Westinghouse factory where it was displayed for two weeks in February 1942. It was only later, around the 1970s and 1980s, that the Miller poster was rediscovered and became famous as “Rosie The Riveter.” But both images of Rosie – Rockwell’s and Miller’s – were used to help enlist women in the WWII workforce. In later years, and in fact up to present times, these images have became iconic symbols of women’s rights struggles, and are occasionally adapted for other political campaigns as well. But it was during the World War II years that “Rosie the Riveter” got her start.
Norman Rockwell’s ‘Rosie The Riveter’ cover for the May 29, 1943 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, was the first visual image to incorporate the ‘Rosie’ name. Saturday Evening Post cover artist, Norman Rockwell, is generally credited with creating one of the popular “Rosie the Riveter” images used to encourage women to become wartime workers. Rockwell’s “Rosie,” shown at right, appeared on the cover of the May 29th,1943 edition of The Saturday Evening Post . The Post was then one of the nation’s most popular magazines, with a circulation of about 3 million copies each week. In addition to Rockwell’s Rosie, however, another image would become the more commonly known “Rosie the Riveter” image.
The Willow Run manufacturing plant, located between Ypsilanti and Belleville, Michigan, was constructed during World War II by Ford Motor Company for the mass production of the B-24 Liberator military aircraft. [ At its peak, Willow Run produced 1 B24 per hour and 650 B-24s per month by 1944. Pilots and crews slept on 1,300 cots waiting for the B-24s to roll off the assembly line at Willow Run. Ford produced half of the 18,000 total B-24s at Willow Run.
Rosie sure had a lot to learn…. The women worked in pairs. I was the riveter and this big, strong, white girl from a cotton farm in Arkansas worked as the bucker. The riveter used a gun to shoot rivets through the metal and fasten it together. The bucker used a bucking bar on the other side of the metal to smooth out the rivets. Bucking was harder than shooting rivets; it required more muscle. Riveting required more skill."
Jitterbug or Swing Dancing
During the Second World War, women proved that they could do "men's" work, and do it well. With men away to serve in the military and demands for war material increasing, manufacturing jobs opened up to women and upped their earning power. Yet women's employment was only encouraged as long as the war was on. Once the war was over, federal and civilian policies replaced women workers with men. In More Work for Mother , Ruth Schwartz Cowan wrote that psychiatrists, psychologists, and popular writers of the era critiqued women who wished to pursue a career, and even women who wished to have a job, referring to such "unlovely women" as "lost," "suffering from penis envy," "ridden with guilt complexes," or just plain "man-hating.“ Although many did return to working at home after the war, After the war, most women returned home, let go from their jobs. Their jobs, again, belonged to men. However, there were lasting effects. Women had proven that they could do the job and within a few decades, women in the workforce became a common sight. An immediate effect is often overlooked. These women had saved much of their wages since there was little to buy during the war. It was this money that helped serve as a down payment for a new home and helped launch the prosperity of the 1950s.
I have the privilege of sharing the story of the Women Airforce Service Pilots or WASP with you today. The WASP mascot cartoon character in this picture is nicknamed “Fifinella.” This character was drawn by Walt Disney. You can see “Fifinella” on the jackets of the pilots in the picture.
My name is Konley Kelley. I work at Richland College and have been a proud member of the Commemorative Air Force B-29/B-24 Squadron for about 2 ½ years. About a 1 ½ years ago, I was here with Keville Miller who gave a presentation about the B-29 Superfortress. Our Squadron maintains and flies the only air worthy B-29 Superfortress in the world “FIFI.” We also fly one of only two flying B-24 Liberators. Her name is “Diamond Lil.” I’d blush if I showed you her nose art. We also fly a C-45 called “Bucket of Bolts.” One of my Squadron mates, Al Benzing is here today. He did flew on BOB yesterday. We’ll both be here to talk about the CAF after the presentation. One of my joys doing this is meeting veterans like B-29 bombardier James Clark. Here I am with James at a tour stop in Memphis. He climbed on board “FIFI” and sat in his seat 66 years later for a ride. I’m about to share the stories of some amazing ladies who, like James, bravely served their country.
In the 1930’s, the undisputed Queen of the skies was Amelia Earhart or “Lady Lindy.” She made news time and time again until her mysterious disappearance in 1937 trying to fly around the world. But, there were some other courageous female aviators you may not have heard much about.
In the late 1930’s, two women, Jackie Cochran and Nancy Harkness Love were flying airplanes and gaining notoriety. One owned a successful aviation company and was a test pilot. The other was a beautician with her own cosmetics line who made a name for herself as a pilot and air racer. Together these two women join forces and form the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) of WW2. Let’s learn more about them.
Jackie Cochran was born in 1906. In 1936, the young beautician married Frank Odlum, one of the richest men in the world. He helped her establish a cosmetics business. After a friend offered her a ride in an aircraft, Jackie began taking flying lessons. She learned to fly in just three weeks. She also took up air racing and by 1938 was the considered the best female pilot in the United States. By the way, she called her cosmetics line “Wings.” Marilyn Monroe fronted Jackie’s lipstick line. The day after Hitler’s troops invaded Poland, Jackie wrote Eleanor Roosevelt introducing a women’s flying division in the Army Air Forces. I’ll cover what happened after that in just a minute. As for Jackie’s life post war, she racked up more speed, distance and altitude records than any woman in history. Here are some of her milestones:. In 1935, she became the first woman to fly in the Bendix Trophy Race, which she won in 1938. Became the first woman to make a blind instrument landing in 1937. During World War II she was the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic Ocean and later headed the WASP program. In 1953, she became the first woman to exceed the speed of sound. By 1962 she had set 73 flying records and also flew at Mach 2. Jackie died in 1980. Captain Herb Taylor story.
The daughter of a wealthy physician, Nancy developed an intense interest in aviation at an early age. At 16, she took her first flight and earned her pilot's license within a month. Although she went to all the right schools, she was restless and adventurous. While in school, she earned extra money taking students for rides in an airplane she rented from a nearby airport. In 1936, she married Robert M. Love, an Air Corps Reserve major. They built their own successful Boston-based aviation company for which Nancy was a pilot. In the late 30’s she flew as a test pilot. In May, 1940, Nancy Harkness Love wrote to Lt. Col. Robert Olds, who was in charge of the Ferrying Command within the Army Air Corps. She had found 49 women with more than 1,000 flying hours that could transport planes from factories to bases. More on that story in just a minute…Some of Nancy’s achievements - While working as a test pilot for Gwinn Aircar in Buffalo she helped develop the tricycle landing gear. Named WASP (Women’s Airforce Service Pilots) Executive in Air Transport Command in August 1943, responsible for six ferrying squadrons and over 300 women pilots. SEE LOGO Was decorated simultaneously with the Distinguished Service Medal and the Air Medal for Leadership Designated with the rank of Lt. Colonel in the US Army Air Force Reserves First woman certified to fly the P-51 Mustang, B-25 Mitchell and the B-17 Flying Fortress and several other aircraft. Nancy Harkness Love died in 1976.
Hundreds of thousands of people were taught to fly by the Civilian Pilot Training Program before it was phased out in the mid-1940’s. As you can see above, women were trained but not in the same numbers as men. Some of our greatest WW2 flyers and combat pilots were trained by the Civilian Pilot Training program including the Tuskegee airmen. So Jackie and Nancy were lucky to count themselves as qualified female pilots by the time war broke out. With a World War underway, their mission to train more female pilots was about to take flight.
Requirements for acceptance in the WAFS: Between 21-35 years old 500 hours of flying time Commercial pilots license 200-horsepower rating Cross-country flying experience Out of the nearly 100 best women pilots in the country recruited by Nancy Harkness Love, 28 “originals” met these rigorous standards and were the first members of the WAFS. By July, 1944, 303 women were in the (Air Transport Ferrying Division) of the WASP 25,000 women applied for the WFTD. 1,830 women were accepted and 1,074 graduated from the program The WAFS and the WFTD were recruited as civilian pilots.
WASP were the first women to serve as pilots and fly military aircraft for the United States Army Air Forces in WW2. The received the same training as male aviation cadets with the exception of aerial gunnery training and little formation flying or acrobatics.
The WASP pilot’s wings pin. WASP were first to wear the Army Air Corps and later US Air Force “Santiago Blue” uniforms – now standard dress for the US Air Force
Cornelia Fort was nearly killed when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. She was a flight instructor that day and barely made it to safety as the Japanese strafed her airfield. Her experience is portrayed in the movie TORA TORA TORA. Jackie went on to become a ferrying pilot with the WAFS/WASP. Here is an exerpt from a article written by Cornelia and published in the Woman’s Home Companion in June, 1943. The article is called “Twilight’s Last Gleaming.” “ For all the girls in the WAFS, I think the most concrete moment of happiness came at our first review. Suddenly and for the first time we felt a part of something larger. Because of our uniforms which we had earned, we were marching with the men, marching with all the freedom-loving people in the world. And then while we were standing at attention a bomber took off followed by four fighters. We knew the bomber was headed across the ocean and that the fighters were going to escort it part way. As they circled over us I could hardly see them for the tears in my eyes. It was striking symbolism and I think all of us felt it. As long as our planes fly overhead the skies of America are free and that's what all of us everywhere are fighting for. And that we, in a very small way, are being allowed to help keep that sky free is the most beautiful thing I have ever known. On March 21, 1943, shortly after this article was written, Cornelia Fort was killed in a mid-air collision while ferrying a plane near Abilene, Texas. She was the first WASP killed. 38 WASP were killed in the line of duty. Cornelia was 24 years old when she died.
WASP served in the Army Air Forces from September 1942 to December, 1944. WASP pilots were stationed at 120 Army Air bases in the United States and near most major aircraft factories. WASP flew 78 different aircraft in the Army Air Corps including the B-29. WASP flew 60 million total miles of operational flights. Flying duties included ferrying, engineering tests, demonstration, check pilot, safety pilot, administrative, flight instructor, target towing for anti-aircraft, target towing for aerial gunner practice, tracking, searchlight missions, simulated strafing and radio-controlled flights. WASP earned $150.00 per month while in training and $250.00 per month after graduation. They paid for their own food, uniforms and lodging.
Unfortunately the WASP were hired under Civil Service. Jackie Cochran and General Arnold had intended the women pilots to be made part of the military but the need for pilots was so great and the road to militarization too slow – requiring an act of Congress. By the time the bill was put before Congress in late 1944, the need for pilots had lessened. Men were needed in the infantry. Male pilots had no desire to join this branch of service. A move to disband the WASP took hold. The WASP militarization bill was defeated by 19 votes in the House of Representatives. The WASP were deactivated on December 20, 1944.
Early in 1944, Bee was accepted in the 44-7 WASP (Women Airforce Service Pilots) training class. Bee proudly served until the WASP disbanded. She and her husband later bought a Cessna aircraft dealership and she continued to fly whenever she could. After the war, WASP formed an organization to maintain their relationships and as an advocacy group for women and female pilots. In 1975, Bee was elected President of the Order of Fifinella, the WASP organization. Bee maintained her relationships with fellow WASP and ultimately led them on a quest in the late 1970s.
Thanks to the work of the WASP leaders such as Bee Haydu and several Washington legislators including Barry Goldwater, the WASP finally received full military status in November, 1977. Here is a short video about the WASP and their achievements.
‘ So Easy A Woman Could Fly It’ Women pilots in WW II helped men conquer fears of flying the B-29 In June of 1944, Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets recruited Dora Dougherty and Dorothea "Didi" Moorman to fly demonstrations of the B-29. Neither woman had ever flown a four-engine plane before. The WASPs were trained on the bomber for just three days. Following their brief instruction, Dougherty and Moorman flew multiple demonstrations of the B-29 "Ladybird" without any other pilots aboard. Fellow WASP Mary Ellen Keil described the demos "They had the two women flying around to the various B-29 bases and the men would see them land the plane and get out. That would give them second thoughts, when they saw a woman flying the plane!“ These flights were quickly stopped a few days later, when Air Staff Major General Barney Giles told Tibbets that the women were "putting the big football players to shame." Dougherty and Moorman were sent back to Eglin Army Air Field, but their mission had been a success: Tibbets' men finally consented to fly the B-29, and Dougherty and Moorman became the first women to pilot a B-29 from start to finish. First flight, September 17, 1942 Eddie Allen
After WW2, Dora Dougherty became a chief pilot at the University of Illinois for the school’s aviation psychology lab. She received her Master’s Degree from the University of Illinois and Ph.D. in aviation psychology from New York University. She later took a job at Bell Helicopter and set two world records for helicopters – one for altitude and one for distance. She rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel in the Air Force Reserve. Here are some pictures of Dora last year in “FIFI’s” cockpit. In this picture, one of our CAF members, Debbie Travis King is in the co-pilot’s seat. You can also see her in a photo with another WASP veteran, Barry Vincent and CAF crew members.
I was honored to be on a training flight when Debbie Travis King became only the 3 rd women in history to qualify to pilot a B-29 Superfortress. It was an amazing day. I could hear Debbie over the headset the whole time. You can see Debbie and another fellow Squadron member, Tracy Toth in commemorative WASP uniforms in this picture. Both Debbie and Tracy are qualified to fly the B-24 Liberator in our Squadron. They carry the proud legacy of the WASP with them.
The day after Debbie qualified, she was in the “FIFI’s” right seat with Pilot and Aircraft Commander, Tom Travis, who also is her Father. They flew “FIFI” from Addison to Tyler on the first leg of a tour. Both are very talented pilots and volunteer their time to fly our bombers and mentor others. They are just great, great people. I’d fly with them any day.
Today, Avenger Field is a municipal airfield and campus of Texas State Technical College. A monument on the campus bears the names of 1,074 women pilots who received their WASP silver wings here. A low-relief memorial sculpture honors the 38 women pilots who died in service. A 1929 hangar near the campus is the home of the National WASP WWII Museum, where exhibits tell the pioneer pilots' stories.
In 1992 TWU in Denton, Texas was designated the location for the national archives for the WASP. The amount of information on the TWU website is overwhelming. Please check it out or visit the Blagg Huey Library at TWU in person. “ Rosie” my part is done. Back to you!
Thanks Kon! That was some really neat history. The WASP are an inspiration. You know, some of my friends were nurses in WW2. I’ve learned a little about this while preparing to see all of you today.
The ranks of Army and Navy nurses in prior to WW2 was pretty thin. You can see by this slide that all changed with WW2. We’re very privileged to have with us today, Andy Tubbs. Andy’s mother, Captain Lucille Rosedale Tubbs, served honorably in the Army Nurse Corps in WW2. Andy, could you come up and tell your Mom’s story?
Edith Shain wrote to Eisenstaedt in the late 1970s claiming to be the woman in the picture.  In August 1945, Shain was working at Doctor's Hospital in New York City as a nurse when she and a friend heard on the radio that World War II had ended. They went to Times Square where all the celebrating was and as soon as she arrived on the street from the subway, the sailor grabbed her in an embrace and kissed her. She related that at the time she thought she might as well let him kiss her since he fought for her in the war. Shain did not claim that she was the woman in the white dress until many years later when she wrote to Eisenstaedt. He notified the magazine that he had received her letter claiming to be the subject. Here is a famous picture by Alfred Eisentaedt of an American sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square on VJ Day, August 14, 1945. Many years later the nurse, Edith Shain, came forward to identify herself. No one really knows for sure who the sailor was. He was so happy he just felt like kissing strangers. Hey – what a bummer I wasn’t in Times Square that day!
How ‘bout some entertainment now courtesy of my friends in the USO?
The national United Service Organization (USO) was formed on April 17, 1941. It was created to serve the religious, spiritual, and educational needs of the men and women in the armed forces. USO clubs were to be financed by the public through voluntary contributions. The USO truly made history when it came to entertaining the troops. From 1941 to 1947, USO Camp Shows presented an amazing 428,521 performances. Over 7,000 entertainers, "brave soldiers in greasepaint" traveled overseas, from the biggest movie stars to unknown vaudevillians. By the end of the WW2, more than 1.5 million volunteers had worked on behalf of the USO. One USO entertainer in WW2 said this - "We've played to audiences, many of them ankle deep in mud, huddled under the ponchos in the pouring rain (it breaks your heart the first two or three times to see men so hungry for entertainment.) We've played on uncovered stages, when we, as well as the audience, got rain-soaked. We've played with huge tropical bugs flying in our hair and faces; we've played to audiences of thousands of men, audiences spreading from our very feet to far up a hillside and many sitting in the trees. . . . We've played to audiences in small units of 500 or so, and much oftener to audiences of 8 to 10,000. Every night we play a different place. Edward Skvarna remembers 1943, when he met Donna Reed at a U.S.O. canteen and asked her to dance. "I had never danced with a celebrity before, so I felt delighted, privileged even, to meet her. . . . But I really felt she was like a girl from back home." Jay Fultz, author of her biography, states that soldiers "often wrote to her as if to a sister or the girl next door, confiding moments of homesickness, loneliness, and anxiety."
Sadly we lost the last of the Andrews Sisters in January this year. I am thrilled to share this video of the Andrews sisters with you performing their classic song “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy of Company B”
Back home our ladies also served our country in many ways. Three million women served as Red Cross volunteers. Millions of women worked for the Civilian Defense as air-raid wardens, fire watchers messengers, drivers, auxiliary police. Women volunteers also devoted hours to scanning the sky with binoculars, looking out for enemy planes Here is a picture of Paula Prentiss portraying a coast watcher in the movie IN HARMS WAY with the Duke.
American Women in WW2
American Women in World War 2 2 American Women in World War February 27, 2013 Agenda• “Rosie the Riveter”• WASP (featuring Konley Kelley, CAF)• Nurses (featuring Andy Tubbs)• USO• Homefront/volunteerism• Concluding Thoughts• Your stories• Pictures with “Rosie”
American Women in World War 2Origin of “Rosie the Riveter”Credit Frances Perkins, the nation’sfourth Secretary of Labor (and the firstwoman to serve in a President’s Cabinet)with the birth of “Rosie the Riveter.”Secretary Perkins resisted the ideafloated in the Roosevelt Administrationof drafting American women to serve inthe military in WW2.She believed that women would serve the war effort better(and get a foothold in “non-traditional” jobs) if they could enterthe civilian workforce in greatly expanded numbers and domany of the jobs left behind by men who went overseas tofight. During the war, millions of American women went towork in factories, many of whom produced aircraft, armoredvehicles, munitions and war supplies.This is their story….
American Women in World War 2American Women in World War 2 3
American Women in World War 2Your host “Rosie the Riveter”
American Women in World War 2What was going on in the world beforeWW2?
American Women in World War 2What was it like tobe a woman beforethe war? Artist: Norman Rockwell
American Women in World War 2Setting the stage – World War II begins December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor War in Europe begins September 1, 1939
American Women in World War 2Recruitment Posters J. Howard Miller 1943 Poster
American Women in World War 2Introducing“Rosie” Artist: Norman Rockwell
American Women in World War 2 Willow Run Plant: Ford Motor Company Willow Run produced one B-24 per hour during peak productionPilots slept on 1,300 cots waiting forthe B-24s to roll off the assembly line. And hey – a good number of thepilots were female. We’ll hear moreabout that later.
American Women in World War 2Rosie sure learned a lot..…. Bucker: a person who uses bucking bar on the other side of the metal to smooth out the rivets. Riveter: a gun used to shoot rivets through the metal and fasten it together or the person who uses the tool. 11
American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots W.A.S.P. 17
American Women in World War 2Konley Kelley, CAF B-29 Superfortress C-45 B-24Expeditor Liberator 88 year-old James Clark B-29 Bombardier 500th BG/20th Air Force back in his seat 66 years later www.cafb29b24.org
American Women in World War 2Setting the stage July, 1937 Amelia Earhart disappears over the Pacific 19
American Women in World War 2Two amazing women Jackie Cochran Nancy Harkness Love
American Women in World War 2Jackie Cochran “Speed Queen”
American Women in World War 2Nancy Harkness Love
American Women in World War 2Civilian Pilot Training ProgramJune, 1939 U.S. Government establishes the Civilian PilotTraining Program. The program provides pilot training acrossthe country and allows for one woman to be trained for everyten men.
American Women in World War 21942 - Two ideas take flightThe demand for male combat pilots and warplanes left the AirTransport Command with a shortage of experienced pilots toferry planes from factory to point of embarkation. ATCofficers remember Nancy Harkness Love’s proposal and hiredher to recruit 25 of the most qualified women in the countryto ferry military aircraft. These pilots were called theWomen’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS)General Henry “Hap” Arnold, CommandingGeneral of the Army Air Forces approvesa program to train a large group of womento serve as ferrying pilots. The training schoolIs placed under the direction of Jackie Cochran.It is called the Army Air Forces Women’s FlyingTraining Detachment (WFTD) 24
American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP)On August 5, 1943, the WAFS and the WFTD were mergedand renamed the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP).Jackie Cochran was appointed Director and Nancy HarknessLove was named WASP Executive with the Air TransportCommand Ferrying Division.
American Women in World War 2WASP Cornelia Fort Scene from TORA! TORA! TORA! (1970) 27
American Women in World War 2WASP facts• WASP served in the Army Air Forces from September 1942 to December, 1944.• WASP pilots were stationed at 120 Army Air bases in the United States and near most major aircraft factories.• WASP flew 78 different aircraft in the Army Air Corps including the B-29.• WASP flew 60 million total miles of operational flights.• Flying duties included ferrying, engineering tests, demonstration, check pilot, safety pilot, administrative, flight instructor, target towing for anti- aircraft, target towing for aerial gunner practice, tracking, searchlight missions, simulated strafing and radio-controlled flights.• WASP earned $150.00 per month while in training and $250.00 per month after graduation. They paid for their own food, uniforms and lodging.
American Women in World War 2WASP disbandedUnfortunately the WASP were hired under Civil Service. Jackie Cochranand General Arnold had intended the women pilots to be made part ofthe military but the need for pilots was so great and the road tomilitarization too slow – requiring an act of Congress.By the time the bill was put beforeCongress in late 1944, the need forpilots had lessened. Men wereneeded in the infantry. Male pilotshad no desire to join this branchof service. A move to disbandthe WASP took hold. The WASPmilitarization bill was defeated by19 votes in the House ofRepresentatives.The WASP were deactivated on December 20, 1944.
American Women in World War 2WASP receive Veteran status President Jimmy Carter signs the The G.I. Bill Improvement Act of 1977, granting the WASP full military status for their service on November 23, 1977 July 1, 2009, President Barack Obama signs a bill to award a Congressional Gold Medal to the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). WASP / Congressional Gold Medal
American Women in World War 2WASP Dora Dougherty and “Ladybird” Dora Dougherty Dorothea "Didi" Moorman with Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets 32
American Women in World War 2Dora Dougherty Strother Debbie Travis King, Barry Vincent, David Oliver, Dora Dougherty Strother, Tracy Toth, and “FIFI” Dora Dougherty Strother and Debbie Travis King
American Women in World War 2 Debbie Travis King 3rd woman in history to qualify to pilot a B-29 Superfortress September 17, 2012 First B-29 pilot in the CAFDebbie Travis King and Tracy Tothin their WASP commemorative uniforms
American Women in World War 2Like Father, like DaughterTom Travis and Debbie Travis King
American Women in World War 2National Museum of WASP, Sweetwater, TX http://waspmuseum.org/ 36
American Women in World War 2Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) Exhibit atTWU Blagg-Huey Library, Denton, Texas http://www.twu.edu/library/wasp.asp 37
American Women in World War 2 Setting the Stage Prior to WW2, 1,000 nurses filled the ranks of the Army Nurse Corps. Roughly 700 nurses were in the Navy Nurse Corps. By the end of WW2, there were over 54,000 Army Nurse Corps and 11,000 Navy Nurse Corps – all were women. Nurses in WW2 served in every theater of combat and closer to the front lines than ever before in field hospitals, hospital ships, hospital trains, and as flight nurses aboard medical planes. Flight nurseNurseat fieldhospital Hospital Ship Dinard in the English Channel
American Women in World War 2Captain Lucille Rosedale Tubbs USAF (retired)Presented by her son, Andy Tubbs
American Women in World War 2VJ Day Famous KissVJ Day in Times Square isa photograph by AlfredEisenstaedt that portraysan American sailor kissinga nurse on Victory overJapan Day (VJ Day) inTime Square, New York onAugust 14, 1945
American Women in World War 2Women in the USO Six U.S.O. Girls wear bomber crew jackets belonging to the 90th Bomb Group, a.k.a. “Jolly Rogers,” under a 42 B-24 bomber.
American Women in World War 2 USO history The national United Service Organization (USO) was formed on April 17, 1941. It was created to serve the religious, spiritual, and educational needs of the men and women in the armed forces. USO clubs were to be financed by the public through voluntary contributions. Bob Hope The USO truly made history when it came to entertaining the troops. From 1941 to 1947, USO Camp Shows presented an amazing 428,521 performances. Over 7,000 entertainers, "brave soldiers in greasepaint" traveled overseas, from the biggest movie stars to unknown vaudevillians. By the end of the WW2, more than 1.5 million volunteers had worked on behalf of the USO.Marlene Dietrich
American Women in World War 2Andrews Sisters The Andrews Sisters “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy of Company B” 44
American Women in World War 2HomefrontThree million women served as RedCross volunteers. Millions of womenworked for the Civilian Defense as air-raid wardens, fire watchersmessengers, drivers, auxiliary police. Women volunteers also devoted hours to scanning the sky with binoculars, looking out for enemy planes Paula Prentiss, John Wayne IN HARMS WAY (1965)
American Women in World War 2Concluding Thoughts from “Rosie”Phew…that was a journey. American women in WW2 were an awesome bunch.There is so much more you can research. That internet thing has all the good stuff.Time to hear from YOU. Would any of you like to share your story about a Rosie,WASP, Nurse, or a family member on the homefront during the war?Thanks Andy, Kon and the LeCroy Center for their hospitality.I has been delightful visiting with you! Get your picture with “Rosie” after the presentation