Gestalt is a German word that roughly
translates as "whole" or "form."
Gestalt theory is involved with visual
It is concerned with the relationship
between the parts and the whole of a
The whole is greater than the sum of the
The Gestalt effect is the form-generating
capability of our senses, particularly with
respect to the visual recognition of figures
and whole forms instead of just a collection
of simple lines and curves
VISUAL PERCEPTION :
Figure And Ground
FIGURE & GROUND
Figure – seen as the foreground
Ground – seen as the background
Contours – “belong” to the figure
When an individual is confronted by any (abstract or symbolic) visual image,
we seem to separate a dominant shape (a 'figure' with definite contours) from
LAW OF CLOSURE
The law of closure says that, if something is missing in an otherwise complete
The mind may experience elements it does not perceive through sensation, in
order to complete a regular figure (that is, to increase regularity).
We will tend to add it. We will “close” the gap.
LAW OF CONTINUTY
• The mind continues visual, auditory, and kinetic patterns.
• The eye continues in the direction it is going.
• The principle of continuity predicts the preference for continuous
• We perceive the figure as two crossed lines instead of 4 lines
meeting at the center.
LAW OF SIMILARITY
The mind groups similar elements into collective entities or totalities.
The principle of similarity states that things which share visual characteristics
such as shape, size, color, texture, value or orientation will be seen as belonging
LAW OF PROXIMITY
The principle of proximity or contiguity states that things which are
closer together will be seen as belonging together.
There are four specific types of proximity relationships are: close
edge, touch, overlap and combining
LAW OF AREA
The principle of area states that the smaller of two overlapping
figures is perceived as figure while the larger is regarded as ground.
LAW OF SYMMENTRY
The principle of symmetry describes the instance where the whole of a figure
is perceived rather than the individual parts which make up the figure.
LAW OF COMMON-FATE
o Elements with the same moving direction are perceived as a collective or unit.
o Suppose both principles of proximity and similarity are in place - then a
movement takes place